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a Traveller (1854). This agreeable writer is a younger brother of the Scottish historian already named.

DAVID LIVINGSTONE, born about 1817, at Blantyre in Lanarkshire, has travelled much in Africa as a missionary. His work, Missionary Travels in South Africa, a valuable repertory of facts concerning that region, was published in 1857. The basin of the Zambezi has been the chief scene of his explorings, and his chief discoveries have been the Victoria Falls and Lake Nyassa. In 1864 he published an account of his second expedition. He returned to Africa in 1866, and died there in 1873. His Last Journals have been published since his death.

AUSTEN HENRY LAYARD, born in 1817 in Paris, is distinguished as the author of two works, Nineveh and its Remains (1848); and Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon (1853), describing his successful excavations, especially at the former place. Sculptured bulls and lions, with wings and human heads, stand, amid many other similar works of ancient art, in the hall of the British Museum, as trophies of Mr. Layard's toil. For a time he took a prominent part in politics as member for Aylesbury, and under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs. He has lately returned to political life.

RICHARD FORD (1796-1858) wrote Murray's Hand-Book for Spain, and also a work entitled Gatherings from Spain (1846), which together form the best authority we have on the modern condition of that romantic land.

GEORGE BORROW, born near Norwich about 1800, when travelling in Spain as the agent of the Bible Society, gathered materials for a work descriptive of his personal adventures which he called The Bible in Spain (1844). Few books possess more vivid interest. Gipsy life has an especial attraction for his pen. His other works are Zincali, or the Gipsies in Spain, published before his chief book; Lavengro, or the Scholar, the Gipsy, and the Priest ; and a sequel to this, called The Romany Rye.

ALEXANDER WILLIAM KINGLAKE, born in 1811 at Taunton, having passed through Trinity College, Cambridge, studied law at Lincoln's Inn. His book, Eöthen, descriptive of his travels in



the East, which was published in 1850, is remarkable for its thought and eloquence. Mr. Kinglake is the author of a History of the Crimean War, courageous and brilliant, but in the later volumes too minute in detail.

SIR JAMES EMERSON TENNENT, born in 1804 at Belfast, is a merchant's son. Elected member for his native town in 1832, he devoted himself to political life, making literature his recreation. His books on Modern Greece, Belgium, and Wine are well known; but his great work is Ceylon, for which he collected materials during his five years' residence in the island as Secretary to the Colonial Government. He was one of the joint Secretaries to the Board of Trade from 1852 till his death, in 1869.

JOHN HANNING SPEKE, a captain in the Indian army, explored (1857–62) the basin of the Upper Nile, having started from Zanzibar. He fixed the true position of the Mountains of the Moon, and in 1858 discovered the vast lake Victoria Nyanza. A brother officer named Grant accompanied him on his travels, and aided him in the preparation of his Journal. Speke was killed near Box in Wiltshire, in 1864, by the accidental discharge of his own gun.

He was then only thirty-seven years of age. SIR SAMUEL WHITE BAKER, born in 1821 in Worcestershire, undertook the exploration of the Nile by ascending its current. His brave wife accompanied him. In 1864 he discovered a very large lake, to which he gave the name Albert Nyanza. Baker tells the story of his explorations with much more graphic power and elegance than either Speke or Livingstone has displayed.

Supplementary List. To the list of travellers in Spain, headed by Ford and Borrow, the name of HENRY DAVID INGLIS (1795–1835), son of a Scottish advocate, who wrote under the name of Derwent Conway, deserves to be added. Mr. Inglis also published travels in Northern Europe, France, and Ireland.

Sir John BOWRING (born in 1792 at Exeter), otherwise famous as a translator, has written an account of Siam. Eliot WARBURTON (1810–1852), an English barrister who was burned in the Amazon, has left, besides some novels and memoirs, an eloquent book of Eastern travel, The Crescent and the Cross (1846). China bas been “ done" and described by John FRANCIS DAVIS, Chief Superin




tendent there, and WINGROVE COOKE, Special Correspondent of the Times; and Japan by LAURENCE OLIPHANT, Secretary to Lord Elgin. The Rev. JOSIAS PORTER, now a Professor of Biblical Criticism in Belfast, is author of Five Years in Damascus, and Murray's Hand-book for Palestine and Syria. Captain SAERARD OSBORNE, author of Stray Leaves from an Arctic Journal, has since written A Cruise in Japanese Waters.

Arctic travel and discovery, during this period of English literature, are represented by many eminent names, among which those of Dr. RAE, Sir ROBERT M'CLURE, discoverer of the North-West Passage, and Sir LEOPOLD M‘CLINTOCK, commander of the Fox, are prominent. Sir FRANCIS HEAD (born 1793), for some time Governor of Upper Canada, wrote a popular work upon the Pampas and the Andes (1826); and a Yorkshire Squire, CHARLES WATERTON (born 1782), has depicted his wonderful adventures and toils in Wanderings in South America, the North-West of the United States, and the Antilles.

Murray's Hand-books; some of which have been already named, form in themselves a most valuable geographical library. They are not the work of mere compilers, but, in nearly every case, of men who can describe clearly and grace. fully what they have seen and heard in the land of which they write.

Colonel JAMES A. GRANT (born 1827), the companion of Speke, is the author of A Walk Across Africa, and of The Botany of the Speke and Grant Expedition. Mr. HENRY M. STANLEY (born 1840), who went to Africa in search of Livingstone in 1871, wrote an account of his travels under the title of How I Found Livingstone. Mr. Stanley has also published an account of his exploration of the Victoria Nyanza and the Congo River. Commander V. L. CAMERON, who headed another Livingstone search expedition in 1872, succeeded only in ascertaining the fact of the great traveller's death and in rescuing his papers. Cameron then plunged into the heart of Africa and emerged on the west coast. His adventurous travels are recorded in his work Across Africa.

An interesting and valuable account of the Challenger deep-sea exploring expedition was published by Sir C. WYVILLE THOMSON (1830–1882), the head of its scientific staff. The daring exploits of Captain FREDERICK BURNABY (born 1842) in Western Asia are graphically described in his Ride to Khiva, and On Horseback through Asia Minor. One of the most interesting of recent books of travel is Lady BRASSEY's account of the voyage round the world made in her husband's yacht, entitled A Voyage in the Sunbeam.

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UPON the opposite shores of the Atlantic a branch of our litera. ture is flourishing in green and vigorous youth. We subjoin a brief view of American writers and their works, following the plan which has been adopted in the foregoing chapter.


WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT, who divided the crown of American poetry with Longfellow, was born in 1794, at Cummington in Massachusetts. At first a lawyer, he afterwards devoted himself to journalism. His poem called Thanatopsis (a view of death) is full of Wordsworth's clear and pensive beauty of expression. The AgesLines to a Waterfowl— Green River-The Yellow Violet --and The Inscription for the Entrance to a Wood, are among his

He died in 1878. LYDIA HUNTLY SIGOURNEY, born in 1791, at Norwich in Connecticut, is the Mrs. Hemans of American poetry. As Miss Huntly she appeared before the public in 1815. Later she married a merchant of Hartford. The delicate pathos (15)


finest poems.

Four years



of The Dying Infant, The Emigrant Mother, and To-morrow, is worthy of all praise. Pocahontas is her most elaborate poem. Mrs. Sigourney died in 1865.

HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW, born in 1807, at Portland in Maine, was for many years Professor of Modern Languages and Belles-Lettres in Harvard College, Cambridge. He first appeared as a poet in 1840, when he published Voices of the Night. The study of European literature, especially that of Germany, had a powerful influence on his mind. Tennyson is the English writer whom he most resembles. His chief works, verse and prose, are as follows :


Dante translated.
New England Tragedies.


Voices of the Night.
Poems on Slavery.
The Spanish Student, a play.
The Belfry of Bruges.
Evangeline (in English hexameters).
The Sea-side and the Fire-side.
The Golden Legend (mediæval).
Hiawatha, an Indian tale.
The Courtship of Miles Standish.

Outre-Mer, or Sketches from Beyond

Hyperion, a Romance.
Poets and Poetry of Europe.
Kavanagh, a Tale.

Many translations, from Spanish, German, Swedish, Danish, and Anglo-Saxon, attest the linguistic power and poetic skill of this favourite author. On this side of the Atlantic Longfellow and Washington Irving are as well known as Tennyson and Goldsmith. Longfellow died in 1882.

NATHANIEL PARKER WILLIS, born in 1817 at Portland, has written poetry and prose with grace and lightness. There is something of Leigh Hunt about his pen. He was the editor of the New York Mirror. Some of his Scriptural pieces, such as The Leper, The Daughter of Jairus, and The Shunamite Mother, are very beautiful. Melanie and Lord Ivon and his Daughter afford good specimens of his romantic style. But such sweet, natural lyrics as Better Moments, and Lines to a City Pigeon, surpass his more laboured works. In prose he produced various clever, read. able, gossipy books,-Pencillings by the Way-Inklings of Adven. ture-Loiterings of Travel, &c. Willis died in 1867.

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