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such as objectionable flavor, heavy odor, and moist or soft condition. These, however, are rare exceptions and not the rule.

"It is not decomposed food, but infected food that is likely to cause trouble.

“Diagnosis of food infection depends on: history of exposure to the suspected food; symptoms suggestive of food poisoning ; isolation of the infecting organisms from the suspected food, and also from the blood, urine, feces or viscera of the patient (bacilli belonging to the Gaertner group disappear from the feces in from seven to ten days after the onset of symptoms); specific identification of the causative organism by agglutination tests; demonstration of agglutinins in the blood serum of patients. A positive reaction can be detected six or eight days after the onset of symptoms. Agglutination in comparatively low dilutions is usually accepted as diagnostic, owing to the fact that it is extremely rare to find a positive reaction for B. enteritidis or B. suipestifer in normal individuals.

“It must be quite evident that the term "food poisoning” is not well chosen, so far as infections with Gaertner's bacillus are concerned. This bacillus produces an acute febrile infection, specific in nature. "The attacks are usually mild and brief, with complete recovery. The disease, however, in all essential particulars clearly belongs to the group of intestinal infections, including typhoid fever, dysentery and cholera. No one would subscribe to the propriety of calling typhoid fever "food poisoning," even though the typhoid infection was contracted from bacilli contained in contaminated milk or infected water.

GAERTNER'S BACILLUS AND SOURCES OF INFECTION B. enteritidis is the type of a group of organisms lying midway between the colon bacillus, on the one hand, and the typhoid bacillus, on the other. It is therefore often spoken of as the 'intermediate group,' the 'hog cholera group,' the ‘enteritidis group,' the ‘paratyphoid group,' and the ‘Salmonella group.' The classification of the members of this group is quite involved, and there is still a lack of agreement among bacteriologists concerning some of the details.

"Gaertner, in 1888, brought forth the first definite evidence which incriminated bacteria as an etiologic factor in food poisoning. At Frankenhausen, fifty-seven individuals became ill after eating the flesh of a cow that had been slaughtered on account of enteritis; one case resulted fatally. Gaertner isolated the bacillus from the organs of the cow and also from the spleen of the man who died.

B. enteritidis and its congeners are pathogenic for some of our food animals as well as for man. Cattle suffering during life from puerperal fever, uterine inflammations, navel infection (in calves), septicemia, septic pyemia, diarrhea and local suppurations are likely to furnish meat containing the Gaertner bacillus or closely related bacilli. Such meat has frequently given rise to 'meat poisoning.' Hence, emergency slaughter (nothschlacht), unless intelligently supervised, furnishes meat that may be a menace. The meat of such animals presents no warning signs of its danger. This fact was well proved by the meat inspector at Ghent, already referred to. The story of this tragedy has become classic.

“The meat may come from healthy animals, but become infected after slaughter. This may take place through the hands or instruments of the butcher who has just handled a diseased carcass. There are other possibilities, such as human carri fecal contaminations.

"Bainbridge states that 'infection of meat by human carriers of unknown.' Human carriers of B. enteritidis are exceedingly rare B. paratyphosus B are occasionally discovered, but these also a specimens of human feces from healthy individuals exami 1917-1918, not a single carrier of any of these nonlactose enteritidis group was found.

“The English observers believe that all cases of carriers are in reality cases of paratyphoid fever

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PUBLIC HEALTH DIVISION of the MUNICIPAL REFERENCE LIBRARY

3rd Floor, 505 Pearl Street

Open to the general public for reference use.

Material will be loaned to persons on the payroll of the City.

ALASTRIM.-Rucker, W. C. Aastrim (U. MALNUTRITION.-Wood, A. H. Building

S. Public Health Service Public Healtb

w? the mal-sourished child (Pub. Health

R:ports, Dec. 9, 1921. Pp. 23-30-7.)

Nurse, Dec., 1921 pp. 617-61.)

ALASTRIM.-Warkins, V. E The relation- MATERNITY WELFARE.-Stokes, Harmina.

id of alastrim to smalspor (Med. Ree, Statistical study of two thossard mater.

Dec. 31, 1921 pp. 1114-1151.)

ity cases. Pab. Health Nurse, Dec.,

BANDAGING.-Cowes, M. C. Bandages and

1921.

29. 627-629, tables.)

Sardaging for

1920.

P?.

610.73 €83 MORPHINISM. - Pearson, C. B. How to de-

EFFICIENCY.-Vernon, H. J. The iniluence

termine the severity of a case of mor.

vi atmospheric conditions on industrial

phinism. Med. Rec., Dec. 24, 1921.

eiciency U. State Med., Dec, 1921.

pp. 1113-1115)

pp. 3033-362)

SCHOOL HYGIENE.Howe, W. A. School

HEALTH.-Fishi, Irving, and E L. Fisk. health service in New York State (Med.

How to ive; rules for health al living Ias. & Health Conservation, Dec, 1921.

based on modern science. 15ei

1821.

pp. 68-99.)

1 pp., tab.es.

614 F53h15 SYPHILIS.-Feldman, Samuel Syphilis from

HEALTH SURVEYS.-Horwood, M. P., Pub. the staripoint of the clinician (Med.

lic health surveys; what they are, how to

Rec., Dec. 24, 1921. pp. 1101-1113,

make them, 50

use them, with a

tables.)

foreword. by Wam T. Sedgwick and an TUBERCULOSIS.-Clark, R V.

Civic con-

introductios 5y Gorge C.

Whipple.

trol of tuberculosis. (. State Ned.,

1:21.

ilus.

614.091173 Dec., 1921. pp. 372-379.)

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Mortality Summary for the Week Ending Saturday Noon, January 7, 1922.

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*Corrected by redistributing deaths according to borough of residence.

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such as objectionable flavor, heavy odor, and moist or soft condition. These, however, are rare exceptions and not the rule.

"It is not decomposed food, but infected food that is likely to cause trouble.

“Diagnosis of food infection depends on: history of exposure to the suspected food; symptoms suggestive of food poisoning ; isolation of the infecting organisms from the suspected food, and also from the blood, urine, feces or viscera of the patient (bacilli belonging to the Gaertner group disappear from the feces in from seven to ten days after the onset of symptoms); specific identification of the causative organism by agglutination tests; demonstration of agglutinins in the blood serum of patients. A positive reaction can be detected six or eight days after the onset of symptoms. Agglutination in comparatively low dilutions is usually accepted as diagnostic, owing to the fact that it is extremely rare to find a positive reaction for B. enteritidis or B. suipestifer in normal individuals.

"It must be quite evident that the term "food poisoning" is not well chosen, so far as infections with Gaertner's bacillus are concerned. This bacillus produces an acute febrile infection, specific in nature. The attacks are usually mild and brief, with complete recovery. The disease, however, in all essential particulars clearly belongs to the group of intestinal infections, including typhoid fever, dysentery and cholera. No one would subscribe to the propriety of calling typhoid fever "food poisoning," even though the typhoid infection was contracted from bacilli contained in contaminated milk or infected water.

GAERTNER'S BACILLUS AND SOURCES OF INFECTION "B. enteritidis is the type of a group of organisms lying midway between the colon bacillus, on the one hand, and the typhoid bacillus, on the other. It is therefore often spoken of as the “intermediate group, the ‘hog cholera group,' the 'enteritidis group,' the 'paratyphoid group,' and the ‘Salmonella group.' The classification of the members of this group is quite involved, and there is still a lack of agreement among bacteriologists concerning some of the details.

“Gaertner, in 1888, brought forth the first definite evidence which incriminated bacteria as an etiologic factor in food poisoning. At Frankenhausen, fifty-seven individuals became ill after eating the flesh of a cow that had been slaughtered on account of enteritis; one case resulted fatally. Gaertner isolated the bacillus from the organs of the cow and also from the spleen of the man who died.

B. enteritidis and its congeners are pathogenic for some of our fond animals as well as for man. Cattle suffering during life from puerperal fever, uterine infiammations, navel infection (in calves), septicemia, septic pyemia, diarrhea and local suppurations are likely to furnish meat containing the Gaertner bacillus or closely related bacilli. Such meat has frequently given rise to “meat poisoning.' Hence, emergency slaughter (nothschlacht), unless intelligently supervised, furnishes meat that may be a menace. The meat of such animals presents no warning signs of its danger. This fact was well proved by the meat inspector at Ghent, 'already referred to. The story of this tragedy has become classic.

"The meat may come from healthy animals, but become infected after slaughter. This may take place through the hands or instruments of the butcher who has just handled a diseased carcass. There are other possibilities, such as human carriers or fecal contaminations.

"Bainbridge states that 'infection of meat by human carriers of B. suipestifer is unknown.' Human carriers of B. enteritidis are exceedingly rare. Human carriers of B. paratyphosus B are occasionally discovered, but these also are infrequent. In 4,154 specimens of human feces from healthy individuals examined in our laboratory in 1917-1918, not a single carrier of any of these nonlactose fermenters belonging to the enteritidis group was found.

"The English observers believe that all cases of food poisoning traced to human carriers are in reality cases of paratyphoid fever ; but the Germans, who do not

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