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According to their notions, to have branded any one at random with this opprobrious mark, is to have refuted him without any trouble, by a single word. By the simple imputation of the name of heretic, they think that they have despatched their man at one blow. To men of this kind I answer, that in the time of the apostles, ere the New Testament was written, whenever the charge of heresy was applied as a term of reproach, that alone was considered as heresy which was at variance with their doctrine orally delivered,—and that those only were looked upon as heretics, who according to Rom. xvi. 17, 18. "caused divisions and offences contrary to the doctrine" of the apostles.... "serving not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly." By parity of reasoning therefore, since the compilation of the New Testament, I maintain that nothing but what is in contradiction to it can properly be called heresy.
For my own part, I adhere to the Holy Scriptures alone-I follow no other heresy or sect. I had not even read any of the works of heretics, so called, when the mistakes of those who are reckoned for orthodox, and their incautious handling of Scripture.' Treatise of Civil Power in Ecclesiastical Causes. Prose Works, II. 527. And again, in The Reason of Church Government urged against Prelaty. 'As for those terrible names of sectaries and schismatics, which ye have got together, we know your manner of fight, when the quiver of your arguments, which is ever thin, and weakly stored, after the first brunt is quite empty, your course is to betake ye to your other quiver of slander, wherein lies your best archery. And whom you could not move by sophistical arguing, them you think to confute by scandalous misnaming; thereby inciting the blinder sort of people to mislike and deride sound doctrine and good Christianity, under two or three vile and hateful terms.' II. 464.
8 Yea, those that are reckoned for orthodox, began to make sad and shameful rents in the Church about the trivial celebration of feasts,' &c. Of Reformation in England. Prose Works, II. 379.
Scripture first taught me to agree with their opponents whenever those opponents agreed with Scripture. If this be heresy, I confess with St. Paul, Acts xxiv. 14. "that after the way which they call heresy, so worship I the God of my fathers, believing all things which are written in the law and the prophets"-to which I add, whatever is written in the New Testament. Any other judges or paramount interpreters of the Christian belief, together with all implicit faith, as it is called, I, in common with the whole Protestant Church, refuse to recognise.1
For the rest, brethren, cultivate truth with brotherly love. Judge of my present undertaking according to the admonishing of the Spirit of God-and neither adopt my sentiments nor reject them, unless every doubt has been removed from your belief by the clear testimony of revelation. Finally, live in the faith of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Farewell.2
1. With good and religious reason, therefore, all Protestant Churches with one consent, and particularly the Church of England in her thirtynine Articles, Art. 6th, 19th, 20th, 21st, and elsewhere, maintain these two points, as the main principles of true religion; that the rule of true religion is the word of God only; and that this faith ought not to be an implicit faith, that is to believe, though as the Church believes, against or without express authority of Scripture.' Of True Religion, &c. Prose Works, II. 510. And again, in the same treatise-'This is the direct way to bring in that papistical implicit faith, which we all disclaim.' Ibid. 517. 2 To this preface are subjoined in the original the initials I. M. Symmons states that on the first publication of Lycidas, the author was indicated in the same manner.
A POSTHUMOUS TREATISE
THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE,
COMPILED FROM THE HOLY SCRIPTURES ALONE;
IN TWO BOOKS:
CHAP. I.—OF THE DEFINITION OF CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE,
AND THE SEVERAL PARTS THEREOF.
THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE is that DIVINE REVELATION disclosed in various ages by CHRIST (though he was not known under that name in the beginning) concerning the nature and worship of the Deity, for the promotion of the glory of God, and the salvation of mankind.
It is not unreasonable to assume that Christians believe in the Scriptures whence this doctrine is derived-but the authority of those Scriptures will be examined in the proper place.
CHRIST. Matt. xi. 27. "Neither knoweth any man the Father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him.' John i. 4. "in him was life, and the life was the light of men." v. 9. "that was the true light which lighteth every man that cometh into the world." 1 Pet. iii. 19. "by which also he went and preached unto the spirits in prison.'
Under the name of CHRIST are also comprehended MOSES
and the Prophets, who were his forerunners, and the Apostles whom he sent. Gal. iii. 24. "the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith." Heb. xiii. 8. Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, to-day, and for ever.' ." Col. ii. 17. "which are a shadow of things to come: but the body is of Christ." 1 Pet. i. 10, 11. "who prophesied of the grace that should come unto you searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify." Rom. i. 1. "Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ:" in which manner he begins nearly all the rest of his epistles. 1 Cor. iv. 1. "let a man so account of us, as of the ministers of Christ."
DIVINE REVELATION. Isai. li. 4. "a law shall proceed from me. Matt. xvi. 17. "flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven." John vi. 46. they shall be all taught of God." ix. 29. we know that God spake unto Moses." Gal. i. 11, 12. "the gospel which was preached of me is not after man; for I neither received it of man." 1 Thess. iv. 9. "Ye yourselves are taught of God."
This doctrine, therefore, is to be obtained, not from the schools of the philosophers, nor from the laws of man, but from the Holy Scriptures alone, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. 2 Tim. i. 14. "that good thing which was committed unto thee keep by the Holy Ghost which dwelleth in us." Col. ii. 8. "lest any man spoil you through philosophy." Dan. iii. 16. “ Iwe are not careful to answer thee in this matter." Acts iv. 19. "whether it be right in the sight of God to hearken unto you more than unto God, judge ye."
In this treatise, then, no novelties of doctrine are taught; but, for the sake of assisting the memory, what is dispersed throughout the different parts of the Holy Scriptures is conveniently reduced into one compact body as it were, and digested under certain heads. This method might be easily defended on the ground of Christian prudence, but it seems better to rest its authority on the divine command; Matt. xiii. 52. "every scribe which is instructed unto the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man which is an householder, which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old." So also the Apostle says, 2 Tim. i. 13. "hold fast the form".
which the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews seems to have ietermined to adopt as the rule of his own conduct for teaching the heads of Christian doctrine in methodical arrangement: vi. 1-3. "of repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God, of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment; and this will we do, if God permit." This usage of the Christians was admirably suited for Catechumens when first professing their faith in the Church. Allusion is made to the same system in Rom. vi. 17. "ye have obeyed from the heart that form of doctrine which was delivered you." In this passage the Greek word τυπός, as well as ὑποτύπωσις, 2 Tim. i. 13. seems to signify either that part of the evangelical Scriptures which were then written (as in Rom. ii. 20. Mógpwors, "the form of knowledge and of the truth in the μόρφωσις, law" signified the law itself) or some systematic course of instruction derived from them or from the whole doctrine of the gospel. Acts xx. 27. "I have not shunned to declare unto you all the counsel of God"-which must mean some entire body of doctrine, formed according to a certain plan, though probably not of great extent, since the whole was gone through, and perhaps even repeated several times during St. Paul's stay at Ephesus, which was about the space of three
Christian doctrine is comprehended under two divisions,FAITH, or THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOD,—and LOVE, or THE WORSHIP OF GOD. Gen. xvii. 1. "walk before me, and be
Milton, as is usual with him, here employs the word love, or charity, to signify the whole 'knot of Christian graces; or, in other words, practical religion, comprehending all the fruits of the Spirit flowing from, and founded upon, vital faith. Add love,
By name to come call'd Charity, the soul
Of all the rest.
Par. Lost, XII. 583. 'Christ having cancelled the handwriting of ordinances which was against, us, Col. ii. 14, and interpreted the fulfilling of all through charity, hath in that respect set us over love, in the free custody of his love, and left us victorious under the guidance of his living Spirit, not under the dead letter; to follow that which most edifies, most aids and furthers a religious life,' &c. Tetrachordon. Prose Works, III. 323. And again, in a passage bearing a remarkable similarity to the sentence above, What evangelic religion is, is told in two words, Faith and Charity, or Belief and Practice.' Treatise of Civil Power in Ecclesiastical Causes, II. 534.