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4512, 3 males,

Memoir: of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester. Vol. I. & Il. 8vo.

125. Boards. 1985. Cadell.

Continued from Page 35:) Remarks on the different Success, with to have a complete list of all those, who are

Respect to Health, of some Attempts to rated towards the relief of the poor; and an • pass the Winter in high Northern Lati, ther, of all those who are the objects of such inves. By John Aikin, M. D. Read 16 relief. A list of those who are not in either of January 1782.

those classes, would coft the officers of any paHIS is a very valuable paper on the rish very little trouble. Consequently, the num. 1

cause and prevention of the Scurovy, ber in each class, and the fum total of the for which we refer the reader to the pre- whole might be obtained with as little trou. ceeding pages of this and our last number.

ble, as the numbers in each class, and the An Eilay on the Pleasure which the Mind sum total, could be obtained by the officers

receives from the Exercise of its Faculties, of any respective parish. and that of Taste in particular. - By Charles

o If such lists were correctly taken every de Polier, Esq. Read 27 Feb. 1782.

two, three, four, or five years, the state of It would be difficult to analyse this ad. , increase, or decrease, might be precisely mrable paper and elegant composition ! known, with little or no expence to any What a loss to this Society-what a loss to body. Of such lifts might be formed a kind biniety at large, is the death of this excellent of General Directory; containing the names, a riter! + What a knowledge of the En. addition, number, ages, and sex, of all the bh lagu g, and the writers in it, was

families in Great Britain. Thus, in Man. pudelled by this young foreigner.

chefter, On Ecouomical Registers. By J. Wimpey.

N. R. Hatter,

females, Read 13 March 1782.

that is, four under twelve, and three above; The Registers which thuis ingenious sche. three of them males, four females. Let mit seems to wish to be kept, are such as any one carry his ideas through the street lie would answer the following questions : What

lives in, or is familiarly acquainted with, may be the amount of the circulating cash in

and he will see, with how much ease he may im kodomWhat is the state of its popu.

acquire a knowledge of all these particulars, Irion · Has it socrealed or decreased within respecting every family in it; and, by a the last fifty years! Have the many and

similar practice, on a general plan, a precise great improvements in Agriculture rendered ķnowledge may be obtained of every family the prices of provisions, &c. proportionally in the nation. cheaper and what is the increase of quantity

“ Perhaps it would he too adventurous, ug an average for half a century back com. to attempt to recoinmend a knowledge thus pved with preceding times? But what acquired to some practical uses, to which it he wells upon more particularly is the state seems capable of being applied, with a prof. of population; with some thoughts on the pect of the most benehcial effects. anfual growth and confiimption of corn. “ A very great part of those, who have no Our Author's scheme for ascertaining the Itale other means of subsistence but the spoils of population, and for identifying the indi- and depredations committed upon the public, vzduls of society, is new, and at least inge- are, in their manner of living, a kind of Brids; and whether or not it might he pru- citizens of the world, without character or dont or practicable to carry it into execution description, fixed habitation, residence or in this country, we think it might be in. connection, by which they may be traced as tridaced, with many beneficial effects, into to their mode of subfiftcnce. And how de. tize police of Le Well-India 10 ands.

firable svever it may be to bring them into “ The question of population, whe- broad day-light, that every man may have ther il increacin, or is upon the decline, is his eye upon them, yet in a country where Rot to be ascertained wirin any tolerable degree the blessing of liberty is deservedly in such of exactness, without an actual enumeration high esteem, fears are awakened, suspicions of ? the people in the Illand. This may alarmed, jealousies excited, left any in. he theaght a work of too great extent and croachment should be made on the liberty of trouble, to be attempted. So it would, in- the subject, under the specious but deceitful deed, if it were to be effected by one, or a appearance of public good. few persons. But how very easy would it “ Were this a proper place, I would ena be, is performed by the parish officers? deavour to give the true idea of genuine They, by the duty of their office, are obliged liberty, in which that of the individual thouid

+ For aa Extract from this Paper see Page 77, & feq. Error, MAC.

perfectig upon him.

perfectly accord, with the safety and happi- day-labourer, or workman of any fort, ad. ness of the state. Like the bife of a pyra- fcond from his place of abode for any mi. mid, it should be erected on a large extend demeanor, or treipass he had committed, he ed bottom, ils centre of gravity coinciding could not proceed many days unapprehended ; with its centie of magnitude, which nothing , for no perfon should be suffered to entritain could shake or overthril, till its materials a ftranger above one night, without caking Mould be crumbled into one common ruin. a copy of bis medal, and sending advice to Ar present, I think it seems to stand, like his parish. A man could not then run away, Foilune on the summit of a globe, where defert his family, and throw them as a burdercent on one side, is into the region of den on the parish, because detection would anarchy and licentious confusion; on the immediately pursue bim, bring bim back in other, of tyranny and Navery, from both ditgrace, and inflict an adequate punishment which I hope we sail ever escape..

“ I will beg leave, however, to throw " Were such a plan to be prosecuted out a few hints. They may luggest the with vigour, it would be a sufficient bar to means of preventing fome, and of detecting every attempt of thievery and roguery, for othiers, in the purfuit of practices, which impunity in which the Jelinquent ultimateare the bane of society, and a disgrace to ly depended upon defertion. No man in humanity.

his senses could depend upon a means for “ Let us suppose, then, that complete his fecurity, in which he knew hefore-hand lists have been taken of every family in it would be impotible for him to suc. Great Britain, of men, women, chuluren, ceed. Desertion is the dernier report of every servants, and lodgers. That every town villazin. When he finds himself suspected, and vill ge were obliged to provide a fufficient he instantly ruus bis country, and endeavours number of Medals nade

copper, about

to secrete himself at a distance, in places to an inch and half diameter, with the name of which, as he imagines, suspicion is leaft the town, country, and year, inscribed likely to pursue him. But under this regiround the margin. That every person, lation, whichier could he fly? Let it be whrabove twelve years of age, should be obliged

ther you please, if he produces his medal when they went above a certain number of it becrays him; if he does not, it raises a miles from home, to wear it about them, fufp:cion which justifies his detention, till he that they might be able to prove satisfactorily, is fairly cleared of all fufpicion.” who they are, and from whence they come. Across the piece, should be engraved the On the Pleasure which the Mind in many name, the profession or addiers, and the age of

Cases receives from contemplating Scenes the person, at the date of the impresiion. of Distress. By T. Barnes, D. D. Read zd By this means, every person would have it

April 1782. in his power to confirm the account he might give of himself, by an inconteftible

This fingular writer-singular both as to voucher ;

and every suspicious person, ideas and the manner of communicating them wherever he might happen to appear, mould

--has here employed his " servant or labour he liable to be taken before the nearest civil er," Imagination, with considerable success, a officer, where lie should produce his medal, investigating the movements of this extraorand answer all proper questions, or be liable dinary gratification ! Having eitablished, on to be committed by any one of his Majesty's good ground, the reality of the enjoyment, Juftices of peace. The want of a medal

and having enumerated a variety of springs ihould be deemed a suspicious circumstanco,

of action which stimulate the human mind and the perfon should be retained in fare

to this, at hett painful pleasure, - the Doctor custody, till he could obtain sufficient proof

concludes his eflity with the following recaof the place of his residence from the pasith pitulation :

To curiosity, then-to sympathy--to officers, or from fome one of them.

“ If any labouring-man, laridicraft-man, mental exertion--to the idea of our own reartificer, or workman of any fort, shall come

curity--and to the Itrong feelings occafioned as a itranger into any town, and ask emplov. by viewing the actions and pailions of manment, the person who employs him thall kind in interetting fituations, do we afcribe first demand a fight of his medal, take a

that gratifiouiion, which the mind feels from cupy of its inscription, and by the first poft

the survey of many scenes of sorrow. We fend a letter of advice to the officers of the have called it a pleasure; but it will apparith he came from. And in neglect or proach towaru's, or recede from pira uren contempt of fuch advice, he shall be liable according to the nature, and proportion of the to a penalty sufficient to compel its ítrict ingredients

, of which the fentation is comiobservance.

poted. Income caies, pain will predominate. “ l'pon this plin, inculd any servant,

In others, there will be exquisite enjoyment.

« The final cause of this constitution of emptied of the materials. These they place the human mind is probably, that by means upon ftrages, about two feet high, and in of this strong sensation, the foul may' be such a manner that one veisel may receive preserved in continual and vigorous motion the ley, that runs from two of them. In that its feelings may be kept lively and ten- each lub, near the bottom, is fixed a spigot der--ihat it may learn to practise che vir and laufes, and, to prevent the wood-2 mes tues it admires--and to allift those to whom from chwaking up the latter, a parcel of the its tympathy can reach--and that it may thus round earth is thrown in first, and the afhes be lel, by these social exercises of the heart, upon it. They ihen add the reinainder of to soften with compassion--so expand with the earth in the proporcion of two bushels of Benevolence—and generously to allist in the latter to one of the former. They throw Every case, in which allistance can be given, the eartla in lightly, that the water may more An end this sufficient

readily pass through it, and they bollow it at L" To affert eternal Providence,

the top, that it may more conveniently reAnd justify the ways of God to man.

ceive it.

They have different numbers of these Observations on Blindness, and on the Em Cub“, but generally tirenty-four, which they ployment of the other Senses to supply the place in three rows, eight in each ; and into Loss of Sight. By Mr. Bew. Read 17th each cub they throw three busheis of woodApd 1982.

alhes, and six of earth. Ten demiqneus * This well-written paper at once evinces of water being palled through the firit row the good sense and humanity of its author, of eight tubs, is poured upon the second, who has bere enumerated a variety of itriking and afterwards upon the third; and now the instances wherein the lois of light bas been in fiuft row of eight tubs being emptied of the a wonderful manner supplied by the exer- earth and ashes, is replenished with ireth lions of the mind, abited by the other materials, and the lcy, which has palled koles,

through the three rows of eight tubs, is para A Treatise on Saltpetre, by James Mafley, sed througla this likewise. Esq.

** Having thus palled through four rows Saltpetre, whether we consider it as

of eight tubs, and been reduced to two demi. an artic'e of cominerce, or as an article ne.

queus by the abiorption of the materials, it cuttury to our political existence, is of the

is carried to the boiler under the name of ke molt importance to these kingdoms ; every

Cuite. ext, therefore, tending to produce an in

• Such is the process when a new work lertal supply may be deemed public-spirited.

is erected ; in an old one, only fix semiThe author of the paper before us is not a

queus of water are palled through the three mere theorist in the business of faltpetre-ma.

rows of eight tubs, which are filled with king: he particularizes an instance of his own

fresh materials every day. practices which, tho' not successful, would “ The lixivium is carefully fcummed, duCturally lead him to confider the fulvject with ring the boiling, and when it is so far adgreker attention, and enable him to draw vanced, that a pellicle begins to appear upon after conclusions respecting it than mere the surface, a workman is constantly employtheoretical reflection would probably have ed, with a perforated ladie, to take out the dme. After pointing out various causes of marine fall, wbich now begins to form and miscarriage in this country, and removing a fall to the bottom of the boiler. This being material obstacle, the scarcity of wood-ashes, thrown into a whisket, drains into the boiler (hy subftituting put-ath in the stead) our again. When the lixivium is so far evaporapatlic-spirited author proceeds ;

ted, that a drop of it will congeal upon a “ This dificulty being got over, we trust piece of cold iron, it is taken out, and thrown nothing will remain, but to give such an ac- into a tub, for the remainder of the marine cont of the practical method of making falt. Idit, and other dregs, to settle ; and, after pesa as may be relied on, and be fufficiently standing about half an hour, it is drawn off, explicit, to prevent our falling into any errors. whiltt yet warm, into Thallow copper pan ,

" The falt petre-makers in Paris obiefly and set in a copl place for the talt petre to make use of the rubbish of old houses, the crystallize. runs of old vaults and cellars, &c. This • The produce of this opetation is genethey sedace to a coarse powder, and having rally about one hundred and thirty pounds of. screenied it, proceed as follows.

a brown sort of faltpetre, which is sold to They provide a number of small open government for three-pence halfpenny per tabs, which they prefer to large ones, upon pound, and carried to the arsenal to be refiaccount of their being more easily moved, and Deù.

* A demiyaeu, as far as we can learn, contains about ninety gallons.

" The

"" The quor remaining in the basons,' ever materials he may lay together for this when the faltpetre is crystallized, is called purpose, if they do not answer his end, as a Eau Mere, or muther water, and is poured faltpetre-maker, will always find their value upon the earths in small quantities, when with the farmer. disposed in the tubs for elixiviation ; though But does is follow, that if they do answer fome makers think it heft to dilute it with to the salopetre-maker, they are lost to the water, and percolate it through a fresh bed farmer? If it does, or if the quality of the of wood-alhes. The earths, when Jiichår. materials be effentially injured as manure by ged from the tubs, are thrown aside to dry the process of extracting nitre, it may be under an hovel, and when dry, are spread, well for the community that the art has Let about a foot thick, to receive the scummings, been able to gain a footing amongst us. cau mere, putrid urine, or any other putrid However, in the metropolis and in some few liquor they can get to throw upon them, other very large towns, it is highly prob. bic and in a few mouths, we are told, are fit that falıpetre-making might be practised with for use, a second time, particularly if now profit and with propriety ; but if by the and then turned over.

process, the quantity or the quality of m., To improve the colour of this saltpetre, nure be much lowered, we hope for the sake and to cleanse it fill more from the marine of agriculture, and the welfare of the com, salt, two thousand weight is thrown into a munity, that nothing but national necellity large hoiler, with one demiqueu of water, in will ever introduce into the country a pritwbich it difuives, and in the course of the tice which appears to be inimical to cemntry boiling, another demiqueu is added by pail- productions ; and that the Englith farmer fuls, which, every time it is thrown in, rai- will never be led to imitate " the peasants ses a thick scum that is carefully removed. of France and Germany, in scraping together And now, the evaporation being pretty far the muck and offal of their farm-yards and advanced, and the marine salt taken out as be- throwing them under open theds" for the fore, a large pitcher of whites of eggs, or of purpose of faltpetre-making. a solution of ifinglass or English glue, is poured in, and well stirred-up in it, which raises An Attempt to sew that a Taste for the a thick black scum, and is taken off with it. Beauties of Nature and the Fine Arts has to But, before the whites of eggs, &c. are Influence favourable to Morals. By the Rer. thrown in, the boiling liquor is cooled, by Samuel Hall, A, M. Read 15th May 1782. adding a pailful of cold water. The lixivium This well-meaning eslayist enters the lifts being thus clarified, is treated as before.

against some of our first-rate champions in “The eau mere of this operation, being carte and literature.--Shaftesbury - Hutchefon boiled again, yields a faltpetre of the same -Kaims and Percival are in their turn attack. colour with the first; and some salt petre goes ed, and with confiderable adroilnefs. He bulds through a third operation of the same kind to out as evidences of the justness of his cause, give it a greater degree of purity.

“ the irritability of a Pope and a Gray,”" The barons in which the ley is set for " the voluptuousness of a Montague and a the saltpetre to cryftallize, are closely fitted Chesterfield," and the luft, oftentation, with wooden covers, to prevent the too free pride, and cunning of the celebrated Medici; entrance of the air, which, by cooling the li- —and concludes his well-written eslay with quor too soon, would not admit the crystals the following liberal sentiments, to form of so large 3 size.

“ From there, and numberless instances “ The crystallization is generally com. of refined depravity which modern times ple:ed in two or three days; and about one will furnish, one might almost be tempted ta fourth part is supposed to be lost in refining. conclude, that the effects of Latte are so far

“ Such is the method of making salıpetre from being favourable to virtue, that they in Paris, as transmitted to us by those whose have rather a pernicious tendency. But I knowledge and veracity cannot be called in mean not to bring such a beavy charge against question ; in which we can find no mystery a faculty, which, connected with reason anul or difficulty, or any expence that can reason- religion, will, doubtless, enlarge the sphere ably deter us from engaging in undertakings of our innocent enjoyments. I with only la of this kind. The English will, in all proba disprove che affirmative of the proposition, bility, be obliged to employ other earths than and few, that ifte cannot reasonably be the rubbiih of old houses, which is the case considered as a moral principle of action with all our neighbours that do not live in that, upaffifted by reason and good sense, it large and populous towns; of which earths, we becomes subservient to the purposes of fol flatter ourselves, we have given a full descrip- and extravagance, and that, connected wine tion. And here we cannot belp observing a base and sensual heart, it unhappily serves one encouinement which an adventurer in to embellish guilt and glois over the deform. this way will always have, viz. that whate ty of vice.


* Let taste, however, be cultivated, as the Remarks on the Knowledge of the Ancients, Lurce of many elegant pleasures : but let it By William Falconr, M. D. F.R. S. ever be cultivated in subordination to sound Communicated by Dr. Percival. Read moralty, Tatte can ill supply the want of

16 O&t. 1782. moral discipline. Where there is no superi

'There Remarks are intended as additions or principle to check the allaults of an allu.

to those of Mr. Dutens on the fame lubject. rug temptation, the heart mult fall an easy The following are the subjects of our Au." prey. A truly virtuous character, fet off by choi's remarks. a jutt talte, is not only engaging, but even

1. Water which has been hoiled is more beneficial to mankind. while, on the contraTy, a vicious character, however distinguished easily frozen than water that has not noder

gone that operation, for taste and elegance, becomes only the

2. The production of cold by the evapomore finished hypocrite, or the more exquis

ration of Auids. Lte voluptuary, In a word, let virtue form

3. The folution of water in air. the base and the Maft of the column; and I

4. The reason why the air near the earth have not the least objection, that taste thuuld

is more hested than it is in higher fiti. tions. farach the foliage, and ornament the capi


The fuciden concretion of lail-itunes. tal.

6. The separation of air from water by Observations on the Use of Acids in freezing the latter. Blenching of Linnen, By Dr. Ealon. Head 7. The property of water in preserving 7th of August 1782.

its level. The intention of this short paper is to re- There several subjects our Author con commend, io the whiteners of linen, the ure tends (and supports his allegation with strong of the muriatic instead of the vitriolic acid, evidences) were understood by the Ancients, which lodging a selenitic matter in the cloth, notwithstanding they have been held out as is, as the Doctor conceives, injurious to it: modern discoveries. The character of the whereas " when the muriatic acid is used, no Ancients has undoubtedly suffered through felenite is formed. Whatever quantity of their supposed ignorance of the latt meneartby matter is diffolved by it is easily wash. tioned property of water and other fluids. ed out by pure soft water, and the cloth ha- The Doctor's remarks on this fubject are as ving a soft silky feel seems to strengthen this follow :conjecture; auding, “ that as the muriatic

“ It is often imagined, that the fact, of 30d is now fold at three pence per pound,

water rising to its level in pipes, was a mosad the commuon viiriolic acid at four pence dern discovery; but it appears to be by no a ufpenny, and as the muriatic acid will in

means fo: and that the Aquæducts built at proportion, acidulate a larger quanticy of

such vast expence for the conveyance of water than the vitriolic, besides the great proBibility of its answering better in whitening knowing that pipes would answer a similar

water, were not constructed for want of of cloth, the bleachers in this part of the world would do well to give it a fair trial.” purpose, but from the pertussion, that the

water, in pipes of lead especially, was less Conjectural Remarks on the Symbols or wholesome, than water conveyed in an open

Characters employed by Astronomers to channel. This appears very clear from the Represent the reyeral Planets, and by the following passage in Palladius. Chemists to express the several Mecals, in mons interjectus occurrerit, aut per latcra a Letter to Thomas Percival, M. D. ejus aquam ducemus obliquum, aut ad aquæ F.R. S. &c. By Martin Wall, M. D. caput fpeluncas librabiini, per quarum Prælector of Chemistry in the Univery structuram perveniat. Sed li se vallis interof Oxford. Read 9 Oct. 1782.

serat, erectas pilas, vel arcus usque ad aque We cannot refrain from obferving, that jufta veftigia conttruemus, aut plumbe is we think this learned Professor might have filtulis claufam dejici patiemur, et explicata returned the compliment paid him by the valle consurgere. Ultima ratio eft, plumbers Manchester Society in proposing him as an fiftulis ducere, quæ aquas poxias reddunt." bonorary Member, better than by presenting Vitruvius expreises the same, though in this truly pbilosopbical Society with a disser- terms rather more obscure ; and Pliny tation which is truly speculative, and which gives particular directions on the subject.” ferves to establish no one fact ; nor even enables us to form one probable conjecture; An Enquiry concerning the Influence of the unless we may venture to conclude, from Scenery of a Country on the Manners of

its Inhabitants, the attention which appears to have been

By the same. Read 23 bestowed upon it, that its Author is not

OEt. 1782. merely a man of great learning, but that he An admirable thought ! and we confess must be at the same time-a man of great that we expected much from this paper. Jeifare.

But instead of its being, as we reasonably


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