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Opposed to tris gre, first, churlishness. i Sam. xxv. 17. “he is such a sýn of Belial, that a man cannot speak to him.'

Secondly, frowardness. Prov. iv. 24. "put away from thee a froward mouth.” xiv. 3. “in the mouth of the foolish is a rod of pride.” xvi. 26. “he that laboureth, laboureth for himself; for his mouth craveth it of him.” xviii. 6. “a fool's lips enter into contention, and his mouth calleth for strokes." xxvii. 22. “though thou shouldest bray a fool in a mortar among wheat with a pestle, yet will not his foolishness depart from him.”

Thirdly, false or constrained courtesy; as that of Absalom, 2 Sam. xv. 3, 4. Psal. xi. 3. “ Jehovah shall cut off all flattering lips.”

URBANITY comprehends not only the innocent refinements and elegances of conversation, but acuteness and appropriateness of observation or reply. Prov. xxiv. 26. “every man shall kiss his lips that giveth a right answer.” xxv. 11. "a word fitly spoken is like apples of gold in pictures of silver.” i Kings xviii. 27. “Elijah mocked them— Col. iv. 6. “let your speech be always with grace seasoned with salt, that ye may know how ye ought to answer every man.”

Opposed to this are obscenity and double meanings. Eph. iv. 6. “ let no corrupt communication proceed out of your mouth.” v 4. “neither filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting," which are not convenient.” Col. iii. 8. “but now ye also put off all these ; anger. ... filthy communication out of your mouth. Obscenity, properly speaking, consists neither in word nor in action, but in the filthiness of his mind, who out of derision or wantonness perverts them from their proper import. Hence those expressions in the Hebrew Scriptures, for which the Jewish commentators substitute others in the margin which they esteem more decent, are not to be considered as obscene, but are to be attributed to the

5 eurpanelia. “Nomen medium, proprie significat concinnam mutationem, et intra virtutes morales ab Aristotele numeratur, urbanitas. Sed in Novo Testamento in malam partem usurpatur pro scurrilitate. Eam vocem pro scurrilitate apostolus posuit, quod plerumque qui urbanitatem affectant, a medio virtutis aberrantes, ad scurrilitatem declinent. Qua in significatione etiam Pindarus poeta Græcam vocem usurpasse legitur. Itaque recte noster interpres scurrilitatem vertit.' Estius in loc. See Leigh's Critica Sacra, Schleusner, Wetstein, Elsner, and Macknight.

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vehemence or indignation of the speaker. Neither are the words of Deut. xxii. 17. to be regarded as indecent; “they shall spread the cloth before the elders of the city.”

FREEDOM OF SPEECH consists in speaking the truth with boidness. Exod. xi. 8. “ all these thy servants shall come down unto me.” Job. xii. 3. “ I have understanding as well as you ; I am not inferior to you; yea, who knoweth not such things as these ?1 Sam. xiii. 13. “Samuel said unto Saul, Thou hast done foolishly : thou hast not kept the commandment of Jehovah.” Psal. cxix. 42. “so shall I have wherewith to answer him that reproacheth me.' Prov. xxvi. 5.

answer a fool according to his folly.” This virtue is exemplified in Elijah and Elisha, 2 Kings vi. 32. and in many others ; in Hanani, 2 Chron. xvi. 7. in Zechariah, xxiv. 20. Isai. i. 10, 23. “ hear the word of Jehovah.... thy princes are rebellious, and companions of thieves.” Jer. xiii. 18. “say unto the king and to the queen, Humble yourselves, sit down.” Ezek. xxi. 25. "and thou, profane wicked prince of Israel-," Micah vii. 4. “the best of them is a briar.” Matt. iii. 7. “O generation of vipers." John xiv. 4. “it is not lawful for thee to have her.” Luke xii. 32.“ tell that fox.”

6 The Spirit of God, who is purity itself, when he would reprove any fault severely, or but relate things done or said with indignation by others, abstains not from some words not civil at other times to be spoken, &c. &c.... whereas God, who is the author both of purity and eloquence, chose this phrase as fittest in that vehement character wherein he spake, otherwise that plain word might have easily been forborn; which the masoreths and rabbinical scholiasts not well attending, have often used to blur the margent with Keri instead of Ketiv, and gave us this insulse rule out of their Talmud, “ that all words which in the law are written obscenely, must be changed to more civil words;" fools, who would teach men to read more decently than God thought good to write. Apology for Smectymnuus. Prose Works, III. 131. • Ask a Talmudist what ails the modesty of his marginal Keri, that Moses and all the prophets cannot persuade him to pronounce the textual Ketiv. Areopagitica, Ibid. II. 69. • Tu fortasse, ut sunt fere hypocritæ, verbis tetrici, rebus obsceni, ne ipsum quidem Mosen ista noxa immunem abs te dimiseris ; cum alibi sæpius, tum etiam ubi Phineæ hasta qua parte mulierem transfixerit, si qua fides Hebræis, aperte narrat.... Non te Salomonis Euphomismi censorem, non prophetarum scripta tuam turpiculi immo nonnun. quam plane obsceni censuram effugerint, quoties Masorethis et Rabbinis, pro eo quod diserte scriptum est, suum libet Keri adscribere. Ad me quod attinet, fateor malle me cum sacris scriptoribus eiluppnuova, quem cum futilibus Rabbinis εvoxņuova esse.' Auctoris pro se Defensio, Prose Works, Symmons' ed. V. 299.

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John vii. 7. “me it hateth, because I testify of it that the works thereof are evil.” xviii. 37. “to this end was I born, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness to the truth.” Acts xiï. 10. “O full of all subtilty,” &c. xix. 8, 9. “ he went into the synagogue, and spake boldly for the space of three months, disputing,” &c. xxiii. 3. “thou whited wall.” Eph. vi. 20. “ that therein I may speak boldly, as I ought to speak.” Tit. i. 12. “the Cretians are alway liars.”

Opposed to this is timidity in speaking the truth. 1 Sam, iii. 15. “ Samuel feared to show Eli the vision."

The spirit of admonition is that by which we freely warn sinners of their danger, without respect of persons. Gen. xxxvii. 2. “ Joseph brought unto his father their evil report." Levit. v. 1. “if a soul sin.... if he do not utter it, then he shall bear iniquity.” xix. 17. “thou shalt not hate thy brother in thine heart; thou shalt in anywise rebuke thy neighbour, and not suffer sin


him.” Psal. cxli. 5. “let the righteous smite me, it shall be a kindness.” Prov. vi. 23. “reproofs of instruction are the way of life.” x. 17. “ he that refuseth reproof erreth.” xii. 1. "he that hateth reproof is brutish.” xiii. 18. “he that regardeth reproof shall be honoured.” xv. 5. "he that regardeth reproof is prudent.”

” v. 10. “he that hateth reproof shall die.” v. 32. “ he that refuseth instruction despiseth his own soul.” xvii. 10.“a reproof entereth more into a wise man, than an hundred stripes into a fool.” xxiv. 25. “ to them that rebuke him shall be delight.” xxv. 12 as an ear-ring of gold, and an ornament of fine gold, so is a wise reprover upon an obedient ear.” xxvii. 6. “faithful are the wounds of a friend.” xxviii. 23. “ he that rebuketh a man afterward shall find more favour-" xxix. 1. “he that being often reproved hardeneth his neck—." Eccles. vii. 5. “it is better to hear the rebuke of the wise than—.” Matt. xvi. 23. “get thee behind me, Satan.” John iii. 19. “men loved darkness rather than light.” 1 Cor. i. 11. “it hath been declared unto me of you, my brethren, by them which are of the house of Chloe,” &c. 2 Cor. vii. 8. “though I made you sorry with a letter, I do not repent,” &c. Heb. iii. 13. “ exhort one another daily, while it is called to-day.” James v. 19, 20). “if any of you do err from the truth, and one convert him--." Admonition however is not to be thrown

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away on the scornful and obstinate. Psal. lviii. 4, 5. “ they are like the deaf adder which stoppeth her ear, which will not hearken to the voice of charmers.' Prov. ix. 7, 8. “he that reproveth a scorner getteth to himself shame....


not a scorner.” xiii. 1. “a scorner heareth not rebuke.” xxvi. 4.

answer not a fool according to his folly.” xxix. 9. “if a wise man contendeth with a foolish man, whether he rage or langh, there is no rest.” 2 Chron. xxv. 16. “ then the prophet forbare—.”



WARDS OUR NEIGHBOUR CONTINUED. The virtues by which we promote the WORLDLY INTERESTS OF OUR NEIGHBOUR, are integrity and beneficence.

INTEGRITY consists in refraining from the property of others, which is also called abstinence ; and in honesty and uprightness as regards our dealings with our neighbour, which is called commutative justice. Psal. xv. 2. "he that walketh uprightly, and worketh righteousness.

ABSTINENCE is exemplified in Moses, Numb. xvi. 15. “I have not taken one ass from them, neither have I hurt one of them ;” and in Samuel, 1 Sam. xii. 3. "whose ox have I taken ?” On this subject laws are given Deut. xxiii. 24, 25. “when thou comest into thy neighbour's vineyard,” &c.

The opposites to this are, first, theft. Exod. xx. 15. “thou shalt not steal.” See also Levit. xix. 11. Prov. xxix. 24.“whoso is partner with a thief hateth his own soul.” xxii. 28. “remove not the ancient land-mark." See also xxiii. 10. This was the crime of Judas Iscariot, John xii. 6. Eph. iv. 28. “ let him that stole steal no more, but rather let him labour.” Laws against theft are given Exod. xxii. Prov. vi. 30. “men do not despise a thief, if he steal to satisfy his soul when he is hungry.” xxviii. 24.“whoso robbeth his father or mother, &c. Zech. v. 3. “every one that stealeth shall be cut off —”

Secondly, fraud. Levit. xix. 11. “ye shall not deal falsely one to another.” Under the law, fraud could not be expiated unless restitution were previously made. Levit. vi. 5, &c. “he shall even restore it in the principal .... and he shall bring his trespass offering unto Jehovah." Prov. xxi. 6. “ the getting of treasures by a lying tongue is a vanity—" i Thess.



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iv. 6. " that no man go beyond or defraud his brother in any

Thirdly, oppression and robbery. Job. v. 15. “he saveth the

poor from the hand of the mighty.” xx. 18. 19.“ because he hath oppressed and hath forsaken the poor—,” Prov. xiv. 31. “ he that oppresseth the poor reproacheth his neighbour.' xxii. 22, 23. “rob not the poor,” &c. xxx. 14. “ there is a generation whose teeth are as swords.” Eccles. v.8. “if thou seest the oppression of the poor,” &c. vii. 7. “ surely oppression maketh a wise man mad.” Isai. iii. 14. “ the spoil of the

poor is in your houses." v. 7, 8. woe unto them that join house to house,” &c. Jer. ii. 34. “in thy skirts is found the blood of the souls of the poor innocents.” xxii. 13,

woe unto him that buildeth his house by unrighteous

-:" Neh. v.8. we after our ability have redeemed our brethren—.” Amos iv. 1.“hear this word, ye kine of Bashan, which oppress the poor” v. 11. “ forasmuch therefore as your trading is upon the poor- viii. 4, 5, &c. “hear this, O ye that swallow up the needy, even to make the poor of the land to fail—. Micah ii. 1, 2. “ they covet fields, and take them by violence.” iii. 2, 3. '“who pluck the skin off from them."

Fourthly, injury. Exod. xxi. 33. “if an ox or an ass fall therein. v. 35, 36. “if one man's ox hurt another's... or if it be known that the ox hath used to push in times past, &c. xxii. 5, 6. “ if a man shall cause a field or vineyard to be eaten,” &c.

Fifthly, man-stealing. Exod. xxi. 16. " he that stealeth a man, or selleth him, or if he be found in his hand, he shall surely be put to death.” Deut. xxiv. 7. "if a man be found stealing any of his brethren,” &c. 1 Tim. i. 10. stealers."

Under COMMUTATIVE JUSTICE are included all transactions of purchase and sale, of letting and hire, of lending and borrowing, of keeping and restoring deposits.

Transactions of sale and purchase. Levit. xix. 36. "just balances, just weights—,” xxv. 14. “if thou sell ought unto thy neighbour, or buyest ought of thy neighbour's hand, ye shall not oppress one another.” Prov. xvi. 11. “ a just weight and balance are Jehovah's; all the weights of the bag are his work."






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