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risen again, who is even at the right hand of God, who maketh intercession for us.' 1 Cor. xv. 17 "if Christ be not raised ye are yet in your sins." Heb. ix. 24. "Christ is entered.... into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us." 1 Pet. iii. 21. "the answer of a good conscience towards God, by the resurrection of Jesus Christ." John ii. 1. "we have an advocate with the Father."
The effect of Christ's satisfaction is sufficient to produce the reconciliation of God the Father with man. John vi. 37, 39. "all that the Father giveth me shall come to me." Rom. v. 10, 11, "when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son." 2 Cor. ii. 16. "to the other the savour of life unto life." v. 19. "God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them." Eph. i. 6. "to the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved."
The second object of the ministry of the Mediator is, THAT WE MAY BE CONFORMED TO THE IMAGE OF CHRIST, AS WELL IN HIS STATE OF HUMILIATION AS OF EXALTATION. Rom. viii. 29. "to be conformed to the image of his Son."
IN HIS STATE OF HUMILIATION. Rom. vi. 4. "therefore we are buried with him." v. 5. "for if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death-." v. 8. "if we be dead with Christ-.” v. 11. "reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God-." viii. 17. "if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together." Gal. ii. 20. "I am crucified with Christ.... but Christ liveth in me.' 2 Tim. ii. 11, 12. "if we be dead with him, we shall also live with him." Philipp. iii. 10. " that I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, being made conformable unto his death." Col. i. 24. "who now rejoice in my sufferings for and fill you, up that which is behind of the afflictions of Christ in my flesh for his body's sake, which is the church." 1 Pet. iv. 13. "rejoice, inasmuch as ye are partakers of Christ's sufferings, that when his glory shall be revealed, ye may be glad also.'
IN HIS STATE OF EXALTATION.
Matt. xxvii. 52, 53. "the graves were opened." John xii. 32. "I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me.' xiv. 2-4. 66 I go to prepare a place for you.... and I will receive you unto myself." xvi. 7. "it is expedient for you that I go away-.'
xvi. 22. ""the glory that thou gavest me, I have given them." Rom. iv. 25. "who was raised again for our justification." vi. 4. 5. "like as Christ was raised up from the dead--." 1 Cor. xv. 13. "if there be no resurrection from the dead, then is Christ not risen." v. 20. "the first-fruits of them that slept." Eph. ii. 5, 6. "God hath quickened us together with Christ.... and hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus." Philipp. iii. 21. "who shall change our vile body-." Col. i. 18. "the firstborn from the dead." iii. 1, 2, &c. "if ye then be risen with Christ-.' 1 Thess. iv. 14. " even so them also which sleep in Jesus will God bring with him." Heb. x. 19, 20. "having boldness to enter into the holiest-," 1 Pet. i. 3, 4. "which hath begotten us again by a lively hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead."
So far, therefore, as regards the satisfaction of Christ, and our conformity to his humiliation, the restoration of man is of merit; in which sense those texts are to be understood which convey a notion of recompense and reward. Matt. v. 12. “rejoice and be exceeding glad, for great is your reward in heaven." Rom. ii. 6, 7. "who will render to every man according to his deeds; to them who by patient continuance in well doing seek for glory and honour and immortality, eternal life.' 2 Cor. iv. 17. "for our light affliction, which is but for a moment, worketh for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory." Philipp. iii. 14. "I press toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Jesus Christ." 2 Thess. i. 5-7. "which is a manifest token of the righteous judgment of God, that ye may be counted worthy of the kingdom of God, for which ye also suffer; seeing it is a righteous thing with God to recompense tribulation to them that trouble you, and to you who are troubled, rest with us.” 2 Tim. iv. 8. "there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, shall give me at that day, and not to me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing." Heb. vi. 10. "for God is not unrighteous to forget your work and labour of love." 1 John i. 9. "if we confess our sins, he is faithful and just." Rev. iii. 4. "they shall walk with me in white; for they are worthy." Nor need we fear, lest in maintaining this belief we should lend any support to the doctrine of human merits. For our conformity to the image of Christ is as farfrom adding anything to the full and perfect satisfaction made
by him, as our works are from adding to faith; it is faith that justifies, but a faith not destitute of works: and in like manner, if we deserve anything, if there be any worthiness in us on any ground whatever, it is God that hath made us worthy in Christ. Col. i. 12. "giving thanks unto the Father, which hath made us meet to be partakers of the inheritance." 2 Thess. i. 11. "we pray always for you that our God would count you worthy of his calling." See more on this subject in chap xxii. on Justification.
On the other hand, so far as regards the election of Christ to the office of Mediator by God the Father, and our own election to life by the same Father, the restoration of man is purely of grace; whence the Father is so often said in the gospel to have given those that are the Son's to the Son, and the Son to those that are the Son's.
The fable of a purgatory, in which, as the Papists feign, the sins of men are cleansed and purged away by fire, is refuted by many considerations, but above all by that of the full satisfaction of Christ. For (besides that there is no mention of any such place in Scripture) if it be true that the blood of Christ has made complete expiation for us, and purified us thoroughly from all stains, it follows that there is nothing left for the fire to purge. To those who understand the fire mentioned in 1 Cor. iii. 13, 15, of a real fire, I reply, that the apostle is not here speaking of the flames of purgatory, but of a metaphorical fire, appointed to try, not mankind in general, but the false teachers, whose doctrine the day, that is, the light of truth, shall declare, whether it was on the one hand disguised and impaired by false ornaments, or whether, on the other hand, it remained neglected and without cultivation. Like the fiery trial mentioned 1 Pet. iv. 12. it proves us in this world, not purges us in the next. Besides, all retribution, all endurance of good or evil subsequent to this life, is deferred till the day when Christ shall sit in judgment, 2 Cor. v. 10. "that every man may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad." And if it be true, as shown in a preceding chapter, that the soul as well as the body sleeps till the day of resurrection, no stronger argument can be urged against the existence of a purgatory. Lastly, it is certain that to those who are to be saved there is nothing intervening, except death, between the earthly house of this life, and the house eternal
in the heavens, 2 Col. v. 1. 2 Tim. iv. 8. "there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, shall give me at that day."
CHAP. XVII.-OF MAN'S RENOVATION, INCLUDING HIS
HAVING concluded the subject of man's REDEMPTION, his RENOVATION is next to be considered.
THE RENOVATION OF MAN is that change whereby HE WHO
WAS BEFORE UNDER THE CURSE, AND OBNOXIOUS TO THE
DIVINE WRATH, IS BROUGHT INTO A STATE OF GRACE. Eph. ii. 3, 5, &c. "we were by nature the children of wrath.... by grace ye are saved." i. 3, 5. "who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ." Col. iii. 10. "and have put on the new man, which is renewed in knowledge after the image of him that created him." Eph. iv. 23, 24. "that ye be renewed in the spirit of your mind, and that ye put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness." 2 Cor. iv. 16. "the inward man is renewed day by day." Tit. iii. 5. "by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost." Rom. xii. 2. "by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good and acceptable and perfect will of God." Heb. vi. 4, 6. "for it is impossible for those who were once enlightened. if they shall fall away, to renew them again to repentance."
In renovation two things are to be considered; the mode by which man is renewed, and the manifestation of that mode.
The mode by which man is renewed, is either NATURAL or
By the natural mode, I mean that which influences the natural affections alone. This includes the calling of the natural man, and the consequent change in his character.
THE CALLING OF MAN is that natural mode of renovation whereby GOD THE FATHER, ACCORDING TO HIS PURPOSE IN CHRIST, INVITES FALLEN MAN TO A KNOWLEDGE OF THE WAY IN WHICH HE IS TO BE PROPITIATED AND WORSHIPPED; INSOMUCH THAT BELIEVERS, THROUGH HIS GRATUITOUS
KINDNESS, ARE CALLED TO SALVATION, AND SUCH AS REFUSE TO BELIEVE ARE LEFT WITHOUT EXCUSE.
WHEREBY GOD THE FATHER. Acts ii. 39. "to as many as the Lord our God shall call." 1 Cor. i. 9. "by whom ye were called unto the fellowship of his Son." 2 Cor. v. 20. as though God did beseech you by us." John vi. 37. "all that the Father giveth me. v. 44. "except the Father
2 Thess. ii. 13. 14. "the
which hath sent me draw him." Spirit.... whereunto he called you.' 1 Pet. v. 10. "the God of all grace, who hath called us.' 2 Pet. i. 3. "through the knowledge of him that hath called
ACCORDING TO HIS PURPOSE. Rom. viii. 28-30. "the called according to his purpose." 2 Tim. i. 9. "who hath called us with a holy calling.... according to his own purpose and grace."
IN CHRIST. Gen. iii. 16. "it shall bruise thy head." xxii. 18. "in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed." 1 Cor. i. 9. "unto the fellowship of his Son." Gal. i. 6. "into the grace of Christ." 1 Pet. v. 10. "who hath called us by Christ Jesus."
TO A KNOWLEDGE OF THE WAY IN WHICH HE IS TO BE PROPITIATED AND WORSHIPPED. Gen. xvii. 1. "walk before me and be thou perfect."
THROUGH HIS GRATUITOUS KINDNESS. Isai. lv. 1., &c. come buy wine and milk without money and without price." lxv. 1. "I am sought of them that asked not for me; I am found of them that sought me not; I said, Behold me, behold me, unto a nation that was not called by my name."
BELIEVERS ARE CALLED TO SALVATION.
1 Tim. vi. 12. 'lay hold on eternal life." 1 Thess. ii. 12. "who hath called you to his kingdom and glory." See also 2 Thess. ii. 14. 1 Pet. ii. 9. "out of darkness into his marvellous light." v. 10. "who hath called us unto his eternal glory."
SUCH AS REFUSE TO BELIEVE ARE LEFT WITHOUT EXCUSE. Prov. i. 24. "because I have called, and ye refused.... I also will laugh at your calamity." John xv. 22. "if I had not come and spoken unto them, they had not had sin; but now they have no cloke for their sin." Rom i. 18-20. " who hold the truth in unrighteousness: because that which may be known of God is manifest in them.... for the invisible