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vows, even those of obedience. tongues be not the vehicles of vain To this system he added the doc- and useless matter, but used for trines of the Arians, Carpocra- the great end of glorifying him, tians, and other denominations.

and doing good to mankind. What LANGUAGE, in general, de- was the first language taught man, notes those articulate sounds by is matter of dispute among the which men express their thoughts. learned, but most think it was the Much has been said respecting the Hebrew. But as this subject, and invention of language. On the one the article in general, belongs side it is observed, that it is alto- more to philology than divinity, gether a human invention, and that we refer the reader to Dr. Adanı the progress of the mind, in the in- Smith's Dissertation on the Forvention and improvement of lan-mation of Languages; Harris's guage, is, by certain natural gra- Hermes ; Warburton's Divine Ledations, plainly discernable in the gation of Moses, vol. iii; Traite de composition of words. But on la Formation Mechanique des Lanthe other side it is alleged, that gues, par le President de Brosses ; we are indebted to divine revela- Blair's Rhetoric, vol. i, lect. vi ; tion for the origin of it. With- Gregory's Ess., ess. 6; Lord Monout supposing this, we see not how boddo on the Origin and Progress of our first parents could so early Language. hold converse with God, or the LATITUDINARIAN, a perman with his wife. Admitting, son not conforming to any partihowever, that it is of divine origi- cular opinion or standard, but of nal, we cannot suppose that a such moderation as to suppose

that perfect system of it was all at people will be admitted into beaonce given to, man. It is much ven, although of different persuamore natural to think that God sions. The term was more espetaught our first parents only such cially applied to those pacific language as suited their present doctors in the seventeenth cenoccasion, leaving them, as he did tury, who offered themselves as in other things, to enlarge and mediators between the more vio. improve it, as their future necessi- lent Episcopalians, and the rigid ties should require. Without at. Presbyterians and Independents, tempting, however, to decide this respecting the forms of church controversy, we may consider lan-government, public worship, and guage as one of the greatest bless- certain religious tenets, more espeings belonging to mankind. Descially those that were debated betitute of this we should make buttween the Arminians and Calvinsmall advancements in science, be ists. The chief leaders of these lost to all social enjoyments, and Latitudinarians were Hales and religion itself would feel the want Chillingworth ; but Niore, Cudof such a power. Our wise Crea- worth, Gale, Whitchcot, and tor, therefore, has conferred up. Tillotson, were also among the on us this inestimable privilege : number. These men, although let us, then, be cautious that our firmly attached to the church of

England, did not go so far as

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LAW, a rule of action; a preto look upon it as of divine insti- cept or command coming from a tution; and hence they maintain- superior authority, which an infeed, that those who followed other rior is bound to obey. The manforms of government and worship ner in which God governs rationwere not on that account to be al creatures is by a law, as the excluded from their communion. rule of their obedience to him, As to the doctrinal part of reli- and which is what we call God's gion, they took the system of Epis- moral government of the world. copius for their model, and, like He gave a law to angels, which him, reduced the fundamental some of them kept, and have been doctrines of christianity to a few confirmed in a state of obedience points ; and by this manner of to it; but which others broke, and proceeding they endeavoured to thereby plunged themselves into shew the contending parties destruction and misery. He gave, that they had no reason to oppose also, a law to Adam, and which each other with such animosity was in the form of a covenant, and bitterness, since the subjects and in which Adam stood as a co. of their debates were matters of venant head to all his posterity, an indifferent nature with respect Rom. v. Gen. ii. But our first pato salvation. They met, however, rents soon violated that law, and with opposition for their pains, fell from a state of innocence to and were branded as Atheists and a state of sin and misery, Hos. vi, Deists by some, and as Socinians 7. Gen. iii. See Fall. by others; but upon the restora- Positive laws are precepts which tion of Charles II, they were are not founded upon any reasons raised to the first dignities of the known to those to whom they are church, and were held in consi-given. Thus in the state of inderable esteem. See Burnet's Hist. nocence God gave the law of of his own Times, vol. i, b. 11, p. the sabbath ; of abstinence from 188; Mosheim's Ecc. Hist., vol. the fruit of the tree of knowledge, ii, p. 501, quarto edit.

&c. LAURA, in church history, a Law of nature is the will of name given to a collection of little God relating to human actions, cells at some distance from each grounded in the moral differences other, in which the hermits of an- of things, and, because discoveracient times lived together in a wil- ble by natural light, obligatory derness. These hermits did not upon all mankind, Rom. i, 20. live in community, but each monk Rom. ii, 14, 15. This law is coprovided for himself in his distinct eval with the human race, binding cell. The most celebrated lauras all over the globe, and at all times; mentioned in ecclesiastical history yet through the corruption of reawere in Palestine ; as the laura son, it is insufficient to lead us to of St. Euthymus, St. Saba, the happiness, and utterly unable to laura of the towers, &c.

acquaint us how sin is to be for


given, without the assistance of to it, we can have no knowledge revelation.

of sin. Christ himself came not Geremonial law is that which to destroy, but to fulfil it; and prescribed the rites of worship used though we cannot do as he did, yet under the Old Testament. These we are commanded to follow his rites were typical of Christ, and example. Love to God is the end were obligatory only till Christ of the moral law, as well as the had finished his work, and began end of the gospel. By the law, to erect his gospel church, Heb. also, we are led to see the nature vii, 9, 11. Heb. X, 1. Eph. ii, 16. of holiness, and our own depraviCol. ii, 14. Gal. v, 2, 3.

ty, and learn to be humbled under Judicial law was that which a sense of our imperfection. We directed the policy of the Jewish are not under it, however, as a conation, as under the peculiar do venant of works, Gal. iii, 13. or as minion of God, as their supreme a source of terror, Rom. viii, 1. almagistrate ; and never, except in though we must abide by it, togethings relative to moral equity, ther with the whole preceptive was binding on any but the He-word of God, as the rule of our brew nation.

conduct, Rom. iii, 31. Rom. vii. Moral law is that declaration Laws directive are laws without of God's will which directs and any punishment annexed to them. binds all men, in every age and Larus penal, such as have some place, to their whole duty to him. penalty to enforce them. All the It was most solemnly proclaimed laws of God are and cannot but by God himself at Sinai, to con- be penal, because every breach of firm the original law of nature, his law is sin, and meritorious of and correct men's mistakes con- punishment. cerning the demands of it. It is Law of honour is a system denominated perfect, Psal. xix, 7. of rules constructed by people of perpetual, Matt. V, 17, 18. holy, fashion, and calculated to faciliRom vii, 12. good, Rom. vii, 12. tate their intercourse with one spiritual, Rom. vii, 14. exceeding another, and for no other purbroad, Psal. cxix, 96. Some deny pose. Consequently nothing is that it is a rule of conduct to be- adverted to by the law of honour lievers under the gospel dispensa- but what tends to incommode this tion; but it is easy to see the fu- intercourse. Hence this law only tility of such an idea ;, for as a prescribes and regulates the duties transcript of the mind of God, betwixt equals, omitting such as it must be the criterion of relate to the Supreme Being, as moral. good and evil. It is also well as those which we owe to our given for that very purpose, that inferiors. In fact, this law of we may see our duty, and abstain honour, in most instances, is fafrom every thing derogatory tovourable to the licentious indulthe divine glory. It affords us gence of the natural passions. grand ideas of the holiness and Thus it allows of fornication, adulpurity of God: without attention tery, drunkenness, prodigality,


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duelling, and of revenge in the a secular employment, and is not extreme, and lays 10 stress upon in orders : opposed to a clergythe virtues opposite to these. man.

Law Remediul, a fancied law LEARNING, skill in any sciwhich some believe in, who hold ence, or that improvement of the that God, in mercy to mankind, mind which we gain by study, inhas abolished that rigorous consti-struction, observation, &c. An attution or law that they were un- tentive examination of ecclesiasti. der originally, and instead of it has | cal history will lead us to see how introduced a more mild constitu- greatly learning is indebted to tion, and put us under a new law, christianity, and that christianity, which requires no more than im- in its turn, has been much served perfect sincer: obedience, in com- by learning. “All the usefullearn. pliance with our poor infirm impo- ing,” says Dr. Jortin, “ which is tent circumstances since the fall. now to be found in the world is in a I call this a fancied law, because it great measure owing to the gospel. exists no where except in the ima- The Christians, who had a great ginations of those who hold it. veneration for the Old Testament, Še NeoNOMIANS, and Justi- have contributed more than the

Jews themselves to secure and exLaws of nations, are those rules plain those books. The Christians which by a tacit consent are agreed in ancient times collected and preupon anong all communities, at served the Greek versions of the least anong those who are reckon- scriptures, particularly the Septued the polite and humanized part agint, and translated the originals of mankind. Gill's Body of Div., into Latin. To Christians were vol. I, p. 454, oct. 4:25, vol. iii, due the old Hexapla; and in later ditto ; Paley's Mor. Phil., vol. i, times Christians have published the p. 2; Cumberland's Law of Na- Polyglots and the Samaritan Pen. ture; Group's Mor. Phil., vol. ii, tateuch. It was the study of the p. 117; Broth's Death of Legal holy scriptures which excited Hope; Inglish and Burder's Pieces Christians from early times to on Moral Law; Watts's Works, study chronology, sa red and sevol. i, ser. 49, 8vo. ed. ; and vol. cular; and here much knowledge ii, p. 443, &c.

of history, and some skill in astroLAY-BROTHERS, among the nomy, were needful. The New Romunists, illiterate persons, who Testament, being written in Greek, devote themselves at some convent caused Christians to apply themto the service of the religious. They selves also to the study of that lanwear a different habit from that of Iguage. As the Christians were opthe religious, but never enter into posed by the Pagans and the Jews, the choir, nor are present at the they were excited to the study of chapters; nor do they make any Pagan and Jewish literature, in orother vow except that of constancy der to expose the absurdities of aad obedience.

the Jewish traditions, the weakness LAYMAN, one who follows of paganism, and the imperfec

Vol. 11.

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tions and insufficiency of philoso-whom for chronology, and the phy. The first fathers, till the continuation of history through third century, were generally many centuries ?-to Christians. Greek writers. In this third centu. To whom for rational systems of by the Latin language was much morality, and improvements in naupon the decline, but the Chris- tural philosophy, and for the aptians preserved it from sinking in- plication of these discoveries to reto absolute barbarism. Monkery, ligious purposes ?-to Christians. indeed, produced many sad ef. To whom for metaphysical refects; but Providence here also searches, carried as far as the subbrought good out of evil; for the ject will permit?—to Christians. monks were employed in the tran- To whom for the moral rules to scribing of books, and many valu- be observed by nations in war able authors would have perished and peace ?-to Christians. To if it had not been for the monas- whom for jurisprudence, and for teries. In the ninth century the political knowledge, and for set. Saracens were very studious, and tling the rights of subjects, both contributed much to the restora- civil and religious, upon a proper tion of letters. But, whatever foundation ?-to Christians. Το was good in the Mahometan reli- whom for the reformation?

-to gion, it is in no small measure in Christians.' debted to christianity for it, since “As religion hath been the Mahometanism is made up for the chief preserver of erudition, so most part of Judaism and Chris- erudition hath not been ungrate. tianity. If Christianity had been ful to her patroness, but hath consuppressed at its first appearance, tributed largely to the support of it is extremely probable that the religion. The useful expositions Latin and Greek tongues would of the scriptures, the sober and have been lost in the revolutions sensible defences of revelation, the of empire, and the irruptions of faithful representations of pure and barbarians in the east and in the undefiled christianity, these have West; for the old inhabitants been the works of learned, judi. would have had no conscientious cious, and industrious men.” Noand religious motives to keep up thing, however, is more common their language ; and then, toge- than to hear the ignorant decry all ther with the Latin and Greek human learning as entirely useless tongues, the knowledge of anti- in religion; and what is still more quities and the ancient writers remarkable, even some, who call would have been destroyed. To themselves preachers,

entertain whom, then, are we indebted for the same sentiments. But to such the knowledge of antiquity, for we can only say what a judicious every thing that is called philoso- preacher observed upon a public phy, or the litere humaniores?-o occasion, that if all men had been Christians. To whom for gram- as unlearned as themselves, they mars and dictionaries of the learn- never would have had a text on ed languages!-to Christians. To which to have displayed their ig


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