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men as usually discharged, because it is then disengaged from the water, is applied to mixed with the white and viscid liquor of these ducts : and that the filh, by an instinct the prostate gland; yet it agrees with that in of nature, distinguilhes the irritation of air the vala deferentia, as nearly as cystic bile from that of water, and propels the air into dues with the hepatic. That in the next the air-bag, but excludes the water, place, it is extremely probable that the le

But in the cod and haddock, though the men may remain in the vesiculæ seminales air-bag is very large, and its fides remarkably of a castrated animal for a considerable strong, yet the Doctor was not able to disco time; but that supposing it possible to prove, ver any communication of it with the mouth, that at the time of caftration there was not @sophagus, stomach or inteftmes. The aira drop of semen in the vesiculæ seminales, bag was not enlarged by blowing into the aliand yet that afterwards the animal was capa- mentary canal, nor could it be emptied ble of generating, it would not follow from without bursting it. Further, on the inner this, that the vesiculæ were not the recepta- side of the air-bag of the cod, haddock, &c, cles of the liquor secreted in the testicle, was found a red coloured organ, the surface The utmost amount of the conclusion would of which is very extenfive, composed of a be, that the vesiculæ seminales, or termina- vast number of leaves or membranes doubled ; tions of the seminal ducts, were capable of but in those fishes where the air-bag commusecreting the same liquor as the beginnings of nicates with the alimentary canal, this red those ducts in the testes. Instances of caltra- body is either very small and simple in its ted animals generating, are moreover fo very structure, as in the conger eel, or entirely rare, as to render it improbable that the ve.

wanting, as in the surgeon, salmon, carp, &c. ficulæ poffefs such a power. I he Duétor Hence he thinks it is reasonable to suppose, therefore concludes, that the common theory, that the air may be secreted from this red bowhich supposes the vesiculæ to be the sole or dy, somewhat in the way it feems to be rechief receptacles of the semen, is well founded. creted into the swimming-bladders of aquatic

The last section of this chapter treats of plants, or perhaps into the air-bag of the egg the swimming-bladder in filhes. On this fub- of a bird as the chick grows. ject the Doctor contents himself with stating a This, however, our anatomift leaves as a few facts and queries, leaving the chief cir- mere hypothesis, persuaded the most readers cumstances to be determined by more exten- will rather suppose that the cod, haddock, &c. live examination and experiments. It has have an air.duct, which has as yet escape been long known, he says, that in the flat observation. fishes there is no swimming-bladder ; and in a To such, continues he, another question few long-Shaped fishes, as in the mackrel, will occur, viz. What is the use of the red he has also found it wanting. It is like- body? Does it, like the gills, receive somewise known, that in many fishes the air-bag what useful, or discharge fomewhat hurtful communicates by a duct with the oesophagus, to the animal ? And, are we to suppose that On examining this matter, he found in a atur: the air-bag not only serves to render the body geon a round hole nearly an inch in diameter of the fish ipecifically lighter, but also tha in the upper and back part of the stoniach, the air received into it is of benefit to the by which it communicates with a very large conftitution, by adding somewhat useful, or air-bag. In the salmon he found a hole lo by taking up somewhat noxious ? large as to admit readily the largest-sized The next two chapters contain a descrip: goose-quill, leading directly through the coats tion of the System of lymphatic absorbent of the crophagus into the air-bag. In the pike, vefsels in fishes, and experiments and obser. in different kinds of carp, in the perca-arenarea, vations thereon. From these experiments, in the conger, different ducts of considerable which were chiefly made on the Nanses l'ina length lead from the crophagus into the air- nuti, because in them the lymphatics, owing bag ; and if, as in the carp, there are two

to their cylindrical shape and toughnets, air-bags, the duct Icads to the posterior bag, were more easily traced than in the Pajces, from which there is a passage into the anteri- the Doctor found that the diftribution of

From these circumstances he concludes, the lymphatic system is universal in them ; what the air found in the iwimming-bladeler that the red veins are, in proportion to their pafles into it through the abovement oned arteries, as large in fishes as ip man or quaducts. And they seem well luited for the drupeds, and yet their blood contains few red purpose ; for, as in the common horizontal particles; and that these particles are in a fituation of the fish, their beginning is at great measure excluded from the vessels of the upper part of the ttomach, it is easy to

their muscles, and of many other parts : conceive that the air u bich they take in at from which he conciudes, that their colour. fcir niouch when they ascend, or that less as well as theis red arteries terminate in such may by lume more latent process be

their sed veins.


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By injecting penetrating liquors into the succeeding chapter he establishes his claim to arteries and lymphatic veins of fishes, he the first discovery of the existence of the found it impotlible to make these liquors pass lacteal and lymphatic syltem in birds and from the arteries into the lymphatics, or amphibious animals, as well as in fishes, in from the lymphatics into the arteries, except opposition to the pretensions of the late Mr. when there was a laceration of these vessels ; Hewson. But for this we must refer to the yer he repeatedly injected their red veins work itself. from their arteries. Hence the lymphatic Chap. viii, treats of the brain, and organs seins do not seem to be the continuation of of the senses in hihes. The brain of fishes, the lymphatic arteries in fithes ; or we are the Doctor observes, is fenfibly smaller in ded to suppose that, as they do not aslift di- proportion to their body, than in the mamrectly in circulating the blood, they must be malia or in birds; yet the nerves it sends off of u'e by absorbing Auids from the surface, are as large in proportion to the several orand from the different cavities of their bo. gans as in chole two clafles. In it is found dies ..

the like principal division into brain and ceBy a variety of experiments he discover rebellum; and there are hollow, or have ed, that it was possible to give a decisive ventricles within them. Io the gadus,' our ocular proof, by observing the effects of in- anatumift found spheroidal bodies between jetting fluids from the trunks into the small the dura and pia mater, and covering the branches of the lymphatic veins, of the greater part of their nerves, like a coat of truth of the doctrine, that the human valvu- mail, in their course towards the organs to lar lymphatic veins are a lyttem of absor. which they are destined. After these few bents.

general observations on the brain, the organs From the circumstance of very large and of the senses, particularly the nose, the ear, numerous lymphatics being dispersed upon and the eye (for on those of the couch and ike gills of the scate, and the addicional one talte there can be litele or no room for re. that fuhes soon die when put into water mark) are the objects of our acute observer's from winch the air has been extracted, and enquiries. yet that fuch water is capable of walhing off In all fishes, he remarks, external openeshiled matter from the gills, and of taking ings for smell are very evident, generally two op phlogiston readily, the Doctor is led to on each side in the offeous filhes, which on fuppote, that the gills or lungs not only diso each fide of the head lead to a complex orcharge hurtful master, but ferve also to take gan, the surface of which is of confiderable un fium the air, which is mixed with the extent ; and upon them a pair of large or ol. water, jonewbat neceflary for life; the pre- factory nerves terminates. In some fishes, ale nature of which experiments do not yet as in the haddock, he observed that the ol. euchle us to specify.

factory nerve, in its course between the head We may, however, observe, that the co- and nofc, paises through a cineritious ball relow and quantit; of the red particles of the sembling the cineritious matter connected in blood, and the heat of animals, are connect. our body to the olfactory nerve within the ed with the mode of their respiration ; and

He therefore infers, that there that it is as conceivable that the crailimentum

can be no doubt that they enjoy the sense of of blood immersed in serum, and enclosed smelling : but there is great reason to believe, is a bladder, or that blood circulating in the that, luited to their surrounding element, lungs of a living animal, may receive or at they are much more sensible of odorous botract subtile matter from the atmosphere, as dies dissolved in water, and applied by its Lhat it may discharge such into it.

medium, than we mhould be, if the applicaThe fixth chapter contains observations on lion of the object was to be made to our orte lymphatics of the spleen in fithes, and gan vi smell by the same medium. Eu lhe uses in general of that organ. In the

[To be continued.] A Philosophical, Historical, and Moral Ellay on Old Maids, by a Friend of the Sisterhood.

In 3 vols. 8vo. London, T. Cadell, 1785.

( Conciuded from P. 39.) HE superior claims of ancient Viryntes wea. h, her condition is highly favourable to


established, the Essayist proceeds to the Inat their pretensions are equally well 1 with regard to charity, the remaining characteristic of the fiftcrhood. When na: lure (he observes) has bestowed on the autimnal maideo a conititutional fund of benefake, and fortune has blessed her with

bereu with not load of household care and
paren' al folicitude which is apt to cramp the
nun:a.cence of the married dame, and to con-
fine it witirs the circle of a smgle family, her
kucesinds herality will be often found to
indulge titselves in a more ample field.
As example is beyond precept, our author


according to custom illustrates bis opinion by person. Indeed, in the formation of her the history of Chariela, whom an easy fortune character, it seemed as if nature had deter. and unexampled benevolence rendered, per. mined to thew how far her own powers haps, the very happiest old maid that ever were sufficient to make a woman both amiexisted. To the book itself we must referable and happy, without borrowing any our readers for a full view of this highly allistance from art. I once, irdeed, heard it finithed picture, which is beautifully con- remarked by an ancient spinster in the neightrafted with that of her sister Erinnis, and bourhood, who, the’ infinitely more opulent, content ouselves with giving only a few stri- was not half so well respected, that Chariesla king features.

had a weak understanding.–But if to avoid “ The patrimonial fortune of Chariefla was all the little jealousies, sutpicions, and bick16,000l. which had been much increased by erings of ordinary ipirits; if to conciliate unifome considerable legacies. The prudent regu- versal regard, without practising the ungenelation of this income not only supplied her rous arts of hypocrisy and adulation ; if to with all the usual comforts of affluence, but pursue and relish the moft innocent and rafurnished her with the exalted pleasure of con- tional pleasures with moderation and gratiferring happiness on a selected number of in- tude; if to discharge the most effential dustrious poor. She polietied, in the most emis duties with regularity devoid of oftentation ; nent degree, a chearful fimplicity of heart, in- if, in short, to enjoy and to distribute the exhaustible benevolence, and unaffected piety. valuable tho' transitory happiness of this By the constant yet modest exercise of these world, and at the saine time to secure the admirable qualities Chariella secured to her- permanent and inestimable felicity which self not only more felicity, but even more is announced to us by the promises of Heapublic regard and attention than was obtained ven; if, I say, to do all this may be confiby some fingle ladies of her neighbourhood, dered as a proof of wisdom ; Envy herself who were undoubtedly her superiors in the must allow that Chariesla was one of the wifest attractive endowments of beauty, opulence, as well as most fortunate of women. and wit.

“No example, continues our author, can be • There was a period in her life at presented to the filter hood, which they may which some of her uncandid neiglibours con- follow with greater ease, or with fuperior jactured that the subtle vice of avai ice was advantage: for tho' few ancient virgins beginning to infect her ; the suddenly parted may potless fuch comfortable iffiuence, yet with her chariot, and l'educed her establish they may, with a much bumbler revenue, ment, without alligning her reasons for con- pofiers and diicover the fame generous felicity, duct fo surprising. In a few years me of spirit. Nature is equally indulgent to resumed ler equipage, and re.con menced every rank in life. As in her vegetable kingher usual itile of living, with as much or dom, she has kindly made the sweetest of sother more splendour than ever. This full flowers the most common ; fo in the moral more engaged the attention of the neiglıbour world, the has placed the lovely virtue which hood; and the very people, who on the for- conduces most to human happiness, equally mer alteration had accused her of avarice, now within the reach and cultivation of the rich and exclaimed, that she was either seized with poor. Benevolence may be considered as the the frenzy of extravagance, or was endea- rose, which is found as herutiful and as fragrant vouring to allure an husband. It was, how- in the narrow border of the cottager, as in the ever, proclaimed upon her death, by the ample and magnificent garden of the peer. worihy family of a deceased merchant, that, The truth of genuine charity is not estimated under the promise of the most absolute fe- by the weight of what the gives; and the crecy, she had allotted to his affistance, during mite of the indigent old maid, like that of

years of the above-mentioned retrench. the poor widow, may be superior in real ment, a full moiety of her income, by merit to the most splendid donation. Chawhich generous exertion she had supported rity is a theme, on which the fublimest spihim through some molt cruel and undeserved rits have so often and so ably discourfed, it is distresses, enabled him to retrieve his circum- a virtue of inch acknowledged value and stances, and preserve his family from im. Juftre, that to speak further in its praise may pending ruin."

appear like an attempt Having finished the history of this truly

-" to gild refined gold, amiable woman, the author makes the fol- “Or add a perfume to the violet." lowing renfible observations. “ It was un- Yet after all the admirable things that dubiedly the warm and genuine spirit of have been written on this lovely president of Charity, in the scripturai, comprehensive the angelic virtues, it remains, the author sense of that word, which gave to itrong an thinks, for him to Thew, why charity may with eiled to the simple character of this excellent fingular propriety be recommended to that



fair and tender community, of which, he delightful exertions. I exhort, therefore, has, he hopes with no offensive arrogance, che solitary old maid—who may be considerprofefied himself the pastor.

ed as the inhabitant of a wilderness, where the “ The unhappiness of ancient virgins," fowers of love are utterly withered, and those he lays, “ often arises from a certain vacuity of friendship very thinly scattered to make of heart, which is frequently the natural charity her favourite and constant companiconsequence of their peculiar situation. I on.-She who does, will infallibly find, in lave sometimes considered the bofom of an the delight arising from such intercourse, an old maid as a kind of cell, in which it was adequate and lively substitute for all the more iniended that the lively bie Affeflion Tould precarious pleasures, of which the caprice of treasure up its collected sweets ; but this chance may have cruelly deprived her." bee happening to perish, before it could pro. The author here meant, he informs us, to perly settle on the flowers that should afford have closed this part of his work; but a friend its wealth, the vacant cell unluckily became just then entering his study, obliged him with a the abode of the drone Indifference, or of the full and frank opinion on what he had writ. :p Malignity.-To speak in less figurative ten; and after some animating compliments Language : -the want of proper objects to on the design of his work in general, pointengage and employ that fund of tenderness, ed out to him, that there appeared to him a which nature seklom fails to bellow on the deficiency in tlris part of the Effay; that the female frame, may render the joyless, un- author had done ample justice to the fifter. connected spinster both troublesome to her hood in many instances; that he had successacquaintance, and a burden to herself. Of fully combated the vulgar error, that every ali che different kinds of want, I apprehend old maid was a mortified being, whom thul which originales in the heart, must be the want of attractions, or the iofluence of the most depreiling. The pains of disappoint- accident, had reduced to an involuntary, ed bonger and thirst are undoubcedly great ; woeful condition ; had by argument and exset a desting far more deplorable than that ample shewn on the contrary, that the ancie of Tantalus would be alligned to that being, ent virgin might be cheerful and happy, (if we may íuppose such a being to exift) who, completely contented with a state the had with a spirit full of generous and kind affec. deliberately chosen ; but that still, as their Fans, should never be allowed to indulge it- advocate, he ought to celebrate some chaset in a single act or expression of genero- rácters, who, without any tincture of Ro. Lty or kindnels. Now the fol tary yet be. mith superstition, had devoted themselves to nevolent old maid, who lias no husband a life of virginity, from the pure and subtowe, no child to idolize, and, perhaps, lime motives of friendship and affection ; to trend to esteem, would be almost redu- and that he was ready to supply him with tad to the Jreary and miserable condition (wo signal irtances of such a generous 12which I have here imagined, were not cha- crifice, in the characters of Angelica and sky, who has the power of fupplying even Meletina. These characters are accordingly the tenderet relations, and of giving chile introduced, and drawn in the warmet coeren to the childless-were not charity lours ; and the author concludes this part of both perfectly able and perpetually ready his work with the remark, “ That two

members of such engaging excellence are To fill the void left aching in the breast.

alone fufficient to ennoble any community ; It is the privilege of charity to poffefs one and I falter myself, the mild lustre of their fignal advantage over fome of the most emic characters will reflect a degree of glory on Deus paffions and virtues of the human spi. the sisterhood, and raise it considerably in

. Ambition, love, and friendship, are estimation of the world.” Perhaps, if a not only subject to mortification and disap- just chronicle of old maids had been kept pintment, but cannot even exist without since the creation, it would have presented Le attittance of time and chance. But cha. to us many limilar examples of tender mage

!is by no means the ofispring or the Neve nanimiry. of uident, and all her designs are perma

In order, as he expresses himself, nect and certain.

to rival the curious researches of our It s potlible that a heart which nature present mott celebrated antiquarians, and in tas rendered capable of the moft tender and the wide field which he has chosen to leave fublime attachment, may wander through no bush or bramble unexplored, the author the wilderness of human life, without tafting proceeds to examine if there ever existed an the sweets of either love or friendship, antediluvian old maid : he next offers conBut a charitable spirit, tho' confined to the jectures concerning old maids among the mot narrow and barren field of action, may Jews, the Egyptians, and some other nations Eod even there abundance of objects to call of antiquity ; on the old maids of Greece, farth, and to reward the most falutary and on the vestals, and other old maids of Rome


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before the christian æra. He then takes no- of a wedding between a man who had had tice of the infinite increase of old maids fince' twenty wives, and a woman who had buried that period, and quotes some of the most her twenty-second husband. early christian authors who have coucbed on The latt article is a fermon, fupposed to be virginity, such as Tertullian, St. Cyprian, delivered in a dream, the text of which is taken &c. and gives considerable extracts from the from the 38th verse of the rith chapter of saints who have written panegyrics upon it, Judges:“She went with her companions, and particularly St. Athanafius, St. Basil, St. bewailed her virginity." On awaking from Gregory Nazianzen, his name-sake of Nys- his reverie, the author tells us, he looked la, Sc. Ambrose, St. Chryfoftom, St. Jerom, wittfully around, and, instead of a kind and &c. &c. &c. But tho' this part of the work

honelt old maiden on each side of him, was undoubtedly affords the author an opportuni, surprized to find St. Bafil's Discourse on Vir. ty of displaying his reading, and intimacy ginity at his left hand, and towards the niglio with the works of the Fathers, yet we must

an exhausted bottle of Port. candidly confess it afforded us, and will, we We cannot bet:er conclude our account of may venture to affert, afford the generality these entertaining and improving volumes, of his readers much le's fatisfaction than which have afforded us much fatistaction, than other less elaborate, tho' more interesting in the author's own senlible and niodest, tho' parts of this admirable Essay.

expreflive and epigrammatic words. The remainder of the fifth part contains an “ Frank and gentle spirits, wbu are wil. account of some miracles ascribed to monal. ling to be pleased! let me request and ad. tic virgins; of the decline and fall of monaftic vise you to consider this chequered produc. virginity ; of some monastic old maids dir. tion with that uniform good-nature and fatiftinguished by Jiterary talents; of some old faction which the author has endeavoured to maids of the new world, and of the reve- promote, and sincerely wishes you to pre. rence paid to them by our northern ancestors. serve, not only through these pages, but in

The sixth and last part gives several paliages turning over every new leaf of your separate in Englith poets concerning virginity ; treats lives, whatever you may chance to find its conof the medical influence ascribed to it, and tents! Let me caution you against one poffiof the various devices supposed to ascertain it. ble error in your judgment of this per forThe reader is also pretenced with a curious mance! Do wot, I entreat you, suppose that discullion of the delicate and important quel

these little volumes were written with an idié tion, -" Which is the more eligible for a ambition of trying what supposed wit and wife, a widow, or an old maid?” in which learning could produce on a subject not very the author has displayed his usual vivacity promising ! Do not, I conjure you, rank my and penetration. From among his various Elay on Old Maids with the famous Media arguments in favour of the sisterhood, we hall tation on a Broomstick ! I Aatter myself, it only mention the following, truly characteristic is far fuperior to the celebrated production, of his style. “ The widow is a piece of war, in the merits of the aim propoled, though ped wood, which the most skilful workman not in those of execution. I am willing may

find himself unable to thape as he to hope that my design will be thought “ wishes; but the old maid is the pliant virgin to possess the charm of originality ; but I “ wax, which follows with the most bappy cannot presume to think that I am entitled “ ductility every serious design, every ingenious to any such commendation for the conduct “ device, every sportive wbim of the modeller.” of my performance, since I must candidly

The chapter concludes with an extract from confess, that it bears a very striking rereman epiltle of St. Jerom to a widow of the blimce to many other Pbilosopbical Ellays, by name of Ageruchia, containing an account ending in a DREAM. The Errors of Innocencc. 5 Volumes. London. Robinsons. 1786.

The has successfully exerted her endeavours by a lady, is far above the general run for that purpose, by endeavouring 10 Cirect of such productions. The author, if a female, the understanding to that mental regulation, bas shewn herself thoroughly acquainted with from an inattention to which arife half the high life, and need not fear, winat the mo- turbulent paflions that corrodle the blethings destly alledges in her preface as a reason for and embitter the pleasures of life. We, bow. omicting the declaration of her sex in the ever, think, that like most other ladies, the ele-page, “ that her work will suffer in the author has been fond of amplitication , and that eyes of the judicious from such a declaration,” three volumes might have contained every thing To guard against, or to suppress those caprices interesting in the business. Nor does she itand and pursuits, which, tho' felt without shame, in need of the poet's advice-nec Deus interand indulged without remorse, frequently fit--as in many instances the contrives knots lead to error, and progressively to vice, is sufficient to puzzle the whole body of her undoubtedly commendable. This our suthor then Jiyinities to untie. profeffes to have been ber aim, and we think

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