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It is a brave act of valour to contemn death; but where life is more terrible than death, it is then the truest valour to dare to live; and herein religion hath taught us a noble example. For all the valiant acts of Curtius, Scævola, or Codrus, do not parallel or match that one of Job; and sure there is no torture to the rack of a disease, nor any poniards in death itself, like those in the way or prologue to it. Emori nolo, sed me esse mortuum nihil curo'-['I would not die, but care not to be dead']. Were I of Cæsar's religion, I should be of his desires, and wish rather to go off at one blow, than to be sawed in pieces by the grating torture of a disease. Men that look no further than their outsides, think health an appurtenance unto life, and quarrel with their constitutions for being sick; but I that have examined the parts of man, and know upon what tender filaments that fabric hangs, do wonder that we are not always so; and considering the thousand doors that lead to death, do thank my God that we can die but once. It is not only the mischief of diseases, and villany of poisons, that make an end of us we vainly accuse the fury of guns, and the new inventions of death; it is in the power of every hand to destroy us, and we are beholden unto every one we meet he doth not kill us. There is, therefore, but one comfort left, that though it be in the power of the weakest arm to take away life, it is not in the strongest to deprive us of death: God would not exempt himself from that, the misery of immortality in the flesh; he undertook not that was immortal. Certainly there is no happiness within this circle of flesh, nor is it in the optics of those eyes to behold felicity; the first day of our jubilee is death. The devil hath therefore failed of his desires; we are happier with death, than we should have been without it. There is no misery but in himself, where there is no end of misery; and so, indeed, in his own sense, the stoic is in the right. He forgets that he can die who complains of misery; we are in the power of no calamity while death is in

our own.

[Study of God's Works.]

The world was made to be inhabited by beasts, but studied and contemplated by man; it is the debt of our reason we owe unto God, and the homage we pay for not being beasts; without this, the world is still as though it had not been, or as it was before the sixth day, when as yet there was not a creature that could conceive, or say there was a world. The wisdom of God receives small honour from those vulgar heads that rudely stare about, and with a gross rusticity admire his works; those highly magnify him whose judicious inquiry into his acts, and deliberate research into his creatures, return the duty of a devout and

learned admiration.


I believe that the whole frame of a beast doth perish, and is left in the same state after death as before it was materialed unto life; that the souls of men know neither contrary nor corruption; that they subsist beyond the body, and outlive death by the privilege of their proper natures, and without a miracle; that the souls of the faithful, as they leave earth, take possession of heaven; that those apparitions and ghosts of departed persons are not the wandering souls of men, but the, unquiet walks of devils, prompting and suggesting us unto mischief, blood, and villany, instilling and stealing into our hearts; that the blessed spirits are not at rest in their graves, but wander solicitous of the affairs of the world; but that those phantasms appear often, and do frequent cemeteries, charnel-houses, and churches, it is because those are the dormitories of the dead,

where the devil, ke an insect champion, beholds

with pride the spoils and trophies of his victory over Adam.

[Of Myself.]

For my life it is a miracle of thirty years, which to relate were not a history, but a piece of poetry, and would sound to common ears like a fable. For the world, I count it not an inn but a hospital, and a place not to live but to die in. The world that I regard is myself; it is the microcosm of my own frame that I can cast mine eye on-for the other I use it but like my globe, and turn it round sometimes for my recreation. The earth is a point not only in respect of the heavens above us, but of that heavenly and celestial part within us. That mass of flesh that circumscribes me, limits not my mind. That surface that tells the heavens it hath an end, cannot persuade me I have any. * Whilst I study to find how

I am a microcosm or little world, I find myself something more than the great. There is surely a piece of divinity in us-something that was before the heavens, and owes no homage unto the sun. Nature tells me I am the image of God as well as Scripture. He that understands not thus much, hath not his introduction or first lesson, and hath yet to begin the alphabet of man.


But to return from philosophy to charity: I hold not so narrow a conceit of this virtue, as to conceive that to give alms is only to be charitable, or think piece of liberality can comprehend the total of charity. Divinity hath wisely divided the acts thereof into many branches, and hath taught us in this narrow way many paths unto goodness: as many ways as we may do good, so many ways we may be charitable; there are infirmities, not only of body, but of soul and fortunes, which do require the merciful hand of our abilities. I cannot contemn a man for ignorance, but behold him with as much pity as I do Lazarus. It is no greater charity to clothe his body, than apparel the nakedness of his soul. It is an honourable object to see the reasons of other men wear our liveries, and their borrowed understandings do homage to the bounty of ours. It is the cheapest way of beneficence, and, like the natural charity of the sun, illuminates another without obscuring itself. To be reserved and caitiff in this part of goodness, is the sordidest piece of covetousness, and more contemptible than pecuniary avarice. To this (as calling myself a scholar) I am obliged by the duty of my condition: I make not, therefore, my head a grave, but a treasure of knowledge; I intend no monopoly, but a community in learning; I study not for my own sake only, but for theirs that study not for themselves. I envy no man that knows more than myself, but pity them that know less. I instruct no man as an exercise of my knowledge, or with an intent rather to nourish and keep it alive in mine own head, than beget and propagate it in his; and in the midst of all my endeavours, there is but one thought that dejects me, that my acquired parts must perish with myself, nor can be legacied among my honoured friends. I can not fall out, or contemn a man for an error, or conceive why a difference in opinion should divide an affection: for controversies, disputes, and argumenta tions, both in philosophy and in divinity, if they meet with discreet and peaceable natures, do not infringe the laws of charity. In all disputes, so much as there is of passion, so much there is of nothing to the pur pose; for then reason, like a bad hound, spends upon a false scent, and forsakes the question first started. And this is one reason why controversies are never determined; for though they be amply proposed, they are scarce at all handled, they do so swell with unnecessary digressions; and the parenthesis on the


party is often as large as the main discourse upon nued his exertions in behalf of Protestantism, which, the subject.

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disseminating them at St Andrews, was carried prisoner to France in 1547. Being set at liberty two years afterwards, he preached in England till the accession of Mary in 1554 induced him to retire to the continent, where he resided chiefly at Geneva and Frankfort. Visiting Scotland in 1555, he greatly strengthened the Protestant cause by his exertions in Edinburgh; but at the earnest solicitation of the English congregation in Geneva, he once more took up his abode there in 1556. At Geneva he published The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women, directed principally against Mary of England and the queen regent of Scotland. Returning to Scotland in 1559, he conti

1 Regimen or government.

by the aid of an English army, finally triumphed in the following year. He died in 1572, and when laid in the grave, was characterised by the Earl of Morton as one who never feared the face of man.' The theological works of Knox are numerous, but his chief production is a History of the Reformation of Religion within the Realm of Scotland, printed after his death. Although, from having been written at intervals, and amid the distractions of a busy life, much of it is in a confused and ill-digested state, it still maintains its value as a chief source of information on the ecclesiastical history of the eventful period during which the author lived; and, though sometimes inaccurate, and the production of a partizan, it has, in the main, been confirmed by the researches of later historians. As a specimen of this celebrated work, we select the account of the

[Assassination of Cardinal Beaton.]

After the death of Master Wishart, the cardinal was cried up by his flatterers, and all the rabble of the corrupt clergy, as the only defender of the Catholic Church, and punisher of heretics, neglecting the authority of the sluggish governor. And it was said by them, that if the great prelates of latter days, both at home and abroad, had been so stout and zealous of the credit of the Catholic Church, they had not only suppressed all heretics, but also kept under the laymen, who were so froward and stubborn. On the other side, when that the people beheld the great tormenting of that innocent, they could not withhold from piteous mourning and complaining of the innocent lamb's slaughter. After the death of this blessed martyr of God, began the people in plain speaking to damn and detest the cruelty that was used; yea, men of great birth, and estimation, and honour, at open tables avowed, that the blood of the said Master George should be revenged, or else it should cost life for life. And that, in a short time, they should be like hogs kept for slaughter, by this vicious priest, which Amongst neither minded God nor cared for man. those that spake against the cardinal's cruelty, John Lesley, brother to the Earl of Rothes, was chief, with his cousin Norman Lesley, who had been a great follower of the cardinal, and very active for him, but a little before fell so foul with him, that they came to high reproaches one with another. The occasion of their falling out was a private business, wherein Norman Lesley said he was wronged by the cardinal. On the other side, the cardinal said he was not with respect used by Norman Lesley, his inferior. The said John Lesley in all companies spared not to say, that that same dagger (showing forth his dagger), and that same hand, should be put in the cardinal's breast. These bruits came to the cardinal's ears; but he thought himself stout enough for all Scotland; for in Babylon, that is, in his new block-house, he was sure, as he thought, and upon the fields he was able to match all his enemies. * * Many purposes were devised how that wicked man might have been taken away; but all faileth, till Friday the 28th of May, anno 1546, when the aforesaid Norman came at night to Saint Andrews. William Kirkcaldy of Grange, younger, was in the town before, waiting upon the purpose. Last came John Lesley, as aforesaid, who was most suspected. What conclusion they took that night, it was not known, but by the issue that followed. But early upon the Saturday, in the morning, the 29th of May, were they in sundry companies in the abbey churchyard, not far distant from the castle.

*The archiepiscopal palace of St Andrews, in which the cardinal resided, was a fortified building, to which, it appears, he had recently made some important additions for farther security.



him twice or thrice through with a stag-sword: and so he fell, never word heard out of his mouth, but, I am a priest, fie, fie, all is gone.

While they were thus busied with the cardinal, the fray rose in the town; the provost assembles the com- J monalty, and comes to the house-side, crying, What have ye done with my lord cardinal where is my lord cardinal? have ye slain my lord cardinal! They that were within answered gently, Best it were for you to return to your own houses, for the man ye call the cardinal hath received his reward, and in his own person will trouble the world no more. But then more enragedly they cry, We shall never depart till that we see him. And so was he brought to the east

the faithless multitude, which would not believe before they saw, and so they departed without Requiem | æternam, et requiescat in pace, sung for his soul. These things we write merrily, but we would that the reader should observe God's just judgments, and how that he can deprehend the worldly-wise in their own wisdom, make their table to be a snare to trap their own feet, and their own purposed strength to be their own destruction. These are the works of our God, whereby he would admonish the tyrants of this earth, that in the end he will be revenged of their cruelty, what | strength soever they make in the contrary.


In the reign of James VI., a work similar to that of Knox, but on a much more extensive scale, more minute, and involving many public documents, was written by DAVID CALDERWOOD, another zealous Presbyterian divine. An abridgment of this work has been printed under the title of The True History of the Church of Scotland: the original, in six folio volumes of manuscript, reposes in the library of the university of Glasgow. For his resolute oppo sition to Episcopacy, Calderwood was imprisoned in 1617, and afterwards banished from Scotland. On his return, he became minister of Pencaitland, in Haddingtonshire. The style of his work deserves little commendation; but though tinged with party. feeling, it has always been valued as a repertory of historical facts.

First, the gates being open, and the drawbridge letten down, for receiving of lime and stones, and other things necessary for building (for Babylon was almost finished), first, we say, essayed William Kirkcaldy of Grange, younger, and with him six persons, and getting entry, held purpose with the porter, If my lord was waking? who answered, No. While the said William and the porter talketh, and his servants made them to look at the work and workmen, approached Norman Lesley with his company; and because they were in great number, they easily gat entry. They address to the midst of the court; and immediately came John Lesley, somewhat rudely, and four persons with him. The porter fearing, would have drawn the bridge; but the said John, being en-block-house head, and showed dead over the wall to tered thereon, stayed it, and leaped in; and while the porter made him for defence, his head was broken, the keys taken from him, and he cast into the ditch, and so the place was seized. The shout ariseth; the workmen, to the number of more than a hundred, ran off the walls, and were without hurt put forth at the wicket gate. The first thing that ever was done, William Kirkcaldy took the guard of the privy postern, fearing lest the fox should have escaped. Then go the rest to the gentlemen's chambers, and without violence done to any man, they put more than fifty persons to the gate the number that enterprised and did this, was but sixteen persons. The cardinal, wakened with the shouts, asked from his window, What meant that noise? It was answered, that Norman Lesley had taken his castle: which understood, he ran to the postern, but perceiving the passage to be kept without, he returned quickly to his chamber, took his twohanded sword, and caused his chamberlain to cast chests and other impediments to the door. In this meantime came John Lesley unto it, and bids open. The cardinal asking, Who calls? he answered, My name is Lesley. He demanded, Is that Norman ? The other saith, Nay, my name is John. I will have Norman, saith the cardinal, for he is my friend. Content yourself with such as are here, for other you shall There were with the said John, James Melvin, a man familiarly acquainted with Master George Wishart, and Peter Carmichael, a stout gentleman. In this meantime, while they force at the door, the cardinal hides a box of gold under coals that were laid in a secret corner. At length he asketh, Will ye save my life? The said John answered, It may be that we will. Nay, saith the cardinal, swear unto me by God's wounds, and I will open to you. Then answered the said John, It that was said is unsaid; and so cried, Fire, fire (for the door was very strong), and so was brought a chimleyfull of burning coals; which perceived, the cardinal or his chamberlain (it is uncertain) opened the door, and the cardinal sat down in a chair, and cried, I am a priest, I am a priest; ye will not slay me. The said John Lesley (according to his former vows) struck him first once or twice, and so did the said Peter. But James Melvin (a man of nature most gentle and most modest), perceiving them both in choler, withdrew them, and said, This work and judgment of God (although it be secret) ought to be done with greater gravity. And presenting unto him the point of the sword, said, Repent thee of thy former wicked life, but especially of the shedding of the blood of that notable instrument of God, Master George Wishart, which albeit the flame of fire consumed before men, yet cries it for vengeance upon thee, and we from God are sent to revenge it. For here, before my God, I protest, that neither the hatred of thy person, the love of thy riches, nor the fear of any trouble thou couldst have done to me in particular, moved or moveth me to strike thee; but only because thou hast been, and remainest, an obstinate enemy against Christ Jesus and his holy gospel. And so he struck

have none.

SIR JAMES MELVIL, privy councillor and gentleman of the bed-chamber to Mary Queen of Scots, was born at Hall-hill, in Fifeshire, in the year 1530, and died in 1606. He left in manuscript a historical work, which for a considerable time lay unknown in the castle of Edinburgh, but having at length been discovered, was published in 1683, under the title of Memoirs of Sir James Melvil of Hall-hill, containing an Impartial Account of the Most Remarkable Affairs of State during the Last Age, not men tioned by other Historians; more particularly Relating to the Kingdoms of England and Scotland, under the Reigns of Queen Elizabeth, Mary Queen of Scots, and King James. In all which Transactions the Author was Personally and Publicly Concerned. This work is esteemed for the simplicity of its style, and as the sole authority for the history of many important events.


JOHN LESLEY, bishop of Ross, was a zealous partisan of Queen Mary, whom he accompanied on her return from France to Scotland in 1561, and in whose behalf he actively exerted himself during her imprisonment in England. Forced by Elizabeth to withdraw to the continent on account of the conspiracies against her in which he en gaged, he was appointed bishop of Constance in 1593, and in that situation employed his wealth and influence in founding three colleges for the in

struction of his countrymen, at Rome, Paris, and Douay. Being now, however, advanced in years, he shortly afterwards resigned the mitre, and retired to a monastery in the Netherlands, where he died in 1596. His chief publications are, a treatise in defence of Queen Mary and her title to the English crown; a Description of Scotland and the Scottish Isles; and a work on the Origin, Manners, and Exploits of the Scotch. All these are in Latin; the last two forming a volume which he published at Rome in 1578. He wrote in the Scottish language a History of Scotland from 1436 to 1561, of which only a Latin translation (contained in the volume just mentioned) was published by himself; the original, however, was printed by the Bannatyne Club in 1830. In 1842 appeared a work entitled Vestiarium Scoticum, the body of which consisted of a catalogue of the tartans peculiar to Scottish families, composed by Bishop Lesley in the Scottish language, and which had long been preserved in manuscript in the college of Douay.

[Character of James V.]

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to be registered in the book of fame, gave up and rendered his spirit into the hands of Almighty God, where I doubt not but he has sure fruition of the joy that is prepared for these as shall sit on the right hand of our Saviour.

[Burning of Edinburgh and Leith by the English in 1544.]

Now will I return to the earnest ambition of King Henry of England, who ceased not to search by all means possible to attain to his desire, and therefore sent a great army by sea into Scotland, with the Earl of Hertford, his lieutenant, and the Viscount Lisle, his admiral, with two hundred great ships, besides boats and crears that carried their victuals, whereof there firth fornent2 Leith the third day of May, and landed was great number; and the whole fleet arrived in the at the New Haven about xx thousand men, with great artillery and all kind of munition, the fourth of May. In the meantime, the Governor being in the town of Edinburgh, hearing of their sudden arrival, departed forth of the town toward Leith, accompanied with the Cardinal, Earls of Huntly, Argyll, Bothwell, and [From Lesley's History of Scotland.'] others, with their own household men only, purposing to stop the landing of the enemy; but frae3 they were [Original Spelling.-Thier wes gryt dule and meane maid for him throw all the partis of his realme, because he was a nobill surely advertised of the great number of their enemies, prince, and travaillet mekill all his dayis for maintening of wherethrough they were not able to withstand their his subjectis in peace, justice, and quietnes. He was a man, &c.] forces, they returned to Edinburgh, and sent Sir Adam Otterburne, provost of the town, and two of the bailies, There was great dole and moan made for him through to the said Earl Hertford, lieutenant, desiring to know all the parts of his realm, because he was a noble for what cause he was come with such an army to prince, and travailed mickle all his days for main-invade, considering there was no war proclaimed betaining of his subjects in peace, justice, and quietness. twixt the two realms; and if there was any injuries He was a man of personage and stature convenient, or wrongs done whereupon the King of England was albeit mighty and strong therewith, of countenance offended, they would appoint commissioners to treat amiable and lovely, specially in his communication; with them thereupon, and to that effect thankfully his eyes gray and sharp of sight, that whomsoever he would receive them within the town of Edinburgh. did once see and mark, he would perfectly know in The said Earl of Hertford answered, that he had no all times thereafter; of wit in all things quick and commission to treat upon any matters, but only to prompt; of a princely stomach and high courage in receive the Queen of Scotland, to be convoyed in Enggreat perils, doubtful affairs, and matters of weighty land to be married with Prince Edward; and if they importance: he had, in a manner, a divine foresight, would deliver her, he would abstain from all pursuit, for in such things as he went about to do, he did them otherwise he would burn and destroy the towns of advisedly and with great deliberation, to the intent Edinburgh, Leith, and all others where he might be that amongst all men his wit and prudence might be master within the realm of Scotland, and desired noted and regarded, and as far excel and pass all therefore the haill men, wives, bairns, and others, others in estate and dignity. Besides this, he was being within the town of Edinburgh, to come forth of sober, moderate, honest, affable, courteous, and so far the same, and present them before him as lieutenant, abhorred pride and arrogance, that he was ever sharp and offer them into the king's will, or else he would and quick to them which were spotted or noted with proceed as he had spoken. To the which the provost, that crime. He was also a good and sure justiciar, by the command of the Governor and council, answered, by the which one thing he allured to him the hearts that they would abide all extremity rather or they fulof all the people, because they lived quietly and in filled his desires; and so the Governor caused furnish rest, out of all oppression and molestation of the nobi- the castle of Edinburgh with all kind of necessary furlity and rich persons; and to this severity of his was niture, and departed to Striveling.6 In the meantime, joined and annexed a certain merciful pity, which he the English army lodged that night in Leith. Upon did ofttimes show to such as had offended, taking the morn, being the fifth of May, they marched forrather compositions of money nor men's lives; which ward toward Edinburgh by the Canongate, and or their was a plain argument that he did use his rigour only entering therein, there came to them six thousand (as he said himself) to bow and abate the high and horsemen of English men from Berwick by land, who wrongous hearts of the people, specially Irishmen joined with them, and passed up the Canongate, of and borderers, and others, nursed and brought up in purpose to enter at the Nether Bow; where some reseditious factions and civil rebellions; and not for sistance was made unto them by certain Scottish greedy desire of riches or hunger of money, although men, and divers of the English men were slain, and such as were afflicted would cry out; and surely this some also of the Scottish side, and so held them that good and modest prince did not devour and consume day occupied skirmishing, till the night came, which the riches of his country; for he by his high policy mar- compelled them to return unto their camp. And on vellously riched his realm and himself, both with gold the next day, being the sixth of May, the great army and silver, all kind of rich substance, whereof he came forward with the haill ordinances,7 and assailed left great store and quantity in all his palaces at his the town, which they found void of all resistance, departing And so this king, living all his time in saving the ports of the town were closed, which they the favour of fortune, in high honour, riches, and glory, and, for his noble acts and prudent policies, worthy 1 To enforce a marriage between his son and the infant Queen Mary of Scotland. *Edited by John Sobieski Stuart. 4to. Tait: Edinburgh. 2 Opposite. 3 When, from the time when. 4 Whole. 1 Criminal judge. 2 Than. 3 Ersemen, or Highlanders. 5 Ere. • Stirling. 7 Whole ordnance.


broke up with great artillery, and entered thereat, carrying carted ordinances before them till they came in sight of the castle, where they placed them, purposing to siege the castle. But the laird of Stanehouse, captain thereof, caused shoot at them in so great abundance, and with so good measure, that they slew a great number of English men, amongst whom there was some principal captains and gentlemen; and one of the greatest pieces of the English ordinances was broken; wherethrough they were constrained to raise the siege shortly and retire them.

The same day the English men set fire in divers places of the town, but was not suffered to maintain it, through continual shooting of ordinance forth of the castle, wherewith they were so sore troubled, that they were constrained to return to their camp at Leith. But the next day they returned again, and did that they could to consume all the town with fires. So likewise they continued some days after, so that the most part of the town was burnt in cruel manner; during the which time their horsemen did great hurt in the country, spoiling and burning sundry places thereabout, and in special all the castle and place of Craigmillar, where the most part of the whole riches of Edinburgh was put by the merchants of the town in keeping, which not without fraud of the keepers, as was reported, was betrayed to the English men for a part of the booty and spoil thereof.

When the English men of war was thus occupied in burning and spoiling, the Governor sent and relieved the Earl of Angus, Lord Maxwell, master of Glencairn, and Sir George Douglas, forth of ward, and put them to liberty; and made such speedy preparation as he could to set forward an army for expelling the English men forth of the realm; who hearing thereof, upon the xiiij day of May, they broke down the pier of Leith haven, burned and destroyed the same; and shipping their great artillery, they sent their ships away homeward, laden with the spoil of Edinburgh and Leith, taking with them certain Scottish ships which was in the haven, amongst the which the ships called Salamander and the Unicorn were carried in England. Upon the xv day of May their army and their fleet departed from Leith at one time, the town of Leith being set in fire the same morning; and their said army that night lodged at Seaton, the next night beside Dunbar, the third night at Renton in the Merse, and the 18 day of May they entered in Berwick. In all this time, the borderers and certain others Scottish men, albeit they were not of sufficient number to give battle, yet they held them busy with daily skirmishing, that sundry of their men and horse were taken, and therefore none of them durst in any wise stir from the great army in all their passage from Edinburgh to Berwick.*

* As some of our readers may be pleased to see Bishop Lesley's Latin version of this atrocious narrative, we here transcribe the greater part of it from his volume printed at Rome in 1578. It will be observed that the style is much more concise than in the original :

'Anglorum copiæ Leythi pernoctant. Postero autem die Edinburgum versus per vicum qui à canonicis nomen habet progredientes, sex millibus equitum, qui terrestri itinere Bervico venerant, se conjungunt. Ad inferiorem urbis portam Angli tota die levibus præliis à Scotis lacessiti sistere coguntur. Repulsi, nocte appetente, se in castra recipiunt; sequenti die ad oppidum jam desertum ab omnibus oppugnandum universi prodeunt. Portis igitur, quæ clausæ erant, diruptis, in urbem irruunt, ac tormentis, quâ ex arce prospici potest, dispositis, obsidionem parant. Interea D. Stanhousius arcis præfectus magna vi tormenta bellica displodens, rupta ingenti hostium machina, Anglos circiter quingentos transverberat. Quam ob rem soluta obsidione, Angli eadem die in varias oppidi partes ignes injecerunt. Verum illud incendium latius spargere non poterant; quod propter assiduam castri ejaculationem ita fuerant disturbati, ut coacti pedem in castra retulerint. Postero tamen die oppidum summa hostium diligentia inflammatum

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Archbishop Spotiswood.

popular commotions had obliged him to retire. He wrote, at the command of James, a History of the the king, on expressing his wish for the composition Church of Scotland, from A.D. 203 to 1625. When of that work, was told that some passages in it might possibly bear too hard upon the memory of his mother, he desired Spotiswood to write and spare not;' and yet, says Bishop Nicolson, the historian ventured not so far with a commission as Buchanan did with out one. The history was published in London 1655, and is considered to be, on the whole, a faithful and impartial narrative.

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[Destruction of Religious Edifices in 1559.] from Geneva into Scotland, and, joining with the conWhilst these things passed, John Knox returned gregation, did preach to them at Perth. In his ser mon, he took ocasion to speak against the adoration of images, showed that the same tended to God's dis honour, and that such idols and monuments of super

per quatuor dies miserabili incendio conflagravit. Foris ab equite, aliisque militibus tam Anglis quam Scotis, tanquam furiis omnia vastata et diruta fuerunt. Gubernator hoc tem pore Comitem Angusium, D. Maxuellum, ac Georgium Dour lasium educi ex custodiis jubet; exercitum quam accuratissime cogit, ut Anglos regno ejiciat. Quod cum illi cognovissent, pridie Id. Maii castra movent; aggerem portus Leythi diruunt, et alios in adverso littore portus, oppidaque incendio consumunt, ac naves spoliis onustas in Angliam traducunt. Quasdam etiam Scoticas naves, inter quas duæ præcipuæ et insignes erant, Salamander et Unicornis dictæ, secum auferunt. Id. Mail solvunt. Exercitus, qui terra ducebatur, prima nocte, Setcal castra locat, secunda Dumbarri: tertia Rentoni in Merchia; quarta ad xv Kal. Junii Bervicum pervenit. Scoti hostes insequi, infestare, aliquos etiam capere, illos denique ita agitare, ut toto itineris hujus spatio vix quisquam segregare se à toto agmine auderet.'

*Nicolson's Scottish Historical Library, 1736, p. 68,


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