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order of the usurping powers. The purchasers were one Matthew Hardy, or Hardinge, and Colonel Thomas Scot, of whom the latter sat as one of the King's judges, and was subsequently executed after the Restoration, at Charing Cross. The sum for which the palace and manor
were sold 7,0731. Os. 8d. As might have been anticipated, the work of demolition and desecration speedily commenced. The fine old hall, built by Archbishop Chicheley, was pulled down, and the materials sold; the monuments in the chapel were either destroyed or mutilated; and the chapel itself was converted into a kind of banqueting-room. In this condition the venerable palace remained till the Restoration, when Archbishop Juxon, on his appointment to the See of Canterbury, restored it with great care and expense.
He also rebuilt the hall after its ancient model. Other additions and improvements have since been made by successive primates, among which was the stately withdrawing-room built by Archbishop Cornwallis in 1769.
Passing under Cardinal Morton's noble gateway, let us occupy a short time in strolling over the old edifice. Close to the gateway is the porter's lodge, adjoining which is a small room, the walls of which are of great thickness, and which is guarded by double doors. Within this apartment may be seen three strong iron rings affixed to the wall; affording unquestionable evidence that it was anciently used as a prison. Here, it is said, some of the devoted Lollards were confined ; on occasions
when the tower which bears their name was full to overflowing
On the right of the court-yard is the great hall rebuilt by Archbishop Juxon, who appears to have watched its progress towards completion with great interest. In his last will, he says :—“If I happen to die before the hall at Lambeth be finished, my executors are to be at the charge of finishing it according to the model made of it, if my successor shall give leave.” The hall is ninety-three feet in length, thirty-eight in breadth, and upwards of fifty feet in height. The roof, which is of oak and chestnut, elaborately carved, represents in several places the arms of Archbishop Juxon and of the See of Canterbury. Striking and brilliant too is the large north window, rich with ancient and beautiful specimens of painted glass, collected from different parts of the old edifice. Here are repeated the arms of Juxon and of the See of Canterbury; and, conspicuous above the rest, the arms of Philip the Second of Spain,—the husband of Queen Mary,— which are said to have been painted by order of Cardinal Pole, in compliment to his royal mistress.
The great hall is now converted into a library. The noble collection of books which it contains, very narrowly escaped being sold and dispersed during the Commonwealth, but, by the exertions of the learned Selden, were fortunately preserved to the See. Archbishop Bancroft, it seems, when he formed the library in 1610, had provided that security should be given for its preservation by each succeeding prelate; failing which, it was to be transferred as a gift to Chelsea College,—in the event of its being erected within six years after his death, or, if not, to the University of Cambridge. Chelsea College not having been built within the required period, and the troubled state of the times threatening the immediate sale and dispersion of the books, Selden suggested to, and induced the University of Cambridge to lay claim to them. Shortly after the Restoration, they were claimed by Archbishop Juxon as the rightful property of the See, but it was not till the time of his successor, Archbishop Sheldon, and after considerable trouble, that they were restored to Lambeth Palace. Succeeding primates have enriched the library by numerous donations and bequests, and it is needless to remark that the collection of manuscripts is of great value.
The Guard Chamber,—designated in the steward's account in the reign of Henry the Sixth as the camera armigerorum,—is a beautiful and interesting apartment. Here, in former times, were hung the armour and weapons kept for the defence of the palace, which weapons passed, by purchase, from one Archbishop to another. In addition to a few of earlier date, this apartment contains an unbroken series of portraits of the primates of England, from the days of Archbishop Warham,—who was translated to the archiepiscopal see in 1504,--to the present time. These portraits, moreover, possess an additional interest from the circumstance of their presenting to the eye, at one view, the different alterations in ecclesiastical costume which have taken place during the three last centuries and a half.
The guard chamber opens into the Gallery, another fine apartment, originally built by Cardinal Pole, which is also full of interesting portraits of different prelates and other eminent persons. Among the latter may be mentioned the fine picture of Luther and his wife, said to be the work of Holbein, and a portrait, richly painted and gilded, of Catherine Parr. Other apartments, such as the Presence Chamber, which was formerly hung with tapestry—the Great Dining Room—and the Old Drawing Room,-anciently styled le velvet room, from its having been hung with red and purple velvet--are also well worthy of a visit.
The Chapel, which is supposed to have been part of the original edifice of Archbishop Boniface, measures seventy-two feet in length, twenty-five in breadth, and thirty in height. The beautiful lancet windows, rich with stained glass—the adornment of which was alleged as a crime against Archbishop Laud at his trial—were destroyed by the Puritans during the civil troubles; but the elaborately carved oak screen, bearing the arms of Laud, still remains, In front of the altar is the monument of the learned and venerable Archbishop Parker, whose remains having been dug up by the Puritans, and stripped of their leaden covering, were flung into a hole under a dung-hill, but were afterwards re-interred in the Chapel at the Restoration. He was conse
crated as Archbishop in this chapel (the celebrated Miles Coverdale assisting at the ceremony) though, according to his Roman Catholic maligners, it took place at the Nag's Head, in Cheapside. We may mention that every Archbishop since the time of Boniface has been consecrated in Lambeth Chapel.
Unquestionably the most interesting spot in Lambeth Palace, is the Lollard's tower, erected by Archbishop Chicheley, between the years 1424 and 1445. The principal apartment is about thirteen feet in length, twelve in breadth, and eight in height; the roof and walls, as well as the flooring, being boarded. The door is of vast strength and thickness, and to the walls may be seen affixed eight iron rings, speaking silently and significantly of many a tale of suffering and horror. Within these walls were probably immured the two first intrepid martyrs of the Reformation-William Sautre, parish priest of St. Osithes, London, and John Badby, who both suffered in the flames. “This being the first condemnation of the kind in England,” says Southey, “ Archbishop Arundel was punctual in all its forms, that they might serve as an exact precedent in future.”
The name of Lollards, is said to have been originally given in the Low Countries to the persecuted Franciscans, and other enthusiasts, from their habit of singing hymns; the word lollen, or lullen, in one of the old German dialects signifying to sing, as a mother does when she lulls her babe.