Bureaucratic Politics and Foreign Policy

Front Cover
Brookings Institution Press, 2002 M12 31 - 340 pages
The first edition of Bureaucratic Politics and Foreign Policy is one of the most successful Brookings titles of all time. Government agencies, departments, and individuals all have certain interests to preserve and promote. Those priorities, and the conflicts they sometimes spark, heavily influence the formulation and implementation of foreign policy. A decision that looks like an orchestrated attempt to influence another country may in fact represent a shaky compromise between rival elements within the U.S. government. The authors provide numerous examples of bureaucratic maneuvering and reveal how they have influenced our international relations.
 

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Contents

The ABM Puzzle An Introduction to Politics inside Government
1
National Security Interests
11
Clues to National Security Interests
16
Organizational Interests
26
Organizational Essence
28
Roles and Missions
40
Autonomy
51
Organizational Morale
54
Why Information Is Leaked
176
Going Outside the Executive Branch
181
Presidential Speeches
189
Implications for Decisions
192
Involving the President
196
Getting to the President
198
Securing a Presidential Decision
207
Influence and Decisions
219

Budgets
56
Organizational Stands
58
Presidential Interests
63
Presidential Stands
76
Interests Faces and Stands
84
Career Officials
85
InandOuters
89
Involvement and Effectiveness
90
Future Elective Office
93
Official Position
94
Initiative and Rules
99
Pressing for Decisions
101
Rules of the Game
104
Planning a Decisional Strategy
116
Who Is Involved?
119
Who Plans?
131
The Limits of Planning
133
Information and Arguments
135
Purposes of Arguments
136
Constraints on Information and Arguments
139
Challenging Shared Images
155
Maneuvers To Affect Information
158
Presidential Efforts To Expand Information
168
Uses of the Press
173
Willingness To Assume Responsibility
222
The Threat of Resignation
225
Staff Skill
228
Ability To Mobilize Outside Support
230
The Elusiveness of Decisions
232
Decisions and Implementation
235
Limits on Faithful Implementation
238
Resistance
245
The Struggle over Implementation
248
Actions in the Field
261
Evading Instructions
268
Actions in the Absence of Decision
276
Presidential Control
279
Presidential Strategies To Gain Compliance
280
Degrees of Control
289
Back to ABM Some Tentative Answers
297
Something for Everyone
302
Pressures for Expansion
304
Decisions and Change
306
A Complicated Reality
311
Bibliography
317
Index
331
Copyright

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About the author (2002)

Morton H. Halperin is a senior fellow at the Center for American Progress and director of U.S. advocacy for the Open Society Institute. He served in the federal government in the Clinton, Nixon, and Johnson administrations, most recently from December 1998 to January 2001 as director of the Policy Planning Staff at the Department of State. Priscilla Clapp served nearly thirty years in government under six presidents, mostly in the State Department and overseas. Arnold Kanter is a principal and founding member of the Scowcroft Group. He has served in several capacities in government, including Special Assistant to the President and Under Secretary of State.

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