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markable buildings in Cheapside, the Cross and the Conduit. The Cross, which stood nearly opposite to Wood Street, was one of those beautiful architectural memorials raised by Edward the First, in 1296, to the memory of his beloved consort, Eleanor of Castile; marking out each spot where her remains had rested in their progress from Hardeby, in Lincolnshire, where she died, to their last home in Westminster Abbey. The cross in Cheapside is described as having been elaborately sculptured, being ornamented with statues of the Virgin, Edward the Confessor, Queen Eleanor, and others. Falling into decay, it was rebuilt in 1441, at the expense of John Hatherly, Lord Mayor of London, John Fisher, Mercer, and other persons. In consequence of its being decorated with popish images it was much injured by the populace in 1581; but was again repaired in 1591. Its final demolition took place on the 2d of May 1643, when it shared the fate of many other religious crosses in England, the destruction of which was voted by the Parliament. This work of sacrilege was entrusted to Sir Robert Barlow, who, on the appointed day, surrounded the cross with a troop of horse and two companies of foot. At the moment that the cross at the top fell beneath the blows of the workmen, the drums beat and the trumpets sounded; the multitude at the same time throwing their caps into the air, and raising a general shout of joyful acclamation. On the night of the 6th, the leaden pipes were melted on the spot where the cross had lately stood, amidst the ringing

of bells and the renewed shouts of the populace. The destruction of this "stately cross" was witnessed by Evelyn, who mentions it in his "Diary" with expressions of great regret.

The Conduit in Cheapside stood rather to the east of the Cross, in the middle of the street, close to the Poultry. It was built about the year 1281, and was of stone, richly decorated. Having fallen into decay, it was re-built in 1479, by Thomas Ilam, Sheriff of London, and continued in use till about the year 1613, when it was superseded by the great work of Sir Hugh Myddleton, who had accomplished his project of supplying London with water from the New River. There was a "lesser conduit" in Cheapside, known as the Little Conduit, which stood in the middle of the street, near the east end of Paternoster Row.

The following incident in connexion with Cheapside, is related by Anthony Wood as having taken place during the agitation caused by the famous "Popish Plot," in 1679:-"In the evening (24th October), when the Duke of York returned from his entertainment in the city, Oates and Bedloe were got into the balcony of one Cockerill, a blinkeyed bookseller, in Cheapside, and a great rabble about them. As the Duke passed by, they cried out, 'a Pope, a Pope,' upon which, one of the Duke's guard cocked his pistol, and rode back, saying, 'What factious rogues are these? Upon which, they cried out, No Pope, no Pope;' 'God




bless his highness.' So the King's worthy evidence, Oates and Bedloe, sneaked away.'

In Cheapside was born, in 1591, one of the sweetest of lyric poets, Robert Herrick. In his "Tears to Thamasis," he writes

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Never again shall I with finnie oar

Put from, or draw unto, the faithful shore;
And landing here, or safely landing there,
way to my
beloved Westminster;
Or to the golden Cheapside, where the earth.
Of Julia Herrick gave to me my birth.

The expression of the "golden" Cheapside has apparently reference to the father of the poet, Nicholas Herrick having carried on the business of a goldsmith in this street. The latter did not survive the birth of his gifted son much more than a year; dying on the 9th of November, 1592, of injuries which he received by a fall from an upper window of his house in Cheapside. From the circumstance of his will having been made only two days before this event, it has been conjectured that the fall was not altogether accidental.

Another poet, whose name is associated with Cheapside, is Sir Richard Blackmore, who commenced practice as a physician in this street, where, according to Dr. Johnson, he "obtained high eminence and extensive practice." "His residence," adds Johnson, "was in Cheapside, and his friends were chiefly in the city. In the early part of Blackmore's time a citizen was a term of re

* "Lives of Leland, Hearne, and Wood,” ii. 291.

proach, and his place of abode was another topic to which his adversaries had recourse, in the penury of scandal."

In Cheapside, the pure-minded philosopher and angler, Isaac Walton, carried on for some years the humble trade of a sempster. According to Anthony Wood, he resided here till 1643, at which time, finding it dangerous for honest men to be there, he left the city, and lived sometimes at Stafford, and elsewhere, but mostly in the families of the eminent clergymen of England, by whom he was much beloved."


Another celebrated person who lived in Cheapside was Sir Christopher Wren, whose residence is said to have been at No. 73. In this street also died, in 1769, in his eighty-eighth year, Mr. David Barclay, the last surviving son of Robert Barclay, the author of the " Apology for the Quakers." He carried on the business of a mercer, and had the singular honour of receiving, at his house in Cheapside, three successive monarchs, on the occasion of their severally visiting the city on Lord Mayor's day.

At No. 3, Cheapside, at the corner of Paternoster Row, lived John Beyer, a linen-draper, the original of Cowper's admirable ballad of John Gilpin, and from hence it was that he set out on his memorable ride.

So three doors off the chaise was stayed,

Where they did all get in


Six precious souls, and all agog,

To dash through thick and thin.

Smack went the whip, round went the wheels,
Were never folk so glad;

The stones did rattle underneath,
As if Cheapside were mad.

John Gilpin at his horse's side,

Seized fast the flowing mane,
And up he got in haste to ride,
But soon came down again.

During more than three centuries,-from the day when the old Benedictine monk, John Lydgate, penned his "London Lykpenny," to those in which Cowper charmed the world with his "John Gilpin," -we find Cheapside the great resort of the linendrapers and haberdashers of London.

Then to the Chepe I began me drawne,

Where mutch people I saw for to stande;
One ofred me velvet, sylke, and lawne,

An other he taketh me by the hand,

"Here is Parys thread, the fynest in the land."
I never was used to such thyngs indede,
And wantyng mony I myght not spede."

The streets in its immediate vicinity, are no less associated with eminent names than Cheapside itself. In Milk Street - the site of the London residence of the Staffords, Dukes of Buckingham -Sir Thomas More first saw the light; and in Bread Street, on the opposite side of Cheapside, lived the father of Milton, under whose roof in this street the great poet was born. Almost every house in London had anciently its distinguishing sign. That of Milton's father, who was a scrivener, was a spread-eagle (the armorial bearing of his

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