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and magnificence on the 16th of december 1653.

It was immediately after this remarkable occurrence that Milton, as it is probable, composed that part of his "Second Defence," which I am now about to transcribe. He could not be insensible to those egregious mockeries which had been practised on the people; but it was natural for him not to abandon, without extreme reluctance, the hopes, which he had so long and so fondly cherished, of the Protector's rectitude of intention; and he seems desirous of urging this extraordinary man, to a just and a generous use of power, with every motive which could be suggested by wise counsel, or by eloquent panegyric. Milton certainly approaches the master of England with elevated sentiments, and, even in his praises, discovers the equality of an erect and independent spirit. This the reader of the following animated apostrophe, which forms a part only, though the far larger part of the whole masterly address, will not be permitted to doubt. My extract is preceded by a rapid and striking enumeration of those great events which had distinguished the two or three preceding years,-the recovery of Ireland by one decisive blow; the subjugation


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of Scotland, which had been vainly attempted by the English monarchs, during a period of eight hundred years; the great and crowning . as its victory at Worcester; the dismission of the Long Parliament; the meeting and the subsequent abdication of the succeeding Legislature. The deserted commonwealth is then

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knowledged by reason and given by God,
the right of superior talents and virtue, is
in possession of the supreme power. The
relative merits of the several titles of honour
are afterwards discussed, and the magnani-
mity of Cromwell, evinced by his rejection
of the name of king, is the topic of praise
with which my extract commences.

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Tu igitur, Cromuelle, magnitudine illâ animi macte esto; te enim decet: tu patriæ liberator, libertatis auctor, custosque idem et conservator, neque graviorem personam, neque augustiorem suscipere potes aliam; qui non modò regum res gestas, sed heroum quoque nostrorum fabulas factis exuperasti. Cogita sæpiùs, quàm caram rem, ab quàm carâ parente tuâ, libertatem à patriâ tibi commendatam atque concreditam, apud te depositam habes; quod ab electissimis gentis universæ viris, illa modò expectabat, id nunc

à te uno expectat, per të unum consequi speral. Reverere tantam de teexpectationem, spem patriæ de te unicam; reverere vultus et vulnera tot fortium virorum, quotquot, te duce, pro libertate tam strenuè decertârunt; manes etiam eorum qui in ipso certamine occubuerunt: reverere exterarum quoqué civitatum existimationem de nobis atque sermones; quantas res de libertate nostrâ, tam fortiter partâ, de nostrâ republicâ, tam gloriosè exortâ sibi polliceantur: quæ si tam citò quasi aborta evanuerit, profectò nihil æquè dedecorosum huic genti atque pudendum fuerit: teipsum denique reverere, ut pro quâ adipiscendâ libertate tot ærumnas pertulisti, tot pericula adiisti, eam adeptus, violatam per te, aut ullâ in parte imminutam aliis ne sinas esse. Profectò tu ipse liber şine nobis esse non potes; sic enim naturâ comparatum est, ut qui aliorum libertatem occupat, suam ipse primus omnium amittat; seque primum omnium intelligat serviri: atque id quidem non injuriâ. At verò, si patronus ipse libertatis, et quasi tutelaris deus, si is, quo nemo justior, nemo sanctior est habitus, nemo vir melior, quam vindicavit ipse eam post modùm invaserit, id non ipsi tantùm, sed universæ virtutis ac pietatis rationi perniciosum ac lethale propemodum sit

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necesse est: ipsa honestas, ipsa virtus decoxisse videbitur, religionis angusta fides, existimatio perexigua in posterum erit, quo gravius generi humano vulnus, post illud primum, infligi nullum poterit. Onus longè gravissimum suscepisti, quod te penitùs explorabit, totum te atque intimum perscrutabitur atque ostendet, quid tibi animi, quid virium insit, quid ponderis; vivatne in te verè illa pietas, fides, justitia, animíque moderatio, ob quas evectum te præ cæteris Dei numine ad hanc summam dignitatem credimus. Tres nationes validissimas consilio regere, populos ab institutis pravis ad meliorem, quàm antehac, frugem ac disciplinam velle perducere, remotissimas in partes sollicitam mentem cogitationesque immittere, totu i vigilare, prævidere, nullum laborem recusare, nulla voluptatum blandimenta non spernere, divitiarum atque potentiæ ostentationem fugere, hæc sunt illa ardua præ quibus bellum ludus est; hæc te ventilabunt atque excutient, hæc virum poscunt divino fultum auxilio, divino penè colloquio monitum atque edoctum. Quæ tu, et plura, sæpenumero quin tecum reputes atque animo revolvas, non dubito: uti et illud, quibus potissimum queas modis et illa maxima perficere, et libertatem salvam nobis reddere et


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the actions of our kings, but the fabled exploits of our heroes are overcome by your achievements. Reflect, then, frequently, (how dear alike the trust, and the parent from whom you have received it!) that to your hands your country has commended and confided her freedom; that, what she lately expected from her choicest representatives, she now hopes only from you. Q reverence this high confidence, this hope of your country relying exclusively upon yourself: reverence the countenances and the wounds of those brave men, who have so nobly struggled for liberty under your auspices, as well as the manes of those whe have fallen in the conflict: reverence, also, the opinion and the discourse of foreign communities; their lofty anticipation with respect to our freedom so valiantly obtainedto our republic so gloriously established, of which the speedy extinction would involve us in the deepest and the most unexampled

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by the Parliament; for this event happened in 1656, more than two years after the period now immediately in question; but to the result of a consultation on the subject, just before the dis mission of the Long Parliament, between Cromwell and some of the principal men of the nation whom he considered as friendly to his views; on which occasion, Whitelocke strongly dissuaded him from assuming the title of king.

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