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D. [4.] In the upper division is a splendid specimen of Ichthyosaurus communis.

The lower compartment contains a large example of Ichthyosaurus lonchiodon; the paddles imperfect. In the angle on the right, is deposited a small and beautiful head of Ichthyosaurus tenuirostris: and below, a specimen of Ichthyosaurus latifrons.

E. [5.] An interesting example of Ichthyosaurus tenuirostris is placed in the upper division. In the lower, there is an exquisite Ichthyosaurus intermedius, showing the upper surface of the skull, the spinal column, and paddles; and a specimen of Ichthyosaurus longirostris.

F. This Case contains numerous bones of Ruminants, among which is a skull of Bos longifrons; bones and antlers of Deer, &c.

On the top of this Case is placed the skull and horn-cores of a species of Bos, from Texas.

G. This Case, which is at the east end of the room, to the right of the doorway on entering, contains many skulls and bones of Bears, Hyænas, and other carnivora, from the caves of Gailenreuth, &c.

On the upper shelf there is a cast of the skull and jaws of the Machairodus, (Ursus cultridens of Cuvier); a remarkable extinct carnivorous animal whose upper canines are very long and of a sabre-like form, resembling the teeth of the Megalo


In this Case, in a small glass frame, there is one of the most valuable fossils in the collection: the lower jaw of a small marsupial animal on a slab of Oolitic limestone, from Stonesfield, in Oxfordshire. It is labelled Didelphis Bucklandi; presented by W. J. Broderip, Esq. F.R.S. It is represented in the vignette of the title page of this volume.


TABLE-CASE 1.-[37.] One half of this table is set apart for silicates containing glucina and alumina, the principal species of which is the Beryl, including the Emerald, a gem which owes its green colour to oxide of chromium. The other part of the table is occupied by oxides of Titanium and titanites.

2. [24.] One half of the Case contains varieties of Jasper. The other half is appropriated to Opaline substances,―the noble opal; sun-opal; common opal; semi-opal; wood-opal, or opalized wood; menilite; quincite.

3. [36.] Varieties and species of Garnet,-chrome-garnets ; lime-garnets; colophonite, &c.

4. [25.] Silicates of lime, and some of the silicates of magnesia and of alumina. Wollastonite; Steatite or soapstone; keffekil or meerschaum, of which pipe-bowls are made; Serpentine; Hydrophite; metalloid diallage or diallagite; Chrysolite or periodot.

5. [35.] Pyroxenic minerals. Augite imbedded in lava from Vesuvius; thallite; sahlite; epidote. Idocrase from Vesuvius, &c.

6. [26.] Silicate of Zinc, or Smithsonite. Silicate of magnesia-of cerium-of iron-of copper-of bismuth—of zirconia — of alumina. Andalusite. Kyanite or disthène. Sillimanite. Xanthite. Catlinite or Indian pipe-stone. Agalmatolite, employed by the Chinese for images, vessels, &c.

7. [34.] Abestine and Pyroxenic minerals. Asbestus; amianthus; augite; jeffersonite; yenite from Elba; sahlite. 8. [27.] Zeolitic substances. Apophyllite; chabasite; mesotype; natrolite, &c.

9. [33.] Amphibolic and pyroxenic minerals. Basaltic and common hornblende; actinolite; tremolite, &c.

10. [28.] Zeolitic substances. Stilbite; Heulamdite ; Laumontite; Comptonite from Vesuvius; Thompsonite; hydrolite, &c.; and several other scarce zeolitic minerals.

11. [32.] Micaceous and talcose substances.

12. [29. Prehnite. Koupholite. Jade or nephrite, of which there are some manufactured articles. Harmotome; Andreolite, a magnificent specimen. Herschelite. Felspar, &c. 13. [31.] Felspathic substances. Triphane; spodumen; petalite; Davyne; nepheline; Wernerite.

14. [30.] Felspathic substances. Common felspar; amazonstone from the Urals; icespar; albite; adularia, &c.; Labrador felspar; leucite or amphigène from Vesuvius.


** With these Cases the collection of minerals terminates, the Table-cases in Rooms V. and VI. being devoted to fossil remains.

It may be useful to the student to know that in the cabinets we have enumerated, the same mineral species in each Case is indicated by a coloured border corresponding with that of the label on which the name of the mineral is written; as, for example, the same coloured margin as that on the ticket QUARTZ," surrounds every specimen of quartz in that Case.1


15. Fossil shells of Gasteropodous mollusks, (holostomata and siphonostomata,) from Tertiary and Secondary strata, named and arranged by Mr. Woodward. There are many very fine specimens from the Great Oolite of Minchinhampton.

A polished slab of a septarium showing displaced sections of shells, (Turritella imbricata,) from the London clay of Western Sussex, (discovered by the Author,) is very interesting; a mass of perfect shells of the same species is placed near it.

16. Vacant.

17. This Table-case contains a collection of fossil Zoophytes, as Corals, Sponges, &c. Many are from the Bradford clay; others from the Silurian limestone of Dudley, Wenlock, &c.

There is likewise a series of the larger forms of Foraminifera; viz. Nummulites, Orbitolites, &c.

18. Fossil univalve shells from tertiary strata; chiefly from the Eocene deposits of Grignon, near Paris; Hordwell, &c.; and from the Coralline, Norwich, and Red Crag.

1 Communicated to me by Prof. Tennant,






DISCOVERY OF THE ICHTHYOSAURUS.-Nearly forty years have elapsed since the attention of the scientific world was first directed to the fossil remains of this extraordinary tribe of marine reptiles by a memoir, by the late Sir Everard Home, on a cranium, and other parts of the skeleton, that were exhibited in the then celebrated museum of Mr. Bullock, in Piccadilly. Teeth, vertebræ, and other detached parts of the skeleton of these animals, had attracted the notice of the earlier collectors of British fossils; but until Sir Everard Home's communication to the Royal Society, in 1814, no definite idea as to the nature of the originals had been entertained. The anomalous character of these fossil skeletons, which in certain parts of their structure resembled those of fishes, and in others those of crocodiles, suggested the name, so happily chosen by my friend Mr. König, the accomplished "Keeper of Mineralogy and Geology of the British Museum," of Ichthyosaurus,1 or fish-like lizard; a name by which this group

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of marine reptiles is now distinguished. Many instructive specimens were soon discovered, and important additions rapidly made to the knowledge of these extinct denizens of the ancient ocean, by Dr. Buckland, Sir H. De la Beche, Mr. Conybeare, &c. But the name of an humble individual, to whose talent and perseverance in discovering and developing these relics of former ages, the eminent naturalists above mentioned were mainly indebted for the objects of their investigation, must not be omitted even in this brief sketch of the history of the Ichthyosaurian remains in the British Museum; that person was the late Mary Anning, of Lyme Regis, who, -to employ Mr. Hawkins's graphic language,—“ devoted herself to science, and explored the frowning and precipitous cliffs, when the furious spring-tide conspired with the howling tempest to overthrow them, and rescued from the devouring ocean, sometimes at the peril of her life, the few specimens which originated all the facts and ingenious theories of those eminent persons, whose names must ever be remembered with sentiments of the liveliest gratitude." 1

Several memoirs were published by Sir E. Home and others on detached parts of the skeleton, and in 1821, Messrs. Conybeare and De la Beche communicated to the Geological Society a "Memoir on the genus Ichthyosaurus," in which the osteology of the original was so fully elucidated, as to leave but few points undetermined, for the investigation of subsequent observers.

Ten years afterwards, Mr. Hawkins astonished British naturalists by the splendid and perfect skeletons of several new species of both tribes of Enaliosauri, which his anatomical skill, and untiring perseverance and patience, enabled him to dissect from the rock, in a state of integrity previously thought unattainable. The principal gems of that gentleman's collection are now before us, having been purchased by the Trustees of the British Museum.2

To the admirable Memoir on the Enaliosauransi, by Baron Cuvier, in 1823,-the beautiful illustrations in the Bridgewater

"Memoirs of Ichthyosauri," &c. by Thomas Hawkins, Esq. 1 vol. folio, 1834, p. 9.

2 Two collections were purchased of Mr. Hawkins; the first was valued by Dr. Buckland and myself. See APPENDIX K.

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