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3. What were the most remarkable of our Lord's discourses, and on what occasions were they severally delivered ?
Section III.-1. What events are associated historically with the following places, Dan, Beersheba, Hebron, Shiloh, Bethel, Tekoah, Ashdod ?
2. Where was Philistia? To which of its cities was the Ark taken, and under what circumstances restored ? Where were the rivers Kishon and Arnon, and the brooks Besor and Kedron, and what events are associated historically with them?
3. What were the provinces of Asia Minor in the time of St. Paul ? Where are the following places situated, and what events are associated historically with them: Lystra, Ephesus, Laodicea, Thyatira, Troas ?
Section IV.-1. What is meant by a type, and what by an antitype ? What events recorded in the Old Testament are declared to be typical in the New ?
2. What is the testimony of the prophets to the pre-existence of the Messiah, his divinity, and his office as our High Priest ?
3. “And with great power gave the Apostles witness of the resurrection of the Lord Jesus.” Acts iv. 33. Give examples of this, and assign reasons for the evidence of the resurrection being specially insisted upon by the Apostles. Section V.-Explain fully one of the following passages :
1. “The Scribes and Pharisees sit in Moses' seat: all therefore, whatsover they bid you observe, that observe and do: but do not ye after their works." Matt. xxii. 2, 3.
2. “Neither by the blood of goats and calves, but by his own blood he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for us." Hebrews ix. 12.
3. “After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This is the New Testament in my blood : this do, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me.”
Section VI.-State in such simple language as is adapted to the understanding of children, the practical instruction which may be drawn from the Parable of the Tares, or the Parable of the Ten Virgins.
LATIN, GREEK, AND FRENCH. I. Translate one of the following passages into English, parsing the words printed in italics, and giving the grammar and the rules :
1. “ His de rebus Cæsar certior factus, et infirmitatem Gallorum veritus, quod sunt in consiliis capiendis mobiles, et novis plerumque rebus student, nihil committendum existimavit. Est autem hoc Gallicæ consuetudinis, uti et viatores etiam invitos consistere cogant; et quod quisque eorem de quâque re audierit aut cognoverit, quærant; et mercatores in oppidis vulgus circumsistat, quibusque ex regionibus veniant, quasque ibi res cognoverint, pronuntiare cogant. His rumoribus atque auditionibus permoti, de summis sæpe rebus consilia ineunt; quorum eos e vestigio pænitere necesse est; cum incertis rumoribus serviant; et plerique ad voluntatem eorum ficta respondeant.:)
(Cæsar.) 2. Vix ea fatus erat senior ; subitoque fragore
Intonuit lævum, et de coelo lapsa per umbras
II. Translate either of the following passages, into English. Give the derivations, and rules for the construction, of the words printed widely.
1. Και είπον οι απόστολοι τω Κυρίω, «Πρόσθες ημίν πίστιν.” Είπε δε ο Κύριος, «Ει είχετε πίστιν, ως κόκκον σινάπεως, ελέγετε αν τη συκαμίνω ταύτη, Εκριζώθητι, και φυτεύθητι εν τη θαλάσσης και υπήκουσεν αν υμίν. Τίς δε εξ υμών δούλον έχων άροτρώντα ή ποιμαίνοντα, δς εισελθόντι εκ του αγρού έρεί ευθέως, Παρελθών ανάπεσαι αλλ' ουχί έρεί αυτό. Ετοίμασαν το δειπνήσω, και περιζωσάμενος διακόνει μοι, έως φάγω και πίων και μετά ταύτα φάλεσαι και πίεσαι σύ; Μη χάριν έχει το δούλο εκείνω, ότι εποίησε τα διαταχθέντα αυτώ; ου δοκώ ούτω και υμείς, όταν ποήσητε πάντα τα διαταχθέντα υμίν, λέγετε, "Οτι δούλοι αχρείοί εσμεν ότι δ ωφείλομεν ποιήσαι πεποιήκαμεν.”
2. 'Εκ τούτου τους μεν στρατιώταις είπον συσκευάζεσθαι ο δε Κύρος έθυε πρώτον μεν Διι βασιλεί, έπειτα δε και τους άλλους θεοίς, και ητείτο ίλεως και ευμενείς όντας ηγεμόνας γίγνεσθαι τη στρατιά και παραστάτας αγαθούς και συμμάχους και συμβούλους των αγαθών. συμπαρεκάλει δε και ήρωας γης Μηδιάς οικήτορας και κηδεμόνας. Επει δ' έκαλλιέρησέ τε και αθρόον ήν αυτό το στράτευμα προς τους ορίοις, τότε δή οιωνούς χρησάμενος αισίοις ένέβαλεν εις την πολεμίαν. έπει δε τάχιστα διέβη τα όρια, εκεί αυ και Γην ιλάσκετο χοαίς και ήρωας 'Ασσυρίας οικήτορας ευμενίζετο. ταύτα δε ποιήσας αυθις Διι πατρωώ έθυε, και εί τις άλλος θεών ανεφαίνετο, ουδενός ήμέλει.
III. Translate one of the following passages into English, and parse the words printed in italics :
1. “Un jour Platon expliquait ses idées, et parloit de la forme d'une table et de celle d'un verre. Je vois bien une table et un verre, lui dit Diogène; mais je ne sais ce que c'est que la forme d'une table, non plus que celle d'un verre. Cela est vrai, dit Platon ; car, pour voir une table et un verre, il ne faut avoir que des yeux ; au lieu que, pour connoitre la forme d'une table et celle d'un verre, il faut avoir de l'esprit. On demanda a Diogène pourquoi on donnoit plutôt l'aumône aux borgnes et aux boiteux q'aux philosophes ? C'est, repondit il, parceque les hommes s'attendent plutôt devenir borgnes ou boiteux, que philosophes." (Fenelon.)
2. Lorsque deux factions dirisent un Empire,
Chacun suit au hasard la meilleure ou la pire,
X + 2
· Section II.-Solve the Equations,
x - 3=X - 2x - 1
3. W x + 9 + 7-9=4+ 134. Section III.-Solve one of the Equations,
2x x 5y=34
5x – 3y=23
a Section IV.-1. There are two numbers whose sum is 96, and of which one is greater than the other by 16. What are the numbers ?
2. In what time will the simple interest of 4001. be equal to the discount of 5201., both being calculated at 5 per cent.
3. The shoes of two boys cost together 36s. a year. The first wears a pair out in 5 months and the other in 6. Now if the first had worn out a pair in 6 months, and the other in 5, they would have cost together 37s, a year in shoes. What was the price of each boy's pair of shoes?
Section V.-1. At what price per head must a farmer purchase a flock of 100 sheep, that expending 101. in feeding them, and losing 9, he may be able to sell the remainder at 21. each, and gain 201.?
2. A man undertakes to dig an acre in 40 days; he digs the first 100 rods at the rate of 2 rods per day more than the last 60 rods; how many rods did he dig per day at first ?
3. A person sets out by a coach to ride a certain distance, and then to walk back to a house on the road. The next morning he walks towards home until the same coach, on its return, overtakes him, which it does after he has walked as many miles as he did the day before, he then gets into it and rides home. He walks at the rate of a miles an hour, the coach travels at the rate of b miles, and his journey occupies him, on the first day, c hours, and on the second, half that time. How far is the house where he stops from his own ?
THE MAGIC LANTERN.
Sir,-1 observe your correspondent.“On the Magic Lantern as an Instrument of Instruction,” expresses a wish to know what the schoolmasters think of his project. Having had some experience in the matter, I readily note down my views respecting it. I have for several
I years past had an annual magic-lantern entertainment for our school children upon the plan recommended, each child paying one penny for admission, and I have always found large numbers ready to avail themselves of the opportunity of attending, and I am happy to add have manifested a deep interest on the occasion. I have a very good lantern, and a set of astronomical sliders, in addition to which I usually
hire about four or five dozen miscellaneous ones from an optician's, and I find that the payments of the children have always covered the expences incurred. Until very recently it did not occur to me to make the entertainment instructive as well as amusing, on account of the difficulty experienced in getting and maintaining quietness on such an occasion for any length of time; but having arranged that the assistantmaster, with the aid of the pupil teachers, should maintain order while I gave a familiar explanation of the diagrams, I have been enabled to make it the medium of communicating much useful information. I have also attended a few other schools in which I have reason to believe the experiment has been successful, and I should be happy to visit any others in the neighbourhood of London in which the managers might be desirous of trying it.
If anything is to be done by way of instruction, it is indispensable that good order should be preserved, which will be found in a large school no easy task, as the views are of course exhibited in the dark, when it is needless to say that the disorderly boys (and there are such in every school) have a rare opportunity of indulging their propensities.
However, providing that the master undertakes to attend entirely to the order, and makes expulsion for the evening the punishment for any symptoms of disorder, I believe sufficient attention may be obtained. I must state that if the attendance be large, or if there be no efficient assistant master, it will be found impossible to exhibit, explain, and maintain order single-handed. Whoever undertakes to give the explanation of the views, should have order preserved for him by another, that his mind may not be distracted, which will be pretty sure to be the case if he undertakes to do the two things at once. I have found the lantern particularly useful in explaining such subjects as the rotundity of the earth, the cause of day and night, the variations of the seasons, eclipses, tides, &c., and I am sure it would be equally useful for illustrating the different subjects mentioned by your correspondent, providing that a sufficient number of schools would undertake to hire the sliders, that the original outlay might be refunded. This might easily be accomplished in any locality, if each school would contribute the pence collected, or, in other words, agree to hire both lantern and views. I shall be happy to receive communications from your readers, and to co-operate with them in carrying out your correspondent's project.
I am, Sir, your
*** [In the letter in our last number on this subject 201. should have been named as the probable cost of the slides.] CICERO" DE NATURA DEORUM," AS AN EDUCATIONAL
WORK, Sir, --Allow me to suggest, through the medium of your payes, how valuable an educational work might be formed by the publication of Çicero's beautiful arguments (in his second book · De Naturâ
Deorum,") for the being and providence of God from final causes, with notes, correcting the unavoidable errors of the philosopher in matters of science, and strengthening his positions by the discoveries of modern times.
I'do not hesitate to say that such a work from the pen of a writer, like the Dean of Llandaff
, or Mr. Sedgwick of Cambridge, who should unite the accomplishments of a divine, a scholar, and a man of science would be one of the most important contributions that could be made to any educational series, combining as it would do the outlines of natural philosophy and natural history, with a passage unsurpassed in elegance, perspicuity, and force both of thought an dlanguage
I am, Sir, yours, &c. Bath, March 12, 1851.
THE USE AND ABUSE OF GOVERNMENT GRANTS IN
AUGMENTATION OF TEACHERS' SALARIES.
- The consideration of so eminently practical a question, in relation to the interests of the whole body of your subscribers, as that indicated by the above heading comes so completely within the scope of a Journal of Education, that I feel no apology is needed in requesting
the insertion of a brief letter on the subject in your next number. Patrons, promoters, and managers of schools do not, in many instances, appear to have very exact notions of the design of the Committee of Council.on Education in instituting the form of aid in question. Many teachers complain, and justly, that the grant which was designed as a personal advantage and special boon to themselves, by adding to the inadequate remuneration which they receive as a body, is frequently treated as an integral portion of the funds of the school, in direct contravention of the explicit aim of the Government. The whole tenor of
official document bearing upon the subject is against such misappropriation of thé augmentation grants. One of these documents, the “ Augmentation Broad Sheet,” contains the emphatic declaration that “ Grants belong exclusively to the teachers, not to the general funds of the school. Their lordships cannot sanction corresponding reductions in the previous salaries of teachers, even though more than sufficient to fulfil the conditions of the particular grant.” Nothing could more clearly show that the intention of the committee in awarding these grants is exclusively to increase the emoluments of teachers, and not to relieve the managers of schools of any portion of their responsibility in providing from local resources the same amount of salary which they would have felt themselves called upon to raise in the absence of all extraneous aid. But this design of the Government is frequently overlooked or misapprehended in the arrangements between managers and teachers. Cases could be cited in which incompetent teachers have been removed, and their places supplied by well-qualified certificated teachers, to whom diminished salaries have been given, expressly on the ground that the certificates of merit to which their superior qualifications had entitled them, had also secured to them, conditionally, certain payments from the parliamentary grant, and that, in such instances, the managers were consequently relieved to a corresponding