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sequent predominance of the old worship, we discover the notorious Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, more than once preaching at Paul's Cross. For instance, Strype mentions his delivering a sermon on Sunday, the 30th of October 1553, “ which he did with much applause, before an audience as great as ever was known, and among the rest all the council that were then at court." Again, on the 2nd of December following, we find him preaching before King Philip of Spain. One of the audience was Cardinal Pole, who, we are told, proceeded by water from Lambeth Palace to Paul's wharf, where he landed, and “ from thence to Paul's Church with a cross, two pillars, and two pole-axes of silver, borne before him.”
On the accession of Elizabeth, the pure doctrines, in defence of which Latimer and Ridley had yielded up
their lives in the flames, were again proclaimed from Paul's Cross, to the great joy and satisfaction of the citizens of London. Hither, on the 24th of November 1588, we find Elizabeth proceeding, attended by the Earl of Essex and a gorgeous array of lords and ladies, to return thanks for the destruction of the “ Invincible Armada.” The sermon was preached by Dr. Pierce, Bishop of Salisbury; the Queen being seated in a closet which had been prepared for her against the north wall of the church. The coach in which she came to Paul's Cross is said to have been the first which had been used in England.
On the 26th of March 1620, we find James the
First proceeding on horseback in great state to Paul's Cross to hear a sermon preached by Dr. John King, Bishop of London. The last time that a sermon at Paul's Cross was preached before one of our sovereigns appears to have been on the 30th of May 1630, when Charles the First proceeded in state to St. Paul's, to return thanks for the birth of his son, afterwards Charles the Second.
In September 1643 the Long Parliament voted the destruction of the different crosses in London and Westminster, as offensive relics of Popery; and accordingly, the following year, Paul's Cross was razed to the ground.
The melancholy fate of the venerable Cathedral may be related in a few words. Like many other religious structures, which for centuries had been the glory of the land, St. Paul's suffered considerably at the Reformation. Its ancient monuments and brasses were either defaced or destroyed ; while, as has already been mentioned, the beautiful cloisters were demolished by the Protector Somerset, in order to furnish materials for completing his palace in the Strand. Again, in 1561, we find the noble steeple entirely destroyed by fire ; many other parts of the edifice being at the same time greatly injured. With the exception of the roof having been repaired in 1566, St. Paul's appears to have remained in a very ruinous state till 1633; when, chiefly by the instrumentality of Archbishop Laud, large sums of money were subscribed for the purpose of restoring it to its ancient magnificence.
Laud laid the first stone, and Inigo Jones the fourth. Charles the First, at his own expense, erected the portico at the west front; while Sir Paul Pindar not only restored the beautiful screen at the entrance into the choir, but also gave 40001. towards the repair of the south transept. At length, with the exception of the steeple, the whole was completed in 1643, at an expense of nearly 100,0001. when the breaking out of the Civil Wars again doomed St. Paul's to havoc and desecration. The beautiful carved ornaments were recklessly demolished by the Puritans with axes and hammers; the body of the church was converted into stalls for troopers' horses; and Lord Brooke was even heard to observe, that he hoped to see the day when not one stone of St. Paul's should be left upon another. Charles the Second commenced repairing it in 1663, but three years afterwards it was entirely destroyed by the
The present St. Paul's Cathedral, less interesting, perhaps, but still a scarcely less magnificent structure than its predecessor,- was commenced in 1675; divine service was first performed in it on the 2d December 1697, and, with the exception of some of the decorations, it was completed in 1710. Unquestionably it is the greatest architectural work which was ever completed by a single individual. Moreover, it is a singular fact, that notwithstanding it occupied thirty-five years in building, yet it was begun and completed by one architect, Sir Christo
pher Wren; under one Bishop of London, Dr. Henry Compton; and under one master-mason, Mr. Thomas Strong: whereas St. Peter's, at Rome, occupied one hundred and fifty-five years in building, under the rule of nineteen Popes, and under the superintendence of twelve successive architects. The height of St. Peter's to the top of the cross, is four hundred and thirty-seven feet and a-half; its length is seven hundred and twenty-nine feet; and its greatest breadth five hundred and ten feet. The dimensions of St. Paul's are three hundred and forty feet in height; five hundred in length ; and two hundred and fifty at its extreme breadth. The total original cost of the present cathedral was 747,9541. 2s. 9d.
As a remuneration for his labours in superintending the progress of his great work, Sir Christopher Wren received only two hundred a-year. The celebrated Duchess of Marlborough was once squabbling with an architect whom she employed in the works at Blenheim. The architect insisted that a claim which he had preferred was not an exorbitant one.
Why,” said the Duchess, “Sir Christopher Wren was content to be dragged up to the top of St. Paul's three times a week, in a basket, and at a great hazard, for 2001. a-year." But the true reward of Wren was the prospect of undying fame. When compelled to add the side aisles, which deform his noble cathedral, he is said to have actually shed tears. The addition of these aisles is stated to have been owing to the influence of the Duke of York,
who contemplated the day when high mass might again be performed in St. Paul's, and when they would be converted into auxiliary chapels.
The greatest satisfaction of Sir Christopher Wren, at the close of his life, is said to have been derived from the occasional visits which he paid to London, for the purpose of contemplating the magnificent structure which his genius had created. His remains lie interred in the crypt of the cathedral, beneath the great dome. His resting-place is pointed out neither by storied urn nor sculptured marble; but his fame required no such tribute, for the vast Cathedral is itself his monument. In the words of the conspicuous inscription over the entrance into the choir
Si monumentum requiris circumspice.
Among many other celebrated men, whose remains lie interred in the present Cathedral, may be mentioned the names of Bishop Newton, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Benjamin West, James Barry, John Opie, Lord Nelson, Lord Collingwood, Sir Thomas Lawrence, Henry Fuseli; and lastly, of John Rennie, the architect of that noble structure, Waterloo Bridge.
In the crypt of the cathedral may be seen the graves of these eminent men. The resting-place of Nelson is probably that which excites the deepest and most general interest. The sarcophagus which encloses his coffin was originally made at the expense of Cardinal Wolsey, and was intended