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rotten fuggeftions whereon it yet leans; if his intents be fincere to the public, and fhall carry him on without bitterness to the opinion, or to the perfon diffenting; let him not, I entreat him, guefs by the handling, which meritoriously hath been beftowed on this object of contempt and laughter, that I account it any displeasure done me to be contradicted in print: but as it leads to the attainment of any thing more true, fhall efteem it a benefit; and shall know how to return his civility and fair argument in fuch a fort, as he fhall confefs that to do fo is my choice, and to have done thus was my chance.







That it is lawful, and hath been held fo through all ages, for any, who have the power, to call to account a TYRANT, or wicked KING, and, after due conviction, to depofe, and put him to death; if the ordinary MAGISTRATE have neglected, or denied to do it.

And that they, who of late fo much blame Depofing, are the men that did it themselves.*

IF men within themselves would be governed by reafon, and not generally give up their understanding to a double tyranny, of custom from without, and blind affections, within; they would difcern better what it is to favour and uphold the tyrant of a nation. But being flaves within doors, no wonder that they strive fo much to have the public state conformably governed to the inward vitious rule, by which they govern themselves. For indeed none can love freedom heartily, but good men: the reft love not freedom, but licence: which

This tract, which was first published in February 1648-9, after the execution of king Charles, and is a defence of that action against the objections of the Prefbyterians, was, in the year 1650, republished by the author with confiderable additions, all which, omitted in every former edition of the author's works, are here carefully inferted in their proper places. The copy which I use, after the above title, has the following fentence; "Publifhed now the fecond time with fome additions, and many teftimonies alfo added out of the best and learnedeft among proteftant divines, afferting the pofition of this book." The paffages here restored are marked with fingle inverted commas.

never hath more fcope, or more indulgence than under tyrants. Hence is it, that tyrants are not oft offended, nor ftand much in doubt of bad men, as being all na turally fervile; but in whom virtue and true worth most is eminent, them they fear in earnest, as by right their mafters; `against them lies all their hatred and fufpicion. Confequently neither do bad men hate tyrants, but have been always readieft, with the falfified names of Loyalty and Obedience, to colour over their bafe compliances. And although fometimes for fhame, and when it comes to their own grievances, of purfe especially, they would feem good patriots, and fide with the better caufe, yet when others for the deliverance of their country endued with fortitude and heroic virtue, to fear nothing but the curfe written against thofe "that do the work of the Lord negligently," would go on to remove, not only the calamities and thraldoms of a people, but the roots and caufes whence they fpring; ftraight thefe men, and fure helpers at need, as if they hated only the miferies, but not the mischiefs, after they have juggled a id paltered with the world, bandied and borne arms againft their king, divefted him, difanointed him, nay curfed him all over in their pulpits, and their pamphlets, to the engaging of fincere and real men beyond what is poffible or honeft to retreat from, not only turn revolters from thofe principles, which only could at firft move them; but lay the ftain of difloyalty, and worfe, on thofe proceedings, which are the neceffary confequences of their own former actions; nor difliked by themselves, were they managed to the entire advantages of their own faction; not confidering the while that he, toward whom they boafted their new fidelity, counted them acceffory; and by thofe ftatutes and laws, which they fo impotently brandish against others, would have doomed them to a traitor's death for what they have done already. It is true, that moft men are apt enough to civil wars and commotions as a novelty, and for a flafh hot and active; but through floth or inconftancy, and weaknefs of fpirit, either fainting ere their own pre

Jer. xlviii, 1.


ténces, though never fo juft, be half attained, or, through an inbred falsehood and wickedness, betray ofttimes to deftruction with themselves men of nobleft temper joined with them for causes, whereof they in their rafh undertakings were not capable. If God and a good cause give them victory, the profecution whereof for the most part inevitably draws after it the alteration of laws, change of government, downfall of princes with their families; then comes the task to those worthies, which are the foul of that enterprife, to be fweat and laboured out amidst the throng and noses of vulgar and irrational men. Some contefting for privileges, cuftoms, forms, and that old entanglement of iniquity, their gibberish laws, though the badge of their ancient flavery. Others, who have been fierceft against their prince, under the notion of a tyrant, and no mean incendiaries of the war against him, when God, out of his providence and high difpofal hath delivered him into the hand of their brethren, on a fudden and in a new garb of allegiance, which their doings have long fince cancelled, they plead for him, pity him, extol him, protest against thofe that talk of bringing him to the trial of juftice, which is the fword of God, fuperior to all mortal things, in whose hand foever by apparent figns his teftified will is to put it. But certainly, if we confider who and what they are, on a fudden grown fo pitiful, we may conclude their pity can be no true and christian commiferation, but either levity and shallowness of mind, or else a carnal admiring of that worldly pomp and greatness, from whence they fee him fallen; or rather, laftly, a diffembled and feditious pity, feigned of industry to beget new difcord. As for mercy, if it be to a tyrant, under which name they themselves have cited him fo oft in the hearing of God, of Angels, and the holy church affembled, and there charged him with the fpilling of more innocent blood by far, than ever Nero did, undoubtedly the mercy which they pretend is the mercy of wicked men, and "their mercies*, we read, "are cruelties;" hazarding the welfare of a whole nation, to have faved


Prov. xii. 10.


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one whom they fo oft have termed Agag, and villifying the blood of many Jonathans that have faved Ifrael; infifting with much nicenefs on the unneceffarieft clause of their covenant wrefted, wherein the fear of change and the abfurd contradiction of a flattering hoftility had hampered them, but not fcrupling to give away for compliments, to an implacable revenge, the heads of many thoufand chriftians more.

Another fort there is, who coming in the course of these affairs, to have their fhare in great actions above the form of law or cuftom, at leaft to give their voice and approbation; begin to fwerve and almoft hiver at the majetty and grandeur of fome noble deed, as if they were newly entered into a great fin; difputing precedents, forms, and circumftances, when the commonwealth nigh perishes for want of deeds in fubftance, done with juft and faithful expedition. To these I wish better inftruction, and virtue equal to their calling; the former of which, that is to fay inftruction, I fhall endeayour, as my duty is, to beftow on them; and exhort them not to fiartle from the juft and pious refolution of adhering with all their firength and affiftance to the prefent parliament and army, in the glorious way wherein juftice and victory hath fet them; the only warrants through all ages, next under immediate revelation, to exercife fupreme power; in thofe proceedings, which hitherto appear equal to what hath been done in any age. or nation heretofore juftly or magnanimoufly. Nor let them be difcouraged or deterred by any new apoftate fcarecrows, who, under how of giving counfel, fend out their barking monitories and mementoes, empty of aught elfe but the spleen of a fruftrated faction. For how can that pretended counfel be either found or faithful, when they that give it fee not, for madness and vexation of their ends loft, that thofe ftatutes and fcrip. tures, which both falfely and fcandaloufly, they wreft, against their friends and affociates, would by fentence of the common adverfary fall firft and heavieft upon their own heads? Neither let mild and tender difpofitions be foolishly foftened from their duty and perfeverance with the unmafculine rhetoric of any puling prieft or chap

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