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from the fcholaftic groffness of barbarous ages, that inftead of beginning with arts most easy, (and those be such as are most obvious to the fenfe,) they prefent their young unmatriculated novices at first coming with the most intellective abftractions of logic and metaphyfics; fo that they having but newly left thofe grammatic flats and shallows where they stuck unreasonably to learn a few words with lamentable conftruction, and now on the fudden transported under another climate to be tøffed and turmoiled with their unballafted wits in fathomlefs and unquiet deeps of controverfy, do for the most part grow into hatred and contempt of learning, mocked and deluded all this while with ragged notions and babblements, while they expected worthy and delightful knowledge; till poverty or youthful years call them importunately their feveral ways, and haften them with the fway of friends either to an ambitious and mercenary, or igno. rantly zealous divinity; fome allured to the trade of law, grounding their purposes not on the prudent and heavenly contemplation of juftice and equity, which was never taught them, but on the promifing and pleafing thoughts of litigious terms, fat contentions, and flowing fees; others betake them to state affairs, with fouls fo unprincipled in virtue and true generous breeding, that flattery and courtshifts and tyrannous aphorifms appear to them the highest points of wisdom; inftilling their barren hearts with a confcientious flavery; if, as I rather think, it be not feigned. Others, laftly, of a more delicious and airy fpirit, retire themselves, (knowing no better) to the enjoyments of cafe and luxury, living out their days in feaft and jollity; which indeed is the wifeft and the safest course of all these, unless they were with more integrity undertaken. *And these are the errours, and these are the fruits of mifpending our prime youth at the schools and univerfities as we do, either in learning mere words, or fuch things chiefly as were better unlearned.
I fhall detain you now no longer in the demonftration of what we should not do, but ftraight conduct you to a hillfide, where I will point you out the right path of a
Thus it is in the first edition.
virtuous and noble education; laborious indeed at the firft afcent, but elfe fo fmooth, fo green, fo full of goodly profpect, and melodious founds on every fide, that the harp of Orpheus was not more charming. I doubt not but ye fhall have more ado to drive our dulleft and laziest youth, our stocks and ftubs, from the infinite defire of fuch a happy nurture, than we have now to hale and drag our choiceft and hopefulleft wits to that afinine feast of fowthistles and brambles, which is commonly fet before them as all the food and entertainment of their tendereft and most docible age. I call therefore a complete and generous education, that which fits a man to perform justly, fkilfully, and magnanimoufly all the offices, both private and public, of peace and war. And how all this may be done between twelve and one and twenty, less time than is now beftowed in pure trifling at grammar and fophiftry, is to be thus ordered.
Firft, to find out a fpacious house and ground about it fit for an academy, and big enough to lodge a hundred and fifty perfons, whereof twenty or thereabout may be attendants, all under the government of one, who shall be thought of defert fufficient, and ability either to da all, or wifely to direct and overfee it done. This place fhould be at once both school and univerfity, not needing a remove to any other house of scholarship, except it be fome peculiar college of law, or phyfic, where they mean to be practitioners; but as for those general ftudies which take up all our time from Lilly to commencing, as they term it, mafter of art, it fhould be abfolute. After this pattern, as many edifices as may be converted to this use as fhall be needful in every city throughout this land, which would tend much to the increase of learning and civility every where. This number, lefs or more thus collected, to the convenience of a foot company, or interchangeably two troops of cavalry, fhould divide their day's work into three parts as it lies orderly; their ftudies, their exercise, and their diet.
For their ftudies; firft, they fhould begin with the chief and neceffary rules of fome good grammar, either that now used, or any better; and while this is doing, their speech is to be fashioned to a diftinct and clear pronunciation,
nunciation, as near as may be to the Italian, efpecially in. the vowels. For we Englishmen being far northerly, do not open our mouths in the cold air, wide enough to grace a fouthern tongue; but are obferved by all other nations to speak exceeding clofe and inward; fo that to smatter Latin with an English mouth, is as ill a hearing as law French. Next, to make them expert in the usefullest points of grammar; and withal to feafon them and win them early to the love of virtue and true labour, ere any flattering feducement or vain principle feize them wandering, fome eafy and delightful book of education would be read to them; whereof the Greeks have store, as Cebes, Plutarch, and other Socratic difcourfes. But in Latin we have none of claffic authority extant, except the two or three first books of Quintilian, and fome felect pieces elsewhere. But here the main fkill and groundwork will be, to temper them fuch lectures and explanations upon every opportunity, as may lead and draw them in willing obedience, enflamed with the ftudy of learning, and the admiration of virtue; ftirred up with high hopes of living to be brave men, and worthy patriots, dear to God, and famous to all ages. That they may despise and fcorn all their childish and illtaught qualities, to delight in manly and liberal exercises; which he who hath the art and proper eloquence to catch them with, what with mild and effectual perfuafions, and what with the intimation of fome fear, if need be, but chiefly by his own example, might in a fhort space gain them to an incredible diligence and courage; infufing into their young breafts fuch an ingenuous and noble ardour, as would not fail to make many of them renowned and matchless men. At the fame time, fome other hour of the day, might be taught them the rules of arithmetic, and foon after the elements of geometry, even playing, as the old manner was. After evening repaft, till bedtime, their thoughts would be beft taken up in the eafy grounds of religion, and the ftory of fcripture. The next step would be to the authors of agriculture, Cato, Varro, and Columella, for the matter is moft eafy; and if the language be difficult, fo much the better, it is not a difficulty above their years. And here will be an occafion of inciting, and
enabling them hereafter to improve the tillage of their country, to recover the bad foil, and to remedy the wafte that is made of good; for this was one of Hercules's praises. Ere half these authors be read, (which will foon be with plying hard and daily) they cannot choose but be mafters of any ordinary profe. So that it will be then feasonable for them to learn in any modern author the use of the globes, and all the maps; firft with the old names, and then with the new; or they might be then capable to read any compendious method of natural philofophy. And at the fame time might be entering into the Greek tongue, after the fame manner as was before prescribed in the Latin; whereby the difficulties of grammar being foon overcome, all the hiftorical phyfiology of Ariftotle and Theophraftus are open before them, and, as I may fay, under contribution. The like accefs will be to Vitruvius, to Seneca's natural questions, to Mela, Celfus, Pliny, or Solinus. And having thus paffed the principles of arithmetic, geometry, aftronomy, and geography, with a general compact of phyfics, they may defcend in mathematics to the inftrumental fcience of trigonometry, and from thence to fortification, architecture, enginery, or navigation. And in natural philosophy they may proceed leifurely from the hiftory of meteors, minerals, plants, and living creatures, as far as anatomy. Then alfo in course might be read to them out of fome not tedious writer the inftitution of phyfic; that they may know the tempers, the humours, the feafons, and how to manage a crudity; which he who can wifely and timely do, is not only a great phyfician to himself and to his friends, but also may at fome time or other fave an army by this frugal and expenfeless means only; and not let the healthy and ftout bodies of young men rot away under him for want of this difcipline; which is a great pity, and no less a fhame to the commander. To fet forward all these proceedings in nature and mathematics, what hinders but that they may procure, as oft as shall be needful, the helpful experiences of hunters, fowlers, fishermen, fhepherds, gardeners, apothecaries; and in the other sciences, architects, engineers, mariners, anatomifts; who doubtlefs would be
ready, fome for reward, and fome to favour fuch a hopeful feminary. And this will give them fuch a real tincture of natural knowledge, as they fhall never forget, but daily augment with delight. Then alfo those poets which are now counted moft hard, will be both facil and pleasant, Orpheus, Hefiod, Theocritus, Aratus, Nicander, Oppian, Dionyfius, and in Latin, Lucretius, Manilius, and the rural part of Virgil.
By this time, years, and good general precepts, will have furnished them more diftinctly with that act of reafon which in ethics is called Proairefis; that they may with fome judgment contemplate upon moral good and evil. Then will be required a special reinforcement of conftant and found indoctrinating to fet them right and firm, inftructing them more amply in the knowledge of virtue and the hatred of vice; while their young and pliant affections are led through all the moral works of Plato, Xenophon, Cicero, Plutarch, Laertius, and those Locrian remnants; but ftill to be reduced in their nightward ftudies wherewith they close the day's work, under the determinate fentence of David or Solomon, or the evangels and apoftolic fcriptures. Being perfect in the knowledge of perfonal duty, they may then begin the ftudy of œconomics. And either now or before this, they may have eafily learned at any odd hour the Italian tongue. And foon after, but with warinefs and good antidote, it would be wholesome enough to let them tafte fome choice comedies, Greek, Latin, or Italian; those tragedies alfo, that treat of household matters, as Trachiniæ, Alceftis, and the like. The next removal must be to the ftudy of politics; to know the beginning, end, and reasons of political focieties; that they may not in a dan, gerous fit of the commonwealth be fuch poor, shaken, uncertain reeds, of such a tottering confcience, as many of our great counsellors have lately fhown themselves, but ftedfaft pillars of the ftate. After this, they are to dive into the grounds of law, and legal justice; delivered first and with beft warrant by Mofes; and as far as human prudence can be trufted, in thofe extolled remains of Grecian lawgivers, Lycurgus, Solon, Zaleucus, Charondas, and thence to all the Roman edicts and tables with