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seven are the eyes of Jehovah which run to and fro through the whole earth.' Rev. v. 6. " which are the seven Spirits of God sent forth into all the earth." See also i. 4. and iv. 5.

It appears also probable that there are certain angels appointed to preside over nations, kingdoms, and particular districts. Dan. iv. 13, 17. "this matter is by the decree of the watchers." xii. 1. "Michael .... the great prince which standeth for the children of thy people." x. 13. "I remained there with the kings of Persia." 2 Pet. ii. 11. "whereas angels, which are greater in power and might, bring not railing accusation against them before the Lord.' Gen. iii. 24. "to keep the way of the tree of life.”

They are sometimes sent from heaven as messengers of the divine vengeance, to punish the sins of men. They destroy cities and nations. Gen. xix. 13. 2 Sam. xxiv. 16. 1 Chron. xxi. 16. “David saw the angel of Jehovah.... having a drawn sword in his hand stretched out over Jerusalem.' They lay waste whole armies with unexpected destruction. 2 Kings xix. 35. Compare also other passages to the same effect. Hence they are frequently represented as making their appearance in the shape of an armed host. Gen. xxxii. 1, 2. "this is God's host." Josh. v. 15. "the captain of the host of Jehovah." 2 Kings vi. 17. "the mountain was full of horses and chariots of fire." Psal. Ixviii. 17. "the chariots of God are twenty thousand." Luke ii. 13 " a multitude of the heavenly host."

Angels are also described Isai. vi. Hos. i. 7. Matt. xxviii. 2, 3. Rev. x. 1.

There appears to be one who presides over the rest of the good angels, to whom the name of Michael is often given." Josh. vi. 14. " as captain of the host of Jehovah am I come.' Dan xi. 11. " Michael one of the chief princes, came to help me.". xii. 1. "Michael shall stand up, the great prince." Rev. xii. 7, 8. "Michael and his angels fought against the dragon." It is generally thought that Michael is Christ. But Christ vanquished the devil, and trampled him under foot singly;

Bear his swift errands over moist and dry,
O'er sea and land.

Paradise Lost, III. 648.


7 Go, Michael, of celestial armies prince. VI. 44. This opinion is maintained by Horsley, with his usual clearness of reasoning, in his sermon on Dan. iv. 17.

Michael, the leader of the angels, is introduced in the capacity of a hostile commander waging war with the prince of the devils, the armies on both sides being drawn out in battle array, and separating after a doubtful conflict. Rev. xii. 7, 8. Jude also says of the same angel, "when contending with the devil he disputed about the body of Moses, he durst not bring against him a railing accusation,"-which would be an improper expression to use with reference to Christ, especially if he be God. 1 Thess. iv. 16. " the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with the voice of the archangel." Besides, it seems strange that an apostle of Christ, in revealing things till then so new and unheard-of concerning his master, should express himself thus obscurely, and should even shadow the person of Christ under a difference of name.


The good angels do not look into all the secret things of God, as the Papists pretend; some things indeed they know by revelation, and others by means of the excellent intelligence with which they are gifted; there is much, however, of which they are ignorant. An angel is introduced inquiring Dan. viii. 13. “how long shall be the vision?" xii. 6. 'how long shall it be to the end of these wonders?" Matt. xxiv. 36." of that day knoweth no man, no not even the angels in heaven." Eph. iii. 10. "to the intent that now unto the principalities and powers in heavenly places might be known by the church the manifold wisdom of God." Rev. v. 3. " no man in heaven was able to open the book."

The evil angels are reserved for punishment. Matt. viii. 29. "art thou come hither to torment us before the time?" 2 Pet. ii. 4. "God cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment." Jude 6. " he hath reserved them in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day." 1 Cor. vi. 3. "know ye not that we shall judge angels?" Matt. xxv. 41. “everLasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels." Rev. xx. they shall be tormented for ever and ever.'




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9 So in the description of the first fight in Paradise Lost, which is borrowed from the prophecy in the Apocalypse quoted above, long time in even, scale the battle hung,' till at last Michael, 'the prince of angels,' engages in single combat with the Adversary.

from each hand with speed retir'd,


Where erst was thickest fight, th' angelic throng,
And left large field. VI. 307.

They are sometimes, however, permitted to wander throughout the whole earth, the air, and heaven itself, to execute the judgments of God. Job i. 7. "from going to and fro in the earth." 1 Sam. xvi. 15. "the Spirit of Jehovah departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from Jehovah troubled him." 1 Pet. v. 8. "the devil as a roaring lion, walketh about." John xii. 31. “the prince of this world." 2 Cor. iv. 4. "the god of this world.' Matt. xii. 43. " he walketh through dry places." Eph. ii. 2. "according to the prince of the power of the air." vi. 12. "against spiritual wickedness in high places." They are even admitted into the presence of God. Job i. 6. ii. 1. 1 Kings xxii. 21. "there came forth a spirit, and stood before Jehovah." Zech. iii. 1. "he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of Jehovah, and Satan standing at his right hand to resist him." Luke x. 18. "I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven." Rev. xii. 12. " woe to the inhabitants of the earth, for the devil is come down unto you." Their proper place, however, is the bottomless pit, from which they cannot escape without permission." Luke viii. 31. "they besought him that he would not command them to go out into the deep." Matt. xii. 43. "he walketh through dry places, seeking rest, and findeth none." Mark v.


'he besought him much that he would not send them away out of the country." Rev. xx. 3. " and cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up." Nor can they do anything without the command of God. Job i. 12. "Jehovah said unto Satan,


... do him mightier service as his thralls
By right of war, whate'er his business be,

Here in the heart of heil to work in fire,

Or do his errands in the gloomy deep. Paradise Lost, I. 148.
the spirits perverse
With easy intercourse pass to and fro
To tempt or punish mortals.

II. 1031.

2 So stretched out huge in length the Arch-Fiend lay,
Chain'd on the burning lake, nor ever thence
Had ris'n or heav'd his head, but that the will
And high permission of all-ruling heav'n
Left him at large to his own dark designs.

1. 209.

Milton may have borrowed in both instances from Du Bartas, who lays stress on this particular.

God holds them chain'd in fetters of his power;

That without leave, one minute of an hour
They cannot range.-P. 7.

Behold, all that he hath is in thy power." Matt. viii. 31. "suffer us to go away into the herd of swine." Rev. xx. 2. "he laid hold on the dragon.... and bound him a thousand years."

Their knowledge is great, but such as tends rather to aggravate than diminish their misery; so that they utterly despair of their salvation.3 Matt. viii. 29. "what have we to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of God? art thou come hither to torment us before the time?" See also Luke iv. 34. James ii. 19. "the devils believe and tremble," knowing that they are reserved for punishment, as has been shewn.


The devils also have their prince. Matt. xii. 24. "Beelzebub, the prince of the devils." See also Luke xi. 15. Matt. xxv. 41. "the devil and his angels." Rev. xii. 9. "the great dragon was cast out.... and his angels." They retain likewise their respective ranks. Col. ii. 15. "having spoiled principalities and powers." Eph. vi. 12. "against principalities, against powers." Their leader is the author of all wickedness, and the opponent of all good. Job i. and ii. Zech. iii. 1. "Satan." John viii. 44. "the father of lies." 1 Thess. ii. 18. "Satan hindered us." Acts v. 3. "Satan hath filled thine heart." Rev. xx. 3. 8. "that he should deceive the nations no more." Eph. ii. 2. "the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience." Hence he has obtained many names corresponding to his actions. He is frequently called "Satan," that is, an enemy or adversary," Job 1. 6. 1 Chron. xxi. 1. "the great dragon, that old serpent, the devil,”


.his doom

Reserv'd him to more wrath; for now the thought
Both of lost happiness and lasting pain
Torments him-.

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Paradise Lost. I. 52.

We are decreed,

Reserv'd, and destin'd to eternal woe;
Whatever doing, what can we suffer more,
What can we suffer worse?

Me miserable! which way shall I fly
Infinite wrath, and infinite despair?

4 The Stygian council thus dissolv'd, and forth
In order came the grand infernal peers;

Midst came their mighty Paramount-:

To whom th' Arch-Enemy,
And thence in heav'n called Satan-.

I. 66.

II. 159.

IV. 73.

II. 506.

I 81.

that is, the false accuser, Rev. xii. 9. "the accuser of the brethren," v. 10. " the unclean spirit," Matt xii. 43. "the tempter," iv. 3. "Abaddon, Apollyon," that is, the destroyer," Rev. ix. 11. "a great red dragon," xii. 3.


THE Providence of God as regards mankind, relates to man either in his state of rectitude, or since his fall,

With regard to that which relates to man in his state of rectitude, God, having placed him in the garden of Eden, and furnished him with whatever was calculated to make life happy, commanded him, as a test of his obedience, to refrain from eating of the single tree of knowledge of good and evil, under penalty of death if he should disregard the injunction. Gen. i. 28. " subdue the earth, and have dominion-.” ii. 15-17. "he put him into the garden of Eden.... of every tree in the garden thou mayest freely eat; but in the day that thou eatest of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt surely die."

This is sometimes called "the covenant of works," though the Adversary of God and man,


High proof ye now have giv'n to be the race
Of Satan (for I glory in the name,

Antagonist of heaven's Almighty King). X. 385, See also VI. 281. 6 The tempter ere th' accuser of mankind.

IV. 10.


who bids abstain

But our Destroyer, foe to God and man?

Paradise Lost, II, 629,

well thou know'st

God hath pronounc'd it death to taste that tree,
The only sign of our obedience left,

lest the like befall In Paradise to Adam or his race

Charg'd not to touch the interdicted tree,

If they transgress, and slight that sole command,
So easily obey'd amid the choice

Of all tastes else to please their appetite,

Though wand'ring.

IV. 749,

IV. 426.

VII. 44.


So Bishop Taylor. I find in Scripture no mention made of any such covenant as is dreamt of about the matter of original sin; only the

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