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communicate what I was fure it would give you fo much pleasure to know. This I hope that I have to-day accomplished; for when I had more than once reminded the prefident of your business, he replied that to-morrow they would discuss what answer they should give. If I am the first, as I endeavoured, to give you intelligence of this event, I think that it will contribute greatly to your fatisfaction, and will ferve as a fpecimen of my zeal for the promotion of your interefts.



To the renowned LEONARD PHILARA, the Athenian.

I was in fome measure made acquainted, most accomplished Philara, with your good-will towards me, and with your favourable opinion of my defence of the people of England, by your letters to the Lord Auger, a perfon fo renowned for his fingular integrity in executing the embaffies of the republic. I then received your compliments with your picture and an eulogy worthy of your virtues; and, laftly, a letter full of civility and kindness. I who am not wont to defpife the genius of the German, the Dane, and Swede, could not but set the highest value on your applaufe, who were born at Athens itself, and who after having happily finished your ftudies in Italy, obtained the moft fplendid diftinctions and the highest honours. For if Alexander the Great, when waging war in the distant East, declared that he encountered fo many dangers and fo many trials for the fake of having his praises celebrated by the Athenians, ought not I to congratulate myself on receiving the praises of a man in whom alone the talents and the virtues of the antient Athenians feem to recover their freshness and their ftrength after fo long an interval of corruption and decay. To the writings of those illuftrious men which your city has produced, in the


perufal of which I have been occupied from my youth, it is with pleasure I confefs that I am indebted for all my proficiency in literature. Did I poffefs their command of language and their force of perfuafion I fhould feel the highest fatisfaction in employing them to excite our armies and our fleets to deliver Greece, the parent of eloquence, from the defpotifm of the Ottomans. Such is the enterprize in which you seem to wish to implore my aid. And what did formerly men of the greatest courage and eloquence deem more noble or more glorious, than by their orations or their valour to affert the liberty and independence of the Greeks? But we ought befides to attempt, what is, I think, of the greatest moment, to inflame the present Greeks with an ardent defire to emulate the virtue, the industry, the patience of their antient progenitors; and this we cannot hope to fee effected by any one but yourself, and for which you feem adapted by the splendour of your patriotism, combined with fo much discretion, fo much skill in war, and fuch an unquenchable thirst for the recovery of your antient liberty.. Nor do I think that the Greeks would be wanting to themselves, nor that any other people would be wanting to the Greeks. Adieu. London, Jan. 1652.



If I were able, my excellent friend, to render you any service in the promotion of your ftudies, which at best could have been but very fmall, I rejoice on more accounts than one, that that fervice, though fo long unknown, was beftowed on fo fruitful and fo genial a foil, which has produced an honeft paftor to the church, a good citizen to our country, and to me a most acceptable friend. Of this I am well aware, not only

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from the general habits of your life, but from the juftnefs of your religious and political opinions, and particularly from the extraordinary ardour of your gratitude which no abfence, no change of circumftances, or lapfe of time can either extinguish or impair. Nor is it poffible till you have made a more than ordinary progrefs in virtue, in piety, and in the improvement of the mind and heart, to feel fo much gratitude towards thofe who have in the leaft affifted you in the acquifition. Wherefore, my pupil, a name which with your leave I will employ, be affured that you are among the first objects of my regard; nor would any thing be more agreeable to me, if your circumftances permit as much as your inclination, than to have you take up your abode fomewhere in my neighbourhood, where we may often fee each other, and mutually profit by the reciprocations of kindnefs and of literature. But this must be as God pleafes, and as you think beft. Your future communications may, if you pleafe, be in our own language, left (though you are no mean proficient in Latin compofition) the labour of writing fhould make each of us more averse to write; and that we may freely disclose every sensation of our hearts without being impeded by the hackles of a foreign language. You may fafely entrust the care of your letters to any fervant of that family which you mention. Adieu.

Westminster, Decemb. 13, 1652.


To HENRY OLDENBURGH, Aulic Counsellor to the
Senate of Bremen.

I RECEIVED your former letters, moft accomplished fir, at the moment when your clerk was at the point of fetting out on his return, fo that I had no power of returning you an answer at that time. This


fome unexpected engagements concurred to delay, or I fhould not have fent you my Defence without any compliment or apology; and I have fince received another letter from you in which you return me more ample acknowledgments than the prefent deferved. And I had more than once an intention of fubftituting our English for your Latin, that you, who have studied our language with more accuracy and fuccefs than any foreigner with whom I am acquainted, might lofe no opportunity of writing it, which I think that you would do with equal elegance and correctnefs. But in this refpect you shall act as you feel inclined. With refpect to the fubject of your letter you are clearly of my opinion, that that cry to heaven could not have been audible by any human being, which only ferves the more palpably to show the effrontery of him who affirms with fo much audacity that he heard it. Who he was you have caused a doubt, though long fince in fome conversations which we had on the subject juft after your return from Holland, you feemed to have no doubt but that More was the author to whom the compofition was in those parts unanimoufly afcribed. If you have received any more authentic information on this fubject I wish that you would acquaint me with it. With refpect to the mode of handling the fubject I would willingly agree with you, and what could more readily perfuade me to do it than the unfeigned approbation of perfons fo zealously attached to me as you are; if my health and the deprivation of my fight, which is more grievous than all the infirmities of age, or if the cries of thefe impostors will permit, I fhall readily be led to engage in other undertakings, though I know not whether they can be more noble or more useful; for what can be more noble or inore useful than to vindicate the liberty of man? An inactive indolence was never my delight, but this unexpected conteft with the enemies of liberty has involuntarily withdrawn my attention from very different and more pleasurable purfuits. What I have done, and which I was under an obligation to do, I feel no reason to regret, and I am far from thinking, as you feem to fuppofe, that I have laboured in vain.

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But more on this at another opportunity. At present adieu, moft learned fir, and number me among your friends.

Westminster, July 6, 1654.


To LEONARD PHILARA, the Athenian.

I HAVE always been devotedly attached to the literature of Greece, and particularly to that of your Athens; and have never ceased to cherish the perfuafion that that city would one day make me ample recompense for the warmth of my regard. The antient genius of your renowned country has favoured the completion of my prophecy in presenting me with your friendship and efteem. Though I was known to you only by my writings, and we were removed to fuch a distance from each other, you moft-courteously addreffed me by letter; and when you unexpectedly came to London, and faw me who could no longer fee, my affliction which caufes none to regard me with greater admiration, and perhaps many even with feelings of contempt, excited your tendereft fympathy and concern. You would not suffer me to abandon the hope of recovering my fight, and informed me that you had an intimate friend at Paris, Doctor Thevenot, who was particularly celebrated in disorders of the eyes, whom you would confult about mine, if I would enable you to lay before him the causes and the symptoms of the complaint. I will do what you defire, left I fhould feem to reject that aid which perhaps may be offered me by heaven. It is now, I think, about ten years fince I perceived my vifion to grow weak and dull; and, at the fame time, I was troubled with pain in my kidneys and bowels, accompanied with flatulency. In the morning, if I began to read, as was my cuftom, my eyes instantly ached

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