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Part First .
THE INFLUENCE OF BOOKS.
Would you know a whether the tendency of a book is good or evil, examine in what state 2 of mind you lay it down. Has it induced you to suspect that what you have been accustomed to think unlawful,+ may after
» « Je
1 Whether, si—2 state, disposition—3 you lay it down, translate, you shut it”—4 to think unlawful, à regarder comme illicite.
a Would you know, voudriez-vous savoir, and not: sauriez-vous.Would is not simply here the auxiliary indicating the conditional of the verb know, but is in itself a distinct verb. Let the learner bear in mind that whenever I, he, etc., would stands for I, he, etc., would be willing, or would like to the conditional of vouloir must be used. Ex., “I would not do it, even though ne voudrais pas le faire, quand même When I, he, etc., would stands for I, he, etc., was willing or determined to it must be expressed by the imperfect, or, as the case may be, by the preterite, or by the perfect (“passé indéfini ") of vouloir. Ex., “ He would not come the other day,” “il n'a pas voulu venir l'autre jour.”
In the same manner, when should before a verb is not the mere auxiliary given by the grammars, but stands, as it generally does, for ought to, it must be rendered by the conditional of devoir. Ex., “We should esteem virtue, though in a foe,” “Nous devrions estimer la vertu, même dans un ennemi.”
all be a innocent, and that that may be harmless which 1 you have hitherto been taught to think dangerous ? Has it tended to make
dissatisfied and impatient under 3 the control of others; 4 and disposed you 5 to relax in that self-government, without which both ? the laws of God and man 8 tell us there can be no virtue, and consequently no 9 happiness ? Has it attempted to abate 10 your admiration of 11 what is great and good, and to diminish in you the love of your country and 12 your fellow-creatures ? Has it addressed itself 13 to your pride, your vanity, your 14 selfishness, or any other 15 of your evil propensities? Has it defiled the imagination with 16 what is loathsome, or shocked the heart with 1 what is monstrous ? Has it disturbed the sense of right and wrong? the a Creator has implanted in the human soul? If so if you are conscious of all or any of these effects -_-or if, having escaped from 5 all, you
1 And that may be harmless which, et qu'il peut n'y avoir aucun mal dans ce que—? you have hitherto been taught to think, on vous a jusqu'alors enseigné à considérer comme—3 impatient under, impatient de—4 others, autrui—5 and disposed you, translate, “ has it disposed you " (leaving out and)—6 to relax in that self-government, à vous relâcher de cet empire sur vous-même— both to be left out _8 of God and man, translate, “divine and human ”_ there can
and consequently no, qu'il ne peut y avoir de ...... ni par conséquent de.... 10 attempted to abate, essayé d'amoindrir-11 of,
-12 “and of”—13 has it...... itself, s'est-il......—14 “ vanity, to your......"-15 or any other, ou à tout autre—16 with, de.
“ to your
a The remark in the preceding page in reference to would and should applies to may. Here again the English pupil is too often misled by his recollection of the conjugation of verbs as given in his grammar, and loses sight of the fact that in his language no idea of the subjunctive mood is attached as a rule to may, which being used as a separate verb, must be rendered separately by the present indicative or future of pouvoir. Thus here may after all be must be translated “peut après tout être” (and not “soit”). In fact, the subjunctive is often expressed in English, (elliptically, no doubt,) without any auxiliary, as, “ though it be in a foe,” “ lest it be too late," etc. But even when may is clearly intended to convey the subjunctive mood, the use of pouvoir (now in the subjunctive) is more forcible. Ex., “in order that we may obtain ...... "afin
que nous puissions obtenir
The same may be said of might, which should generally be rendered as a distinct verb by the imperfect indicative or the conditional of pouvoir.
• To make, before an adjective, is expressed by rendre.
have felt that such were the effects it was intended to 6 produce, throw the book into the fire, whatever name it may bear? on the title-page! Throw it into the fire, young man. Young lady! away with the whole set, though it should be the prominent feature in ' a rosewood bookcase.
A FATAL TRIUMPH.
Once, in some far oriental kingdom, when 10 the Sultan of all the land 11 with 12 his princes, ladies, and 13 chief omrahs,14 were flying their falcons, 15 a hawk suddenly flew atb a majestic eagle; and, in defiance of 16 the
With, par—? of right and wrong, du bien et du mal—3 if so, s'il en est ainsi—4 if you are conscious of all or any of these effects, si vous avez conscience de tous ces effets ou même de quelques-uns -5 from, à—6 it was intended to, qu'il avait pour but de—? whatever....... it may bear, quelque......qu'il puisse porter (or, simply: qu'il porte)— young lady! away with the whole set, jeune fille ! au feu toute la collection—though it should be the prominent feature in, formât-elle le principal ornement de.
10 Once, in some far oriental kingdom, when, un jour que, dans un certain royaume à l'extrêmité de l'orient (or : de l'extrême orient)— land, contrée—12 with, “accompanied by (de)”_13 ladies, and, de ses dames et de ses- 14 chief omrahs, principaux omrahs
were flying their falcons, lançait le faucon (observe the singular)—16 in defiance of, en dépit de.
a “ Which the," etc. The relative pronoun que cannot be dropped in this way in French; nor can the conjunctiou que, “ that.”
o Suddenly flew at, etc., s'élança tout-à-coup sur, etc. Adverbs generally follow the verb in French, if the tense is a simple one. With a compound tense, they come between the auxiliary and the past participle.