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sins, the just for the unjust, that He might thought so, a generation ago. But closer bring us to God. The suffering then is real, scrutiny convinced us that we have not. The and a definite purpose for it is assigned. specter of a vital principle still lurks behind These two are linked together, the suffering all our terms. Neither the physiological, and the benefit. In such eternal justice nor the psychological unity is intelligible demanded of offering of the cross and passion to us. The dilemma of pure mechanic and of Jesus the Son of God, the most extreme un. the vitalistic biologic theories leads on to the deserved suffering, resulting in this most su- psycho-physical view of Nature. preme blessing, is there not found some bint Though we speak as if God himself could towards the understanding of the cruelty of not alter the course of Nature,” yet we ourNature? "And,” say the theologians, "may selves constantly alter the inanimate processes not all undeserved suffering be part of an of Nature, and though we too readily ignore eternal law, by which the greatest possible the daily and hourly influences of our evo. result and blessing is secured?” Such rot as Jution, we do not recognize that they are bethis is painful.
yond the pale of our science, or that some of Geddes in his Synthetic History of Biology, them are inside the universe of fact. .shows how morphology and physiology, fol. Prof. Geddes and Prof. Thompson pointed low the logical path more and more penetra- out that science is an intellectual attitude tive analysis is associated with the synobron- rather than a body of facts, and that though ous perfecting of instruments. The intact the ideal biologist, poet, philosopher or theorganism, the component organs, the web of ologian in interpreting scientifically the natissues, the individual cells, the intricacy of ture, continuance and evolution of life, arprotoplasmic structure, every one knows how range them in ordered series, to detect their far descriptive analysis has gone on each of inter-relations and likenesses of sequence, to these levels. He points out how the morpho- reduce them to simple terms, to find their logical view was broadened and deepened by common denominator, and finally to sum excursions into the remote past, and the dis- them up in a general formula, unfortunately tant present, by studying things in situ, by called, too often a "law," we must not penetrating into the invisible. One of the delude ourselves by imagining that the striking results was the transition even in "law” is an explanation of the facts formumorphology to a kinetic point of view.
lated. "Řest and fixity of form seem only to exist Why is God so slow and vague? The Pres. apparently, or for transient moments in the byterian Rev. John Kelman knows! He says history of natural events; and even the fin. speaking of our sacred books: “So far as ished and reourring structures of living we have gone, the history of the past, viewed beings, which appear to our eyes to be pos- by the light in which the newer conception sessed of so much finality, and sometimes of of the Bible has placed it, shows that at the so much finish, owe these qualities only to present point in the progress of thought, the comparatively short space of time during science and religion are not in the least dewhich we are permitted to gaze at them, and gree at strife. They need no reconciliation. to our ignorance of the slow but endless The facts are God's facts, and the scientific changes to which they are nevertheless sub- knowledge of them is God's ever new and ject. The morphological view also took note wonderful revelation, unfolding itself not in of the relatedness and apparent recurrence of one book, closed two thousand years ago, but definite forms called types, of the so-called in every book written today, by any honest fixity of species, and the succeeding charac- and competent investigator.' teristio periods of creation, and sought to ex. In the Philosophy of Ignorance and in plain these morphologically; i.e., it sought in Christian Pantheism which appeared thirty the abstract forms-sometimes geometrical, years on “The Mystery of Matter,” Mr. Picsometimes artistic, the key to an understand. ton's professions in his Religion of the Uni. ing of the recurrence as well as the continued verse are in substantial agreement with the variation of definite types. But the relation- worship of the “Unknowable," as set forth ship,,was mostly looked upon as ideal not in Spencer's First Principles. He is much
. It is thus difficult to impose logical more theistic than Spencer's agnosticism presobemata upon bistory.
It is hard to punc
sents. He claims that we can know God by tuate history The swing of the pendulum progressively learning what He is in relation is between vitalism and materialism.
to man. Liebig, Johannes, Müller, Bichat, Claude He objects to a Gud as “Ultimate Cause" Bernard, Lotze and Dubois Reymond are of the universe, as “cause” means antecedent masters of morphology. But by their teach. phenomenal conditions of events. But he ings even have we come any nearer an an- refutes materialism when he thinks of the uni. swer to the question, What is life? We verse, as ceaseless interplay of impressions
made on us, by a life. What is this but to himself and others from the numbing tyr. represent self-existent life as metaphysical anny of the rules and formulas which at. causality, as much as that which the theorist tached to the poetry, the history and the escribes to God. Mr. Picton, in a Spencerian theology of his days. Germany was in the mood, allows of moral freedom, when he hands of the so-called men of enlightenmentholds that the self, which wills is a metaphys. the writers who supposed that all the previous ical reality of some sort. He assents to it, ages of the world were dark ages, and that that this self is free in its moral self-deter- their own was the first in which the full light minations. He maintains that the essence of reascn had shone on the human mind. of moral evil is sin against God, involving This was a light, however, which, as they fur. responsibility and deserving praise and ther supposed was enjoyed only by the few, blame. We are so enmeshed and involved, namely, themselves. În their views reason he says, in untraceable relations to our true consisted of certain clear and definite princi. and infinite self, that it is impossible to say ples divinely planted in the mind and heart how far we are only taking our part in the of every man and existent from all eternity, action of universal will. How far then can even if only now for the first time fully un. moral evil, or sin against God have a real ex- derstood. Herder was not dazzled by Rousistence ?
seau's piotures of a primitive age of peace The problem of existence by light of Aryan and innocence which never existed. We wisdom, practically allows us to imagine that may thus see, he said, as freshly today as our own pbilosophy, and our own religion, when the poets first expressed in their interpre. which have their roots in Greece and Judea, tation, the hopes and fears, the thought and exhaust the thought of tbe world. And this emotions, every people, standing out against they do, for they have filtered down the ages, the dark background of its actual history. into our common stock of thought.
The Each age must be judged by its own own survoice of old friend Jacob is heard from the roundings and its own aspirations. As men far East, in the story of “Satan” and our could conseive of no beings very different “first parents.” A moral and personal God from themselves, so they made their gods and is found, in an omnipresent, omnipotent, angels in their own image, and represented omniparous and omniverous essence, them as magnified men.
He called this ideal ether, for while all spring, in which all have in one word: Humanity, and its great progbeing, and into which all disappear at their ress led to a great end. Ideal men and nadissolution. The soul, having come into in- tions were dependent on their physical surdividual being at birth will continue to ex- roundings. He spoke of men who nursing ist forever. Immortality is inseparable as a bigh ideal and straining after it, with irreattribute of soul. It passes to eternal bliss or sistible desire see it dashed to pieces before
their eyes. Men of this kind, he said, hide The Aryans believe that the wheel of exist- their trouble from their friends, and keeping ence goes on forever without beginning and the sad secret in their heart die a slow death. without end, remorselessly grinding out good This he termed a subtle form of suicide, of and evil, joy and sorrow, and that the thing which only the elect were capable. All the to be aimed at is for the individual to escape ohanges in the world, as Schopenhauer held, from it, and to pass into the still region of a have only been fresh combinations of the Nirvana, where beyond these voices there is same facts like the shapes taken by the bits of peace.
Thus consciousness of self is lost. glass in a kaleidoscope, interesting doubtless, Self-consciousness is the root of worldliness. but exhibiting no trace of orderly developDesire nursed by ignorance, is the Hindu ment. Throughout all his speculations he equivalent of that carnal mind, to which the never lost sight of the principle of evoludelusion of evil is due. How this delusion tion. comes about in a world in wbiob all is god Herder in Germany was the one who gave and all is good, we oannot explain. And we effective stimulus to that general tendency are not able to accept the explanation offered, to inquire, that spirit of Forschung, conthat evil is due to a delusion of the devil, and tinued in many directions by Goethe, in that the devil does not exist. The permanent philosophy by Hegel and Lotze, in history elements of religion are those that satisfy hu- by Niebuhr and Ranke, in theology by man needs, e.g., in idealizing the baser facts Strauss and Baur, in law by Savigny, in natof the animal life, supporting the mind againstural science by Baer and Humboldt, a tend. the terror of the mystery of life, and strength- ency which spread over the civilized world, ening moral weakness. The justification of and which in religion is just beginning to be religion lies in this service, rather than in dominant. any revelation of objective truth.
Over and over again in the development in Herder in Germany, had ambition to free religion as in other things the course taken
by Christianity was not that of Christ's re- and ignorance, that, therefore, God had sent ligion, but was taken backward.
had only begotten Son to teach me how they In the problem of immortality there was should live in order to inherit the kingdom the question of future fact of what is to be, of heaven. What, then, was my amazement as Tennyson voicing the common sense of the to find that centuries before Christ, philoso. race states, Does our individuality endure? phers had lived in Greece who taught all that And there was the question of fact of what seemed to me most admirable and most needed is: Do we share in an eternal life, and does for the spiritual salvation of mankind in the the connection become a matter of experi. Christian religion. Where, I asked was the ence ? If man is a reproduction or differen- need of God to incarnate in human form in tiation of the eternal mind, and so partaker order to reveal truths, a knowledge of which of an eternal life, it does not follow that re. already existed in the world. I found little or garded as an individual spirit, he is eternal. nothing in the ethical teaching of Jesus suAnd if this metaphysical tie is what gives perior to what one might find in the pbilosoabsolute value to human life the thing of ab- phy of Plato, and I might also add of Epicsolute value might remain, while individual tetus and Marcus Aurelius. I may bave been spirits were extinguished, provided the race wrong-probably I was—but at any rate the continued.
discovery of this fact, if fact it was, first The mystery of this unfathomable universe shook the foundations of my belief. is one that the plummet of our thought will My religious convictions received their never sound. But at least we can avoid, and second shock when I read Darwin's epochas an intellectual duty we are bound to avoid, making “Origin of Species." Here we had plain and palpable self-contradictions. We the cosmology and biology of the Old Testacannot assert in the same breath the reality ment absolutely subverted. My belief did, of evil and the fact of creation by an omni. however, in an enfeebled form survive that potent, omniscient and benevolent being. shock. It was possible to argue that those
Neither Greek philosophy nor Persian re- parts of the Bible, which were inconsistent ligion were subject to a like embarrassment with modern science were allegorical, or in with our theology. The one assigned evil to the termination of the Swedenborgians, an active principle, the one to the intractable “written according to the law of correspondnature of matter, tthe other to a malignant ences. spirit.
But this kind of quibbling of tortuous and Our theology says: “God is all,” “God is sophistical attempts at reconciliation became, good,” therefore all is good, or in other as time went on, more and more repugnant words, there is no evil. Our Christian theism to my sense of intellectual honesty.
If must deny one of the premises.
Christ was omniscient why did he not correct deny that God is good? Yet we can worship the popular ideas in respect of these things? a being partly evil. Or, we must deny that Soon after this I was introduced to the God is all. This means that we must give study of Hindu and Buddhist philosophy. up, making religion into a theory of the uni. This, however, did not effect further subverse and regard it as a passion of the heart. version of my belief in Christian religion.
Now for the conscience to condemn God, Quite the contrary, whatever there was of is & peril to religion, and not to condemn beauty and truth in the Christian religion, God is a peril to morality. Is it the God of appeared to me, in full blaze, to be but an Nature revealed to us by science, or the God imperfect reflection of that light, the primal whom our heart reveals to us?
source of all the great religions. This theory We must choose between these. And yet of a common origin solved the puzzled parahow one sided and untrue to fact, says St. lellisms found in so many great religions, George Stook, if addressed to the God of even incidents and circumstances in the lives Nature. For to nature belongs the ugly of the founders. The ethical teachings of equally with the beautiful, the awful and sin. some of the philosophies embraced the highister as well as the benign; the howling est conceptions of the Christain religion, or wastes of blackness as well as the sunlit went even beyond them in the sublimity of pastures.
its ideals, and even included in its benevo. Dr. Jethro Brown in his Passing of Con- lence not only the human race, but all that viction, says “I well remember how when I lives, and appeared better adapted to the was a boy of about seventeen, and a devout practical needs of our daily life. ardent Christian, my faith sustained its first Take for instance what may be called the shock from a study of Greek philosophy. I pivotal doctrine of Christianity, the Divinhad always been given to understand that be. ity of Christ. Well, the idea of a divine infore the advent of Jesus Christ the world was carnation or Avatar, has probably been familsunk in the lowest depths of wickedness, iar to the Hindu mind for several thousand
years. In the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna ning, swift, murderous, silent, implacable claims to be the supreme being, to know all foe We have put our hands into a box of things, to have created all things, to be im- snakes; while Roosevelt by_his pro-English manent in all tbings. Further, he declares course during the Japano-Russian war, of. that it is by a knowledge of him that salva- fended Russia by bis insistence on peace, he, tion is attained. “They verily who worship now, bas offended Japan. Practically the me, with devotion, they are in me, and I in United States sits down between two stools, them," says Krishna.
by the Rooseveltian “statesmanship.” The idea of the sacrifice of a divine human person "himself to himself,” at about the
CLEAN STREET CARS. -Topeka's board of time of the vernal equinox, for the redemp
health requires that the street railway comtion of the sins of the people was no new one.
pany of that city shall fumigate its cars at Before the light of modern science the
least once a month. gloomy theology of the “Fall” has vanished, and a cloud has been lifted from men's “MEDICAL OFFICES” CLOSED.-Fifty-two minds.
illegal "medical offices' in New York and When pulpits are occupied by men whose Brooklyn have recently been closed by the reading has been wide and catholio, when post-offive authorities. their minds are no longer invincibly biased
LUPULIN.-T. F. Reilly, New York (Jour. by their education; when their career and A. M. A., April 7), states that he finds lupu. their very livelihood no longer depend upon lin a valuable mild anodyne and hypnotic the acceptance of certain antiquated beliefs,
and often an excellent substitute for more acthen, and not till then, shall we find our
tive drugs of this class. He believes it will churches better attended for the inculcation
be an excellent and safe substitute for the of natural morals, by the more reflecting and coal-tar preparations in cases in wbich the better informed members of the laity.
latter have been employed. In neurotic and
high-strung people, who do not require an Great wars seem to be in preparation. Within my copy of Haeckel's "Insulinde" i opiate
are very liable to cultivate a drug found a four-page illustrated notice of a book
habit, for non-organio pains, aches and in
somnia, it is admirably adapted. For child. by Dr. Alex. Pfluger, privat docent at the
ren it is often a good substitute for opium, University of Bonn, telling of his travels in
as also for old people suffering from ad. the South Pacific Ocean. I translate the
vanced renal disease, and it is of especial following:
value for sleeplessness and nervousness fol. The future of Germany lies upon the lowing a mild debauch. water; the Germans must spread out more, and get the air of foreign zones in their TURBINECTOMY. - E. Harrison Griffin noses. To make the Kaiser's word practica. (Med. Rec., April 14, 1906) does not believe ble has been the leading thought of Pfluger in complete turbinectomy. He declares that in bis travels and in the preparation of the only so much of the bone should be removed book. I believe another war is not far away. as is necessary to restore the normal canal Yes, for it looks like a bara-kiri of the flagship and to give back to nature the proper funcof the Japanese navy, the Mikasa that would tion of the nose. A partial turbinectomy is be the natural answer of the naval officers to not nearly so easy to perform as a complete their Emperor's policy. They would not ex- operation. Tbe great objection to the latter press their disapproval openly. The army is is that it makes the passage too large and reyet to be heard from. Even if they thought moves something, which belong there, and their Emperor had done wrong they would which has a function to perform. Partial not revolt against bis boly authority; but turbinectomy restores the normal anatomy. would turn their enmity towards England The writer has observed many cases of deafand America, and the Japanese advisers about ness in which the restoraton of the nasal passhim, who had wronged (or misled) their holy age has brought back hearing: Hemor. avatar. They would protect their emperor rhages should be guarded against both before against such advice. Strange people! Malay and after this operation. Nasal examination and Negro-Britain may regret the alliance. sometimes suggests the existence of Bright's Nobody can forejudge the East with any sat- disease. The local use of cocaine has made isfaction. An American lawyer, who returned the operation of turbinectomy perfectly pain. a few days ago from the Philippines where he less. Re-established nasal breathing results is established as member of the bar, says: in a better supply of oxygen and consequent “Chief Ali is organizing a rebellion against improved nutrition. The writer has operated the United States." He makes it plain that upon over ten thousand cases, and always our white troops are "up against” a cun. with gratifying results.
Scientific Communication, Wm. S. Deutsch, 3135 Washington Ave. Executive, A. Ravold, Century Building
Publication, W. E. Sauer, Humboldt Building Entertainment, Frank Hinchey, 4011 Delmar Ave.
Public Health, R. B. H. Gradwohl, 522 Washington Ave.
and one egg
REPORT OF A CASE OF MEGALOGASTRIA* teroptosis I inflated the patient's stomach.
The stomach was found to be not sunken, but WM. RUSH, M. D,
greatly enlarged. The percussion figure measured 20 cm. in height in the median line,
and 21 cm. in width midway between the umIn September of the past year there came bilicus and the ensiform cartilage. The nor. to the Wasbington University Clinic a patient mal dimensions of the percussion figure for 74 years of age, a widow, complaining of pal- woman is about 10 cm. height and 18 om. pitation of the beart. The woman was of width, German descent, a native of Pennsylvania, The patient was put upon 6 gr. daily of of long lived parents, free from all diseases sod, nitrite. On her return one week later of hereditary significance. As a girl and the palpitation bad entirely ceased and the young adult she had done much hard work in blood pressure had fallen to 155 mm. the field. She had had no infectious diseases The evening before the patient's second except measles, pertussis and influenza. Men- visit she ate her customary dinner between 6 struation began at 14, was fairly regular. and 7 o'clock, and the following morning Was married at 23, tbree normal labors, no at 6 she ate a light breakfast of coffee, rolls miscarriage, menopause without notable in.
At 11 a.m. the stomach tube cident.
was introduced, and patient received through The trouble of which the patient com- the tube, without distress, 3000 cc. of luke. plained, a somewhat annoying consciousness warm water. This water was discharged en. of the beating of the beart, had existed for tirely free from food remnants of either the about a year, without, however, causing any evening or morning meal. The stomach was serious inconvenience. The patient ate well, again inflated, and the area of tympany found had no discomfort connected with the taking exactly what it was before, 20 by 21 cm., exof food, bowels regular without laxatives, tending from near the ensiform cartilage slept well, only moderately nervous.
snugly down into the left iliac region and to Patient was small of stature, but erect, ac- the sympbysis pubis. tive and unusually well preserved for one of The patient repeated that she ate every. her years. Lungs normal. Apex beat in thing she liked, and that she had no sort of fifth interspace in the mammary line, im. digestive disturbance. From the size of the pulse rather forcible. Cardiac dullness from percussion figure of this stomach, and from the midsternal line to the mammary line; no the amount of water that it will contain heart murmur; first heart sound at the apex without distress to the patient it is olear that distinctly divided. Liver dullness at seventh
its capacity is far greater than that of the rib, edge of liver palpable, normal in consist.
Furthermore, from the abence, two cm. below costal margin on deep sence of all subjective symptoms of digestive inspiration. Lower half of right kidney pal. disturbance, as well as the absence of the pable on deep inspiration, left kidney and objective signs of motor insufficiency, we spleen not palpable. No abdominal tender
must conclude that this is not a dilated or ness, and further than mentioned above no
atonic stomach, but that it is a physiologi. abnormal resistance.
cally or naturally enlarged organ that is Urine: twenty-four hours amount 750 cc., properly performing all its functions a conspecifio gravity 1018, pale, acid, trace albu- dition known as megastria, or more generally min, no sugar, many hyaline casts.
I believe as megalogastria. Pulse regular, 80 per mm., radial artery not palpable. Blood pressure (Riva-Rocoi), 195
Dr. A. E. Taussig had seen this patient a Suspecting a possible gastroptosis or en- number of times with Dr. Rush. The case • Read at the meeting of February 1, 1906.
presented the three cardinal features of a