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time," says Aubrey, "I have heard my uncle Danvers say, who knew him, that he lived without Temple Bar, at a comb-maker's shop, about the Elephant and Castle. In his later time he lived in Westminster, in the house under which you pass as you go out of the church-yard into the old palace, where he died." "Temple Bar without" included the houses between Essex Street and the Bar. In 1740 wẹ find William Shenstone, the poet, dating his letters from a Mr. Wintle's, a perfumer, near Temple Bar.

On the south side of the Strand, close to Temple Bar, is Palsgrave Place; apparently so called from the Palsgrave, Frederick Count Palatine of the Rhine, who was married at Whitehall, on the 14th of February 1613, to the interesting Princess Elizabeth, daughter of James the First. Close to the Palsgrave Head Tavern stood, in the days of the Commonwealth, the once famous Haycock's Ordinary; "much frequented," says Aubrey, "by Parliament-men and gallants." In the year 1650, we discover the celebrated engraver, William Faithorne, setting up a shop under the name and sign of the Ship, "next to the Drake, opposite the Palgrave's Head Tavern, without Temple Bar."

On the opposite side of the street, facing St. Clement's Church, stood Butcher Row, which derives its name from a market for butchers' meat which was anciently held here. The site is now principally occupied. by Pickett Place, so called from Alderman Pickett, to whose exertions we owe

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the removal of the miserable hovels of which Butcher Row principally consisted. In 1790, we find Butcher Row spoken of as composed of "those wretched fabrics overhanging their foundations, the receptacles of dirt in every corner of their projecting stories, the bane of ancient London; where the plague, with all its attendant horrors, frowned destruction on the miserable inhabitants, reserving its forces for the attacks of each returning summer." Among the houses which were pulled down in Butcher Row was the residence of M. de Beaumont, the French Ambassador in the reign of James the First, subsequently divided in several tenements. It was in this house that the celebrated Duke de Sully passed a night in 1603, previous to his taking up his abode in Arundel House, which had been prepared for him. The old mansion bore the date "1581," and at the time of its demolition, in 1813, was still conspicuous from the roses, crowns, and fleurs-de-lis which decorated its exterior.


It was on quitting a house of entertainment in Butcher Row, known as the "Bear and Harrow," that the improvident dramatic poet, Nathaniel Lee, met with the accident which caused his death. According to Oldys, in his MS. notes to Langbaine"He was returning one night from the Bear and Harrow, in Butcher Row, through Clare Market, to his lodgings in Duke Street, overladen with wine, when he fell down on the ground, as some say,-according to others, on a bulk,-and was killed or stifled in the snow." In Butcher Row was another house of VOL. II.


entertainment, "Clifton's Eating House," which was occasionally the resort of Dr. Johnson. "Happening to dine," says Boswell, "at Clifton's Eating House, in Butcher Row, I was surprised to see Johnson come in and take his seat at another table. The mode of dining, or rather being fed, at such houses in London is well known to many to be peculiarly unsocial, as there is no ordinary or united company, but each person has his own mess, and is under no obligation to hold intercourse with any one. A liberal and full-minded man, however, who loves to talk, will break through this churlish and unsocial restraint. Johnson and an Irish gentleman got into a dispute concerning the cause of some part of mankind being black. Why, Sir,' says Johnson, it has been accounted for in three ways: either by supposing that they are the posterity of Ham, who was cursed; or that God at first created two kinds of men, one black and another white; or that by the heat of the sun the skin is scorched, and so acquires a sooty hue. The matter has been much canvassed among naturalists, but has never been brought to any certain issue.' What the Irishman said is totally obliterated from my mind; but I remember that he became very warm and intemperate in his expressions, upon which Johnson rose and quietly walked away. When he had retired, his antagonist took his revenge, as he thought, by saying-He has a most ungainly figure, and an affectation of pomposity unworthy of a man of genius.'" At the end of Newcastle Street, “at

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the corner-house over against Strand Bridge," lived, in the reign of Charles the Second, the astrologer, William Lilly. He had formerly been a menial in the house of which he was afterwards the master.

Devereux Court and Essex Street, close to Temple Bar, derive their names from the mansion. of the ill-fated Thomas Devereux, Earl of Essex, which stood upon its site. In Devereux Court, was the well-known "Grecian" Coffee House, one of the oldest in London, and to which there are frequent allusions in the "Spectator" and "Tatler." It derives its name apparently from one Constantine, a Greek, who, in the early part of the reign of Charles the Second, obtained a licence to sell coffee, chocolate, and tea, then newly imported into this country. The "Grecian" has recently

been converted into sets of chambers, but on its front may still be seen a bust of the Earl of Essex, the Parliamentary General, said to be the work of Gabriel Cibber, with the inscription,-" This is Devereux Court, 1676." The "Grecian was a favourite place of resort of Oliver Goldsmith.

Dr. King, in his "Anecdotes of his own Time," relates the following anecdote in connexion with the "Grecian" Coffee House. "A trifling incident," he says, "has sometimes been the occasion of the greatest quarrels, and such as have ended fatally. I remember two gentlemen, who were constant companions, disputing one evening at the Grecian Coffee House, concerning the accent of a Greek word. The dispute was carried to such a

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length that the two friends thought proper to determine it with their swords. For this purpose they stept out into Devereux Court, where one of them (whose name, if I rightly remember, was Fitzgerald) was run through the body and died on the spot." "Tom's Coffee House," in Devereux Court, was a favourite place of resort of Akenside, the poet, and of Dr. Birch, the industrious biographer and antiquary.

It was in Essex Street, at the house of a staunch Jacobite, Lady Primrose, that Prince Charles Edward was concealed during the secret visit which he paid to London, in 1750. "In September, 1750," says Dr. King, "I received a note from my Lady Primrose, who desired to see me immediately. As soon as I waited on her, she led me into her dressing-room, and presented me to (the Pretender). If I was surprised to find him there, I was still more astonished when he acquainted me with the motives which had induced him to hazard a journey to England at this juncture. The impatience of his friends, who were in exile, had formed a scheme which was impracticable; but although it had been as feasible as they had represented it to him, yet no preparation had been made to carry it into execution. He was soon convinced that he had been deceived, and, therefore, after a stay in London of five days only, he returned to the place whence he came.' It was in Lady Primrose's hospitable mansion, in Essex-street, that the interesting Flora Macdonald had previously found an

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