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FOR ALL MANKIND. Rom. v. 18. "the free gift came upon all men." 2 Cor. v. 14. "if one died for all, then were all dead." If this deduction be true, then the converse is also true, namely, that if all were dead, because Christ died for all, Christ died for all who were dead; that is, for all mankind. Eph. i. 10. "that he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth;" all things therefore on earth, without a single exception, as well as in heaven. Col. i. 20. "by him to reconcile all things." 1 Tim. ii. 4. " who will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge of the truth." Compare also v. 6. Heb. ii. 9. "for every man.' "See also Pet. iii. 9. Further, Christ is said in many places to have been given for the whole world. John iii. 16, 17. "God so loved the world, that he gave his only-begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life." vi. 51. "the bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world." See 1 John iv. 14. They however who maintain that Christ made satisfaction for the elect alone, reply, that these passages are to be understood only of the elect who are in the world; and that this is confirmed by its being said elsewhere that Christ made satisfaction for us, that is, as they interpret it, for the elect. Rom. viii. 34. 2 Cor. v. 21. Tit. ii. 14. That the elect, however, cannot be alone intended, will be obvious to any one who examines these texts with attention, if in the first passage from St. John (for instance) the term elect be subjoined by way of explanation to that of the world. So God loved the world (that is, the elect) that whosoever (of the elect) believeth in him should not perish. This would be absurd; for which of the elect does not believe? It is obvious therefore that God here divides the world into believers demption in a vague uncertain sense, but imperfectly represents his system; so imperfectly, that it may as well be called the Socinian; the price paid (which implies a proper redemption) is wanting. But to pay a price implying a voluntary act, the poet therefore well expresses it by giving to death, that is giving himself to death; so that the sense of the line fully expresses Milton's notion; heavenly love gave a price for the redemption of mankind, and by virtue of that price really redeemed them.'
2 See the texts and arguments on which this doctrine is supported in Whitby's Second Discourse on the Five Points, entitled, the Extent of Christ's Redemption, and in Barrow's four sermons on the doctrine of universal redemption. 3 So Beza in loc.
and unbelievers; and that in declaring, on the one hand, that whosoever believeth in him shall not perish, he implies on the other, as a necessary consequence, that whosoever believeth not, shall perish. Besides, where the world is not used to signify all mankind, it is most commonly put for the worst characters in it. John xiv. 17. 66 even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive;" xv. 19. "the world hateth you;" and so in many other places. Again, where Christ is said to be given for us, it is expressly declared that the rest of the world is not excluded. 1 John ii. 2. "not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world;" words the most comprehensive that could possibly have been used. The same explanation applies to the texts in which Christ is said to lay down his life for his sheep, John x. 16. or for the church, Acts xx. 28. Eph. v. 23, 25. Besides, if, as has been proved above, a sufficiency of grace be imparted to all, it necessarily follows that a full and efficacious satisfaction must have been made for all by Christ, so far at least as depended on the counsel and will of God; inasmuch as without such satisfaction not the least portion of grace could possibly have been vouchsafed. The passages in which Christ is said to have given a ransom for many, as Matt. xx. 28 and Heb. ix. 28. to bear the sins of many, &c., afford no argument against the belief that he has given a ransom for all; for all are emphatically many. If however it should be argued, that because Christ gave his life for many, therefore he did not give it for all, many other texts expressly negative this interpretation, and especially Rom. v. 19. "as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous;" for no one will deny that many here signifies all. Or even if the expression for all should be explained to mean for some, or, in their own words, for classes of individuals, not for individuals in every class, nothing is gained by this interpretation; not to mention the departure from the usual signification of the word for the sake of a peculiar hypothesis. For the testimony of the sacred writings
4' De generibus singulorum, et non de singulis generum,' by which words, as Edwards asserts, St. Austin would explain the text, God would have all men to be saved. But Whitby has clearly shown that St. Austin, who certainly held the doctrine of universal redemption, could only mean that this passage was not a just proof of it, as all the Greek Scholiasts did. On the Five Points; Postscript, p. 550,
is not less strong to Christ's having made satisfaction for each individual in every class (as appears from the frequent assertions that he died for all, and for the whole world, and that he is not willing that any should perish, 2 Pet. iii. 9.) than the single text Rev. v. 9. is to his having died for classes of individuals: "thou hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation." It will be proved, however, that Christ has made satisfaction not for the elect alone, but also for the reprobate, as they are called. Matt. xviii. 11. "the Son of Man is come to save that which was lost." Now all were lost; he therefore came to save all, the reprobate as well as those who are called elect. John iii. 17. "God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world (which doctrine, nevertheless, must be maintained by those who assert that Christ was sent for the elect only, to the heavier condemnation of the reprobate) but that the world through him might be saved;" that is, the reprobate; for it would be superfluous to make such a declaration with regard to the elect. See also John xii. 47. vi. 32. "my Father giveth you the true bread from heaven; you," that is, even though ye "believe not," v.36. "hegiveth," that is, he offers in good faith: "for the bread of God.... giveth life unto the world," that is, to all men, inasmuch as he gives it even to you who believe not, provided that you on your part do not reject it. Acts xvii. 30, 31. "now he commandeth all men every where to repent; because he hath appointed a day in the which he will judge the world in righteousness." Those whom he will judge, he undoubtedly calls to repentance: but he will judge all the world individually; therefore he calls all the world individually to repentance. But this gracious call could have been vouchsafed to none, had not Christ interfered to make such a satisfaction as should be not merely sufficient in itself, but effectual, so far as the divine will was concerned, for the salvation of all mankind; unless we are to suppose that the call is not made in earnest. Now the call to repentance and the gift of grace are from the Deity; their acceptance is the result of faith: if therefore the efficacy of Christ's satisfaction be lost through want of faith, this does not prove that an effectual satisfaction has not been made, but that the offer has not been accepted. Heb. x. 29. "who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the
covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the spirit of grace." 2 Pet. ii. 1.
even denying the Lord that bought them, and bringing upon themselves swift destruction." Forasmuch then as all mankind are divided into elect and reprobate, in behalf of both of whom Christ has made satisfaction, he has made satisfaction for all. So far indeed is this satisfaction from regarding the elect alone, as is commonly believed, to the exclusion of sinners in general, that the very contrary is the case; it regards all sinners whatever, and it regards them expressly as sinners; whereas it only regards the elect in so far as they were previously sinners. Rom. iii. 25. "to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God." 1 Tim. i. 15. "this is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus into the world to save sinners, of whom I am chief." But it is objected, Christ does not pray for the world, John xvii. 9.5 This is true of that particular prayer, which was dedicated chiefly to the benefit of his disciples; but on the cross he prayed even for his murderers, Luke xxiii. 34. Father, forgive them." He exhorts us likewise by the mouth of the apostle, 1 Tim. ii. 1, &c. "that supplications be made for all men ;" and for this especial reason: "for this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour, who will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge of the truth." They also object Tit. ii. 14. "who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works :" a peculiar people, not therefore the whole of mankind. I reply, that redemption is not purification; Christ has redeemed all transgressors, but he purifies only such as are zealous of good works, that is, believers; for no works are good, unless done in faith. All are redeemed, even those who know not of it, or who are yet enemies and sinners, Rom. v. 6—8, 10, but none are purified, except their wills be consenting, and they have faith; as Scripture everywhere testifies. Ezek. xii. 2. "they have ears to hear, and hear not, for they are a rebellious house." Matt. xxiii. 37. "how often would I have gathered thy children together.. and ye would not." Luke vii. 30. "the Pharisees rejected the counsel of God against themselves." 5 So Calvin. Institut. III. cap. 22. 7.
John v. 34, 40. "these things I say, that ye might be saved..
purifying their hearts by faith." Rom. iii. 22. "by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe; for there is no difference; for all have sinned-: through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus: whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood." Gal. iii. 22. "the Scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe.' THE COMPLETE REPARATION MADE BY CHRIST. Heb. x. 14. "by one offering he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified." 1 John i. 7. "the blood of Jesus Christ cleanseth us from all sin." Tit. ii. 14. "that he might redeem us from all iniquity." Heb. i. 3. "when he had by himself purged our sins." vii. 22. "by so much was Jesus made a surety of a better testament." ix. 14. "how much more shall the blood of Christ.... purge your conscience." He made full satisfaction, because such was the will of his Father, who said "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased;" implying that he had himself sanctified and sealed him to his office.
That the satisfaction made by Christ was the effect and end proposed by the whole of his ministry, appears from the following passages.
First, of his humiliation. Isai. lii. 4-11. "by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities." Rom. iii. 25. "to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness." v. 9. "being now justified by his blood." 2 Cor. v. 21. "he hath made him to be sin for us who knew no sin, that we might be made the righteousness of God in him." Eph. v. 2. "Christ hath given himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling savour." 1 Pet. ii. 24. "who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree, that we being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness."
Secondly, of his exaltation. Rom. v. 10. "much more, being] reconciled, we shall be saved by his life." viii. 34. "who is he that condemneth? it is Christ that died, yea rather that is