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house of this tabernacle" is opposed, not to the soul, but to a building of God, an house not made with hands," that is, to the final renewal of the whole man, as Beza also explains it," whereby "we are clothed upon" in the heavens, "being clothed .. not naked,” v. 3. This distinctly appears from the fourth verse: "not for that we would be unclothed, but clothed upon, that mortality might be swallowed up of life." See also v. 5. now he that hath wrought us for the selfsame thing is God;" not for the separation of the soul from the body, but for the perfecting of both. Wherefore the clause in the eighth verse, to be absent from the body, and to be present with the Lord," must be understood of the consummation of our happiness; and the body must be taken for this frail life, as is common in the sacred writers, and the absence spoken of, v. 9. for our eternal departure to a heavenly world; or perhaps to be "at home in the body, and to be absent from the Lord," v. 6. may mean nothing more than to be entangled in worldly affairs, and to have little leisure for heavenly things; the reason of which is given v. 7. "for we walk by faith, not by sight:" whence it follows, v. 8. "we are confident and willing rather to be absent from the body, and to be present with the Lord;" that is, to renounce the worldly things as much as possible, and to be occupied with things heavenly. The ninth verse proves still more clearly that the expressions to be present and to be absent both refer to this life: "wherefore we labour that whether present or absent, we may be accepted of God:" for no one supposes that the souls of men are occupied from the time of death to that of the resurrection in endeavours to render themselves acceptable to God in heaven; that is the employment of the present life, and its reward is not to be looked for till the second coming of Christ. For the apostle says, v. 10. we must all appear before the judgment-seat of Christ, that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad." There is consequently no recompense of good or bad after death,

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8 'Arrepta occasione ex comparatione proxime præcedente, corpus istud ut est in hac vita calamitosum, comparat cum caduco et fragili tabernaculo; cui opponit cœleste domicilium, sic vocans firmam et perennem ejusdem corporis in cœlo glorificati conditionem..... Est autem etiam hic locus, de futura gloria, isti tractationi de ministerii dignitate insertus, &c. Beza ad 2 Cor. v. 1.

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previous to the day of judgment. Compare 1 Cor. xv. the whole of which chapter throws no small light on this passage. The same sense is to be ascribed to 2 Pet. i. 13-15; as long as I am in this tabernacle," &c. that is, in this life. It is however unnecessary to prolong this discussion, as there is scarcely one of the remaining passages of Scripture which has not been already explained by anticipation.

The fourth and last degree of death, is DEATH ETERNAL, THE PUNISHMENT OF THE DAMNED; which will be considered in the twenty-seventh chapter."

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WE have hitherto considered the Providence of God in relation to the fall of man; we are now to consider it as operating in his restoration.

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THE RESTORATION OF MAN is the act whereby man, being delivered from sin and death by God the Father through Jesus Christ, is raised to a far more excellent state of grace and glory than that from which he had fallen. Rom. v. 15. "but not as the offence, so also is the free gift; for if through the offence of one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, which is by one man Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many. v. 17. "for if by one man's offence death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ." See also v. 21. Eph. i. 9, 10. "according to his good pleasure which he hath purposed in himself.... that he might gather together in one all things in Christ. 1 John iii. 8. "he that committeth sin is of the devil.... for this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil."

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In this restoration are comprised the REDEMPTION and RE




"There is a mistake in this reference, arising probably fron a subse. quent alteration in the arrangement of the chapters. The subject is considered in the thirty-third chapter.


CONFORMABLY TO THE ETERNAL COUNSEL OF GOD THE FATHER. 1 Pet. i. 20. "The Lamb.... preordained before the foundation of the world." See other passages to the same effect in the fourth chapter, on Predestination.

GRACE. Even before man had, properly speaking, confessed his guilt, that is, before he had avowed it ingenuously and in the spirit of repentance, God nevertheless, in pronouncing the punishment of the serpent, previously to passing sentence on man, promised that he would raise up from the seed of the woman one who should bruise the serpent's head, Gen. iii. 15. and thus anticipated the condemnation of mankind by a gratuitous redemption. John iii. 16. "God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son-." Rom. iii. 25. "whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith." V. 8. "God commendeth his love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners Christ died for us." Heb. ii. 9. "that he, by the grace of God, should taste death for every man.” 1 John iv. 9, 10. "in this was manifested the love of God toward us, because that God sent his only begotten Son......not that we loved God, but that he loved us." Hence the Father is often called our Saviour, inasmuch as it is by his eternal counsel and grace alone that we are saved. Luke i. 47. " my spirit has rejoiced in God my Saviour." be the Lord God of Israel, for he hath visited and redeemed his people, and hath raised up an horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David." 1 Tim. i. 1. "by the commandment of God our Saviour, and Lord Jesus Christ, which is our hope." ii. 3. "for this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour." iv. 10. " we trust in the living God, who is the Saviour of all men." Tit. i. 3. "according to the commandment of God our Saviour." ii. 10. "that they may adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things." iii. 46. "but after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour towards man appeared, .... according to his mercy he saved us by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost, which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour." Jude 25. "to the only wise God our Saviour be glory;" where the Vetus Interpres and some of

v. 68, 69. "blessed

the Greek manuscripts add, "through Jesus Christ our Lord.'


CHRIST BEING SENT IN THE FULNESS OF TIME. Gal. iv. 4. "but when the fulness of time was come, God sent forth his Son." Eph. i. 10. "in the dispensation of the fulness of times."

AT THE PRICE OF HIS OWN BLOOD. Isai. liii. 1, &c. Acts xx. 28. "the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood." Rom. iii. 25. "a propitiation through faith in his blood." 1 Cor. vi. 20. " ye are bought with a price." See also vii. 23. Gal. iii. 13. "being made a curse for Eph. v. 2. "he hath given himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God." Heb. ii. 9. "that he should taste death for every man." xiii. 20. "through the blood of the everlasting covenant. 1 Pet. i. 19. "with the precious blood


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of Christ." iii. 18. "Christ also hath once suffered for sins.' Rev. i. 5. "that washed us from our sins in his own blood." 7. 9. "thou hast redeemed us to God by thy blood." "the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world."

xiii. 8.

BY HIS OWN VOLUNTARY ACT. Isai. liii. 10. "upon condition that his soul make a trespass offering," Horsley's Translation. Matt. xx. 28. "to give his life a ransom for many." John x. 15, 18. "I lay down my life for the sheep: no man taketh from me, but I lay it down myself; I have power to take it again." Eph. v. 2. "he hath given himself for us.” Philipp. ii. 8. "became obedient unto death." "who gave himself a ransom for all."

1 Tim. ii. 6.

ALL BELIEVERS. Rom. iii. 25. "a propitiation through

faith in his blood."

There is no other Redeemer or Mediator besides Christ. Acts iv. 12. "neither is there salvation in any other, for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby

1 These words are found in fifteen manuscripts, according to Wetstein, and in the Vulgate, two Syriac, Coptic, and Arabic versions. See also Mill on this verse.


2 That his soul should make the trespass offering, expresses that it was with the full consent of his own mind that he made the painful atonement. See Vitringa upon the place.' Horsley's Bibl. Crit. in loc. Quandoquidem semetipsum exposuit, Tremellius. If his soul shall make a propitiatory sacrifice. Lowth's Translation. A different sense is given to the passage in our authorised version: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for


we must be saved." 1 Tim. ii. 5. "there is one mediator the man Christ Jesus." John xiv. 6. “ no man cometh unto the Father, but by me.'


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There was a promise made to all mankind, and an expectation of the Redeemer, more or less distinct, even from the time of the fall. Gen. iii. 15. "I will put enmity." xxii. 18. "in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed." See also xxvi. 4. xxviii. 14. xlix. 10. "until Shiloh, or the peacemaker come." Deut. xviii. 15. "Jehovah thy God will raise up unto thee a prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken: according to all that thou desiredst of Jehovah thy God in Horeb saying, Let me not hear again the voice of Jehovah my God, neither let me see this great fire any more, that I die not. Job xix. 25, 26. "I know that my redeemer liveth." In the Psalms and prophetical writings the advent of the Redeemer is intimated with less obscurity. Psal. lxxxix. 35, 36. once have I sworn by my holiness, that I will not lie unto David. His seed shall endure for ever." Isai. xi. 1, &c. "there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse." Jer. xxx. 9. "they shall serve Jehovah their God, and David their king, whom I will raise up unto them." xxxii. 15. “at that time will I cause the branch of righteousness to grow up unto David."

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At the appointed time he was sent into the world. Gal. iv, 4. as above.

Two points are to be considered in relation to Christ's character as Redeemer; his NATURE and OFFICE.

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His NATURE is twofold; divine and human, Matt. xvi. 16. "the Christ, the Son of the living God." Gen. iii. 15, "the seed of the woman. John i. 1, 14. "the Word was God.... and the Word was made flesh." iii. 13. "he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man that is in heaven.' v. 31. "he that cometh from above....he that cometh from heaven." Acts ii. 30. " of the fruit of the loins of David, according to the flesh." See also Rom. i. 3. viii. 3. "God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh." ix. 5. “of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over all, God.” 1 Cor. xv. 47. "the second man is the Lord from heaven." Gal. iv. 4. "God sent forth his Son, made of a woman." Philipp. ii. 7, 8. "but made himself of no repu

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