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RED LION SQUARE, GREAT ORMOND STREET, BLOOMSBURY SQUARE, &c.

CROMWELL'S SUPPOSED GRAVE IN RED LION SQUARE. — LAMB'S-CON

DUIT FIELDS. GREAT ORMOND STREET. QUEEN SQUARE, SOUTHAMPTON ROW.--BLOOMSBURY SQUARE.-BURNING OF LORD MANSFIELD'S HOUSE. CELEBRATED PERSONS WHO LIVED IN BLOOMSBURY SQUARE. HIGHWAY ROBBERIES. GREAT RUSSELL STREET. MONTAGUE HOUSE, NOW THE BRITISH MUSEUM DUCHESS OF MONTAGUE.

FORMERLY there existed a favourite tradition among the inhabitants of Red Lion Square and its vicinity, that the body of Oliver Cromwell was buried in the centre of their square, beneath an obelisk, which stood there till within the last few years.* The likelihood of such a fact strikes us, at first thought, as improbable enough, and yet, on consideration, we are inclined to think that beneath this spot not improbably moulder, not only the

• Pennant speaks of the “clumsy obelisk" in Red Lion Square, and mentions that it was inscribed with the following lines :

Obtusum
Obtusioris Ingenii

Monumentum.
Quid me respicis, viator ?

Vade. Could this quaint inscription have any hidden reference to the bones of Cromwell lying beneath it? We think not; but they are meant to mystify, and what, therefore, do they mean?

bones of the great Protector, but also those of Ireton and Bradshaw, whose remains were disinterred at the same timè from Westminster Abbey, and exposed on the same gallows.

As regards the last resting-place of these remarkable men, the contemporary accounts simply inform us, that on the anniversary of the death of Charles the First, their bodies were borne on sledges to Tyburn, where, after having hung till sunset, they were cut down and beheaded; that their bodies were then flung into a hole at the foot of the gallows, and their heads fixed upon poles on the roof of Westminster Hall. From the word Tyburn being here so distinctly laid down, it has usually been taken for granted that it was intended to designate the well-known place for executing criminals, nearly at the north end of Park Lane, or, as it was anciently styled, Tyburn Lane. When we read, however, of a criminal, in old times, being executed at Tyburn, we are not necessarily to presume that it was at this particular spot; the gallows having unquestionably been shifted at times from place to place and the word Tyburn having been given indiscriminately, for the time being, to each distinct spot. For instance, sixty years before the death of Cromwell, the gallows were frequently erected at the extremity of St. Giles's parish, at the end of the present Tottenham Court Road; while, for nearly two centuries, the Holborn end of Fetter Lane, within a short distance of Red Lion Square, was no less frequently the place of execution.

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Indeed, in 1643, only a few years before the exhumation and gibbeting of Cromwell, we find Nathaniel Tomkins executed at this spot for his share in Waller's plot to surprise the city.

In addition, however, to these surmises, is the curious fact of the bodies of Cromwell and Ireton having been brought in carts, on the night previous to their exposure on the gibbet, to the Red Lion Inn, Holborn,- from which Red Lion Square derives its name,—where they rested during the night. In taking this step it is surely not unreasonable to presume that the Government had in view the selection of a house in the immediate vicinity of the scaffold, in order that the bodies might be in readiness for the disgusting exhibition of the following morning. Supposing this to have been the case, the place of their exposure and interment could scarcely have been the end of Tyburn Lane, inasmuch as the distance thither from Westminster is actu: 'ly shorter than that from Westminster to Red Lion Square; while, at the same time, there was apparently no good reason for adopting so circuitous a route. The object of the Government could hardly have been to create a sensation, by parading the bodies along a populous thoroughfare, inasmuch as the ground between St. Giles's Pound and Tyburn, a distance of a mile and a half, was at this period almost entirely open country.

The author has dwelt longer, perhaps, on the subject than such vague surmises may seem to deserve. The question, however, is not altogether an un

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interesting one, and there may be others, probably, who may have the means of, and who may take a pleasure in, further elucidating it.

In Bedford Row, running parallel with Red Lion Street, Bishop Warburton was residing in 1750; and lere, at No. 14, lived the eminent surgeon, John Abernethy.

Lamb's-Conduit-Street derives its name from one William Lamb, an eminent cloth-worker, who erected a water-conduit on its site, in 1577.* It was taken down in 1746. As late as the reign of Queen Anne, Lamb's-Conduit-Fields formed a favourite promenade for the citizens of London. On a portion of their site was erected, in 1739, the present Foundling Hospital for the reception of “exposed and deserted children.” The founder was Captain Thomas Coram, a merchant-seaman, from whom Great Coram Street derives its name. This excellent person, having passed a long life in the performance of acts of charity and benevelence, found himself, in his old age, reduced to compara

His friends were desirous of raising a subscription for him, but fearful of offending him, they enquired of him, in the first instance, whether he was averse to such a measure. The reply was worthy of the man. “I have not wasted,” he said,

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* This munificent individual purchased, and bequeathed to the Cloth workers the hermitage of St. James-in-the-Wall, situated at the north corner of Monkwell Street, Cripplegate. He died in 1577. Stow styles him “one of the gentlemen of the King's chapel, citizen and clothworker of London.”—Stow's “Survey," p. 100. Ed. 1842.

tive penury.

I am

“ the little wealth of which I was formerly possessed in self-indulgence or vain expenses, and am not ashamed to confess that in

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age poor." This excellent man died 29th March 1751, at his lodgings near Leicester Square, and by his own wish was buried in the vaults under the chapel of the Foundling Hospital. Since 1760, the Foundling has been used as a hospital for illegitimate children generally, whose mothers were of previous good character, and who are without the means of providing for their offspring. The Foundling Hospital contains some very interesting pictures by Hogarth, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Gainsborough, and others, and is altogether well worthy of a visit.

Lamb's-Conduit-Street leads us into Great Ormond Street, the site of which was formerly occupied by Powys House, the residence, in the reign of William the Third, of the Herberts, Marquisses of Powys. Their name is still preserved in Powys Place. In the reign of Queen Anne, Powys House was occupied by the French Ambassador, the Duc d'Aumont, and being burnt down during his occupancy, it was rebuilt with considerable splendour, at the expense of Louis the Fourteenth. The second mansion, which was of brick ornamented with fluted pilasters, was remarkable for having a large reservoir on the roof, which served the double : purpose of a fish-pond, and of supplying water in case of fire. Powys House, which for twenty years was the residence of Lord Chancellor Hardwicke, was pulled down in 1777, a portion of the present

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