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a calamity to be averted at any cost whatever, of struggle, anxiety, and shortening of life itself. I do not believe that any greater good could be achieved for the country, than the change in public feeling on this head, which might be brought about by a few benevolent men, undeniably in the class of “gentlemen," who would, on principle, enter into some of our commonest trades, and make them honourable ; showing that it was possible for a man to retain his dignity, and remain, in the best sense, a gentleman, though part of his time was every day occupied in manual labour, or even in serving customers over a counter. I do not in the least see why courtesy, and gravity, and sympathy with the feelings of others, and courage and truth, and piety, and what else goes to make up a gentleman's character, should not be found behind a counter as well as elsewhere, if they were demanded, or even hoped for, there.

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WHAT IS THE USE OF WRITING LATIN VERSES ? Sir,—To enable teachers to give an answer to this question, I enclose you a passage from a work to which you have lately called attention. İn“ Church Clavering" the author has introduced a Mr. Wilkins, holding a conversation with Mr. Primer the Schoolmaster, on the occasion of bringing a new boy to the school. The anxious parent having stated that when John has learnt the accidence, he will have acquired a sufficiency of the learned languages, the following dialogue occurs :

Primer. That will be as you please, sir ; it is a good thing to have learnt the accidence of the Latin grammar, or even the English grammar alone ; but it is a small step towards a critical knowledge of language. If your son is a clever lad, I should certainly recommend that he should go on and learn Latin composition, especially verses.

Wilkins. Well, now, I never could make out, for the life of me, what was the use of verses-non-sense verses, as your schoolmasters call them-or sense-verses either, for the matter of that. For, of the scores of boys who are trained up to make verses, I never heard of more than one or two in an age who made anything by poetry. Indeed, poets are proverbial for being poor. Milton, I have heard, only made five pounds by his Paradise Lost.

My good sir, said Mr. Primer smiling, boys do not learn verses for the purpose of being poets, or to make money by their verses. Nine out of ten, perhaps, do not make a verse after they leave school.

Wilkins. What on earth, then, do they learn to make verses for ?

Primer. It is to give them an accurate knowledge of language, and of the classical languages in particular; and still more to exercise and strengthen their minds, aud render them clear, precise, and discriminating. You will, perhaps, be surprised when I remark, that if a boy never made another verse in his life, or never looked even into a Greek or Latin book after he left school it would still have been of very great use to him.

Wilkins. You do surprise me.

"Primer. I would certainly not recommend a young man to give up his Latin and Greek after leaving school, because I believe the keeping up a knowledge of them to be a source of great pleasure as well as advantage. Still, even if circumstances should oblige him to do so, he will have gained an ample benefit in the exercise of mind and the labour which he expended

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at school. The study of languages, especially the more perfect languages, will open the way to all the variety of human thought. His intellect will have been enlarged, and adapted to close, steady, and discriminating application; and he will have gained, not only a valuable fund of actual knowledge; but a power of acquiring any other sort of knowledge, especially of languages; or engaging with advantage in any other pursuit, to which his energies in after-life may be directed.”

A Tutor.

SCHOOL REPORT. J. S. P. T., in reply to C. S. in the July number, sends the following report, and will be glad if any one will suggest improvements.


REPORT-BOYS' NATIONAL SCHOOL, This school is conducted by a trained and certificated master, assisted by four pupil-teachers. It consists of 118 boys, between the ages of 7 and 13. They are divided into 4 classes, each of which is under the charge of a pupilteacher, and the whole are constantly superintended by the master. The first class contains 29 boys, the second 25, the third 33, the fourth 31. The subjects of instruction are the Holy Scriptures, Church Catechism with explanation, and (first class) scripture proofs. Reading :—first class, Old Testament, and 3rd book of the Irish Commissioners; second class, New Testament, and 3rd book (S.P.C.K.); third class, the 2nd book (S. P.C.K.); and the fourth, the 1st book (S.P.C.K.). Plain writing. Arithmetic-first class, compound proportion and practice; second class, reduction and simple proportion; third class, the first four rules, simple and compound; and the fourth, numeration and notation. Grammar. Geography of Great Britain and Ireland, English history, and Vocal music. The school hours are from 9 to 12, and from 2 to 5. The following is the time table.

[Here insert the time table, and append to it any remarks you may think needful in order to give a clear idea of the manner in which the school is conducted:)

The average attendance during the past year has been 91.8. 38 have been admitted into the school, and 34 have left within the last twelve months.

CHINESE HINTS TO STUDENTS. Sir,-It has occurred to me that the following Chinese hints to students, abridged from Dr. Morrisons's work, may be interesting to some of your readers. In China, above probably every other country in the world, advancement depends upon acquirements. Almost all political aspirants, depend for their promotion on their success at public examinations, three of which must be undergone with credit before the candidate can occupy any of the higher civil posts of government. The subjects of study may not be such as we should esteem very highly, but still, as far as the art of acquisition goes, we might fairly presume that the experience of those who have been students for many ages must be worth recording. I have sent you some of the remarks which appear to me the most valuable.

1. When approaching a public examination the student should shun an eagerness to read too much : if it has not been done before it will then be too late.

2. As an immediate preparation, let him read over twenty or thirty sections of some first-rate work that he may imbibe its spirit.

3. When in a course of study let not the student charge his mind with the mixed and vulgar thoughts of everyday life-they take up


4. Let the student keep a common-place book, and, at intervals of ten or twenty days, let him read over again what he has committed to it.

5. There should be no breaks of five or six days during study, on any account. Do not fear being slow, but fear standing still

. 6. When reading on a particular subject let the student give up his mind to that alone; for water if put on a fire will at last boil, but will never do so if you keep putting in fresh water.

7. One who has much worldly business to attend to should make a selection of one good prose and one good poetical work, place them on his table, and take them up at every vacant opportunity; not wait till he is entirely at leisure.

8. There are men who have ten thousand volumes, and never read ten of them; such people are below the poor starved scholar who saves a few coins to buy a book, and then, by study makes it entirely


his own.

I think you will agree with me that these are the remarks of a sensible and studious people.

I am, Sir, your obedient servant,


Notices of Books.





REV. L. J. BERNAYS, M.A., LATE FELLOW OF ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE, oxford. Pp. 224. (London: Low, 1851.) These Sermons differ somewhat from those published of late years, by the masters of our principal public schools, in that they are addressed to younger boys, most of whom are preparing for entrance into larger seminaries. They are interesting and practical, and many of the reniarks contained in them are well suited to the circumstances of those to whom they were addressed. They may be read with advantage either to young people or by them. Such topics as “concealment of the truth," "speedy forgetfulness of faults, "misuse of vacations," "finding pleasure in giving pain to companions," " spending comparatively large sums on the mere gratification of the lowest of the senses,” and other trials and troubles of a young school-boy's life, are touched

in these discourses in a natural and effective manner. We would recommend them to those engaged in the work of education as affording some valuable hints upon subjects respecting which the young often greatly stand in need of counsel and advice.



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don : Seeleys, 1850.) BREVITY and distinctness are the objects which the author professes to have chiefly aimed at in this work, and in these respects he has been successful, especially in the subjects which stand first in the title page. The outline which precedes each subject, is very clearly drawn out both in the arrangement and the printing, as are also the remarks made under each head in the chapter devoted to it. The references in the margin to original works are not always so full as might be wished; but this is of less moment, because the work is not to be regarded as a theological text book, but rather as a manual to assist students either in arranging knowledge already acquired, or in suggesting the principal topics to which attention should be directed, and the order in which those topics may be profitably studied. In these respects those who are reading by themselves will find this work a useful compilation.


GATTY. Pp. 154. (London : Bell, 1851.) These tales are written in a very pleasing style, and are likely to impress upon the minds of youthful readers the valuable lessons which they are intended to convey. By introducing fairies as the ruling powers in her tales, the author is enabled to dispense with much of the machinery of a regular story, and thus to produce striking illustrations of important truths, which are the more agreeable and natural because they appear to be constructed without artifice. In an age when so much time is wasted in reading works of fiction which are worse than useless, we are happy to have it in our power to recommend stories from Fairy Land, which, whilst they amuse, will also teach the young something of the nature of the love of God, of the blessing of a trust in His protecting omnipresence, and of the unquestionable, though often forgotten truth—that a love of employment is more likely to confer happiness on its possessor than beauty, or riches, or all the mere pleasures of life. A COLLECTION OF SECULAR MUSIC, FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS.

JAMES TILLEARD. (London : Novello.) A COMPANION volume to the Collection of Sacred Music, by the same Editor, consisting of native compositions and adaptations from foreign sources. It is a cheap and excellent collection for the purpose. We extract some useful remarks for the guidance of teachers :

“ It will be found that the unsatisfactory state of our school-singing is in great measure attributable to the want of attention to rhythm and time. By rhythm in music is meant the relative duration and accentuation of the several notes of a melody, and it is obvious that musical expression must mainly depend upon due attention to these two points. With the music always before them, the children will not be likely to go wrong in respect to the duration of the notes; but it will still be necessary to enforce a strict attention to the accentuation. It is generally understood that certain notes of a bar of music are more strongly accented than others; but the mistake is to suppose that the accent falls naturally upon these notes, and so requires


no effort on the part of the singer. Rigid accuracy in the rhythm, however, will be of little use unless the songs are sung strictly in time ; for the character of the melody, as a whole, depends just as much upon the time as that of its parts does upon the rhythm. In most of our schools, the children are allowed to sing very much too slowly, and, as a consequence, they sing carelessly; more rapid singing, and that in perfect time, will be the first step towards producing an animated expression, and will thus lead them to look upon the music as an enjoyment, and not as an irksome task. Their interest in the singing will be still further increased if they are constantly required to pay attention to the modulation of their voices, so as to produce the proper variety of effect. Not only should the marks of expression be carefully observed, but the rule should always be put in practice, that ascending passages are to be sung crescendo, and descending passages diminuendo." In mixed schools, and wherever the boys and girls can be brought together for the practice of music, it will be found a good plan to allow them to sing the verses of the songs alternately."




Nautical School. Section I. - 1. A ship sails S.W. by S. 24 miles; N.N.W. 57 miles; S.E. by E. 1 E. 84 miles; and S. 35 miles; find the course and distance made good.

2. A ship runs N.E. by N. 18 miles in 3 hours, in a current setting W. by S. 2 miles an hour; required the course and distance made good.

3. A ship plying to windward with the wind at N.N.E., after sailing 51 miles on each of two tacks, was found to have made 36 miles difference of Latitude. How near the wind has she sailed ?

4. A ship from a port in latitude 57° 9' N., longitude 2° 9' W., sailed 82 miles on a direct course, and spoke a ship which had run 100 miles from a port in latitude 56° 21' N., longitude 2° 50'W. Required the course of each ship and the longitude and latitude come to.

Section II.-1. The true meridian altitude of a circumpolar star above the pole was found to be 26° 33' 50", and below it, 24° 14' 30". What was the latitude ?

2. At 2h 22m 255•62 mean time at Greenwich, what is the sidereal time: the sidereal time of the previous mean noon having been 18h 47° 55842 ?

3. In latitude 2° 45' 15" N., longitude 104° E. at 45_6m 128 P.M., apparent . time, the magnetic azimuth of the o was N. 287° 41' E., determine the yariation of the compass. The O's north polar distance 70° 30' 6".

Section III.-1. Travelling towards a mountain, I observe the angular elevations of its summit, at two points, distant 2; miles from one another, to be 22° 11' and 35° 17' respectively. What is its height ?

2. On the 5th of December, 1850, the meridian altitude of the sun's lower limb was 25° 29', the zenith was N. of the sun, the ship's longitude 73° E., and the height of the eye 22 feet. Required the latitude.

3. In longitude 37° W. at 7h 43m 35$ mean time, the altitude of the polestar, when corrected, is 46° 17' 28", the sidereal time of the previous Greenwich mean noon having been 22b 56m 188. Required the latitude.

Section IV.-1. On the 3rd of September, 1850, the sun was observed to pass the meridian at a place in 30° east longitude at ob 12m 15s P.M. by watch. What was the error of the watch from mean solar time?

2. July 6th, 1550, the O’s meridian altitude at midnight was 25° 50' 15". Index error 3' 15". Longitude nearly 10° E. The barometer 40:15. Thermometer 31° Fahr. Required the latitude.

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