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If we look back to an early period of In Faventia
132 the christian æra, we shall find that Italy has been, at least about that time, peculiarly pro
4 pitou to longevity. Lord Bacon observes, In Rimino
150 Years, viz. that the year of our Lord 76, in the reign of
Marcus Aponius, Hifpafian, was memorable ; for in that year Mr. Carew, in his Survey of Cornwall, was a taxing which afforded the most authen- assures as, that it is no unusual thing, with tic method of knowing the ages of men. the inhabitants of that county, to reach ninety From it, there were found in that part of years of age and upwards, and even to reItaly lying between the Appennine moun. tain their strength of body, and perfect use of tains and the river Po, one hundred and their senses. Beftues Brown, the Cornish [wenty-fous persons who either equalled, or beggar, who lived to one hundred and twenexceeded one hundred years of age, namely: ty, and ore Polezew to one hundred and
thirty years of age, he remembered the deTABLE II.
cease of four persons in his own parith, the 54
Perfonts of 100 Years each. sum of whose years, taken collectively, 57
amounted to three hundred and forty. Now, 125
although longevity evidently prevails more in 130
certain diftricts than in others, yet it is by 136
no means confined to any particular nation or 3 140
climate ; nor are there waiting instances of la Parma
120 Years each. it, in almost every quarter of the globe, as 130
appears from the preceding, as well as the
fubsequent Table. la Plauentia
Hippociates, Physician 104 Iland of Cos Lynche on Health, chap.3.
Bacop's History, 1095. Galen, Physician 140 Pergamus
Voil. Inst. or lib. 3. Albuna, Marc 150 Ethiopia
Hakewell's Ap. lib. 1.
Haromízeck, Tian- Died Jan. 18, 1782. Gen.
Gazetteer, April 18ih.
Fulgolus, 1.b. S.
Fulgosus, lib. 8.
Bacon's Hift. of Life, &c.
p. 134. Robert Blakeney, Esq.
114 Armagh, Ireland General Gazetteer. Margaret Scott 125 Dalkeith, Scotland
See iafcrip. on her Tomb
in Dal eith Ch. Yard. W. Gulitone
Lynche on Health. William Portell
Bacon's History, p. 134.
Sc.j.Cbron. June 24, 2781.
Baker's Chton. p. 502. Joha Wilson 116 Suffolk
Gen. Gaz. O&t. 29, 1782. Patrick Wian
Leíbury, Northum- Plempius Fundamined.
Sca. 4, Chap. 8.
Buchanan's Hitt. of Scot.
Carmarthen Work-Gen, Gazetter, Oct. 12, Evan Williams
The Antediluvians are purposely omitted, hundred and forty-two persons survived the as bearing too little reference to the present hundredth year of their age ! This overgrown race of mortals, to afford any satisfactory metropolis is computed, by my learned friend conclufions; and the improbable ttories of Dr. Price, to contain a ninth part of the insome serions, who have almost rivalled them habitants of England, and to consume angu. in modern times, border too much upon the ally seven thousand perfons, who remove marvellous, to find a place in these Tables. into it from the country every year, without The present examples are abundantly sufficio increasing it. He moreover observes, that ent to prove, that long ity does not depend the number of inhabii ants, in England and so much, as has been supposed, on any par- Wales, has diminished about one fourth ticular climate, situation, or occupation in part fince the Revolution, and so rapidly of life. For we see, that it often prevails in late, that, in eleyen years, near 200,000 of places, where all case are extremely diiii. our common people have been loft ! If milar ; and it would, moreover, be very diffi. the calculaciou be just, however alarming it cult, in the histories of the several persons may appear in a national view, there is this al ove-mentioned, to find any circumstance consol.sion, when considereil in a philofophicommon to them all, except, perhaps, that cal light, that without partial evil, there can of being born of healthy parents, and of be. be no general good ; and that what a nat ou ing inured to daily labour, temperance, and loses in the scale of populatiou at one period, fimplicity of diet. Among the inferior ranks it gains at another ; and thus probably, the of mankind, therefore, rather than amongit average number of inhabitants, on the furthe sons of ease and luxury, thall we find face of the globe, continues, at all times, the most numerous initances of longevity ; nearly the same. By this medium, the world even frequently, when oti er external circuin. is neither overstocked with inhabitants, nor Itances seem extremely un'avourable : as in kept too thin, but life and death keep a tolethe case of the poor texton at Peterborough, rable equal pace. The inhabitants of this wlo, cotwithstanding his unpromising occu- island, comparatively speaking, are but as 1a:ion among dead bodies, lived long enough the dult of the balance; yet, inttead of being to bury two crowned beds, and to survive dimin:hed, we are assured by other writers, two complete generatio:s *. The livelihood that, within these thirty years, they are of Henry Jenkins, and old Purre, is said to greatly increasta $ . have confitted chiefly of the coarseit fare, as The Jefire of self-preservation, and of they depended on precarious alms. To which protracting the fort span of life, is fo intimay be added, the remu kable inftace of mately interwoven with our conftitution, that Agnes Milbrone, who, after bringing forth a it is justly esteemed one of the first princinumerot off pring, and being obliged, thru' ples of our parure, and, in spite even of extreme indigence, to pats the latter part of pain and misery, leidom quits us to the last her life w St. Luke's workhouse, yet reached moments of our existence. It seems, there. her hundredth and fixth ye.r, in that fordid, fore, to be no less our duty than our intereft, unfriendly situation t. Toe riain dicc and to examine minutely into the various means invigorating employments of a country life that have been considered as conducive to are acknowledged, ou adi hands. to be highly health and long life; and, if possible, to couducive to health and longevity, while the distinguish such circumstances as are effential Juxury and refinements of large cities are als to chal great end, from those which are merely lwed to be equally destructive to the human accidental. But here, it is much to be re. fpecies : and this confide. alion alune, per. gretted, that an accurate history of the lives haps, more than counterbalatices all the beast- of all the remarkable persons, in the abuve ed privileges of superior elegance and civili. Table, so far as relates to the diet, regimen, zation relulting from a city life.
and the use of the non naturals, has not been From country villages, 39d not from faithfully handed down to us ; without which crouled cities, have the preceding instances it is impossible to draw the necessary inferenof loucevity been chiefly iupplied. - Acco:d. Is it not then a matter of astonith ment, only it appears, from the London Bills of that hiftorians and philosophers liave hither to Nortlicy, during a period of thirty years, paid so liecle atiention to longevity? If the viz. frvm the year 1728 10 1758, the ium present imperfect lift should excite others, of the deaths announted to 550,322, and of more leisure and better abil.ties, to undertlust, in all this prodigious number, voly two take a full investigation of fu interesting a * Fuller's Worthies, p. 293, from a Memorial in the Cathedral at Peterborough.
+ Lyncke's Guide to Health, C. III.
Observations on Population, &c. p. 305.
fuhjett, the enquiry night prove not only we not, in fome measure, account why in. Curious, but highly useful to mankud. In Itinces of longevity are so much more frequent order to furnith materials for a future history inih: country, than in great cities; where of longevity, the bills of moitality, throuzlı- the air, instead of partaking so largely of out the kingen, ought first to be reviled, this falutary impregnation, is daily contamiand put on a beller footing ; agreeably to the nated with noxious animal effluvia, and scheme which you pointed out some time ago, phlogitton ? and of which Muchetter and Chester have With respect to climate, various obfer. already given a specimen highly worthy of
vations nspire to prove, that those regious imitation. The plan, bowever, might be which lie within the temperate zones are farther improved, with very litle trouble, helt calculated to proinote long life. Hence, by addug a particular account of the diet and perhaps, may be explained, why Italy has Icimea of every person who dies at eighty produced so many long livers, and why Purs of age, or upwards; and trentioning, ands in general are more salutary than ConWhether liis parents were healthy, long-lived tinents; of which Bermudas, and some others, people, &c. &c. An accurate register, thus afford examples. And it is a pleasing cirestablithed throughout the British Jominions, cumstance, that our own and appears would be productive of many important ad.
from the above Tabic, (notwithstanding the vantages to fociety, not only in a medical and sudden vicillitudes to which it is liable) to philusical, but also in a political and mo- Contain far more inttances of longevity than ral view. It is therefore to be hoped, that could well be imagined. The ingenious Mr. the legislature will not loog delay taking an Wbits hurft afures us, from certain facts, oljstt of such great uiility into their serious thul Englishmen are, in general, longer lived confideration,
than North Americans; and that a British Al the circunstances that are most ef- cousticution will last longer, even in that sentially necessary to life, may be comprized climate, than a native one i. But it must he Diver ihe fix fullowing heads :
allowed in general, that the human constitu1. Air and climate.
tion is adapted to the peculiar State, and tem
and excretions. 2. Meat and drink. 5. Sleep and watching.
perature, of each respective climate, so that
no part of the habitable globe can be pro. 3. Mction and i eft. 6. Affections of the
nounced too hot, or too cold, for its inhabi4. The secrecions mind.
tants. Yet, in order to promote a friendly These, thougi all perleclly natural to intercourse between the most remote regions, the conftitution, have by writers been styled the Author of Nature has wisely enabicu the the ton naturals, by a strange perverfion of inabitants to endure great and surpriúng Language; and have been all copioully hand- chinges of temperature with impunity t. led under that improper term. However, it 2. Foods and drink. Though foods and Day not be amits to offer a few short obser- drink, of the most simple kinds, are allowed väl uns on ealli, as they are so immediately to be the best calculated for supporting the connected with the preient fubject.
hully in health, yet it c:n hardly be doubteil, 1. Air, &c. It has long been kuown, but variety may be safely indulged occathat freth air is more immediately necellary fully, provided men would restrain their to life than foud; for a man may live two appetites within the bounds of temperance. er three days without the latter, but not ma- For bountiful nature cannot be supposed to Dy minutes without the former The vivi. have poured forth such a rich profufion of fying principle contaised in the atmosphere, provisions, merely to tantalize the human fo ellential to the support of flame, as well species, without attributing to her the part as animal fame, concerning which author's of a cruel step-dame, instead of that of the have propoled so many conjectures, appears kind.nd indulgent parent. Belides, we find, bow bu be nothing else but that pure dephlo- tha: by the wonderful powers of the digestive gisticated fluid lately discovered by that inge- organs, a variety of animal and vegetable fi fous philofopher Dr. Priestley. The com- subitances, of very discordant principles, are mon almofphere may well be upposed to be happily aflimilated into one bland homoge. nure or lets healthy in proportion as it neous chyic; therefore, it seems natural to abounds with this animating principle. As distrust those cynical writers, who would ri. this exhales, in copious streams, from the gidly confine mankind to one fimple dish, green leaves of all kinds of veget.ibles, even and their drink to the mere water of the trom those of the most poisonous kind, may brook. Nature, it is true, lias pointed out
* Enquiry into the Original Scate and Formation of the Earth. + See remarkable inftances of this, in the Account of Experiments in a heated room, by Di. Gwrge fordyös, and others. Phil. Trans. vol. LXIX.
that mild infipid fluid as the universal di- kept within proper bou:ds, gently excite the luent ; and, therefore, most admirably adapt- nervous influence, promote an equable circu ed for our daily beverage. But experience lation, and are highly conducive to health has equally proved, that vinous and spiritus while the depressing affections, such as fear ous liquers, on certain occafions, are no less grief, and despair, produce the contrary ef Llutary and beneficial, whether it be to sup- fect, and lay the foundation of the most forport ftrength against fickness or bodily fatigue, midable diseases. or to exbilarate the mind under the pressure From the light which history affords us, as of beavy misfortunes. But alas ! what Na- well as from some instances in the above Table, ture meant for innocent and useful cordials, there is great reason to believe, that longevity is to be used only occationally, and according in a great measure hereditary ; and that healthy to the direction of reason; cottom and ca. long-lived parents would commonly traním price have, by degrees, rendered habitual the same to their children, were it not for the to the human frame, and liable to the most frequent errors in the non-nlarals, which fo enormous and destructive abuses. Hence, it evidently tend to the abbreviation of human life. may be juftly doubted, whether gluttony and Whence is it, but from these causes, aid intemperance have not depopulated the the unnatural modes of living, that, of all the world more than even sword, pestilence, children which are born in the capital cities and famine. 'True, therefore, is the old of Europe, nearly one half die in early infanmaxim, “ Modus utendi ex venera facil Medi- cy? To what elic can we attribute this exCumentum, ex Medicamento, venenuin.” traordinary mortality. Sach an amazing pro
3. and 4. Motion and rest, Deep and portion o: premature deaths is a circumitance watching. It is allowed on all hands, that unheard of among favage nations, or amous alternate motion and rest, and Neep and the young of other animals ! In the earlieit watching, are necessary conditions to health ages, we are informed, that human life wa and longevity; and that they ought to be protracted to a very extraordinary length; adapted to age, temperament, conftitution, yet how few persons in these later times are temperature of the climate, &c. but the er- rive at that period which nature seems to rurs which mankind daily commit in there have designed ! Man is, by nature, a fieldrespects, become afruitful source of diseases. animal; and seems destined to rise with the While some are bloated and relaxed with ease fun, and to spend a large portion of his time and indolence, others are emaciated, and be- in the open air, to inure his body to robust come rigid, through baru labour, watching, exercises and the soclemency of the seasons, and fatigue.
and to make a plain homely repast, only whe) 5. Secretions and excretions. Where the bunger dictates. But art has studioully deanimal functions are duly performed, the se- feated the kind intentions of nature ; and the er etious go on regularly ; and the different enllaving him to all the blandishments ci crucuations fu exactly correspond to the quan- fense, has left him, alas ! an easy sictim to city of alimene taken in, in a given time, that folly and caprice! To enumerate the vanous the body is found to return daily to nearly the abuses which take place from the earliest tume weight. If any particular evacuation fancy, and which are continued through the happen to be puetervaturally diminished, succeeding stages of modith life, would carry some other evacuation is proportionally aug- me far beyond my present intention. Suthce mented, and the equilibrium is commonly it to observe, that they prevail more particuprelerved; but continued irregularities, in larly aniong people who are the most highly these important functions, cannot but ternii- polished and resined. To compare their artipate in disease.
ficial mode of life with that of nalure, o 6. Affections of the mind. The due regu- even with the long livers in the lif, woul, Lation of the parlions, perhaps, contributes probably, afford a very Atriking contraft ; more to health and longevity, than that of any at the fame time fupply an additional reafie other of the non nuturals, The animating why, in the very large cities, instances ? paffions, such as joy, hope, love, &c. when longevity are fo very rare.
OBSERVATIONS ON DRINKING MINERAL WATERS,
By Dr. BUCHA N. N our last Magazine we gave the intes ters, and fome of them are written w.13
much ingenuity ; but they are chiefly emples Sea-Bathing : we now present our Readers ed in ascertaining the contents of the wale. ? with the sentiments of that able Physician on by chymical analysis. This, the use of Mineral Waters.
its ule, but is by no means of fuch im f. We have many books on the mineral wa
tance aj fome may imagine. A maz mluv
no Joubt, he
know the chymical analysis of all the articles pursued, or, using them in cases where they in the maleria medica, without being able are not proper. properly to apply any one of them in the A very hurtful prejudlice Itill prevails in cure of diseases. One page of practical ob- this country, that all diseases must be cured fervations is worth a whole volume of chy. by medicines taken into the stomach, and that mical analyfs. But where are such obler. the more violently these medicines operate, vallons to be met with ? Few physicians are they are more likely to have the defired efin a situation to make them, and fewer fill fect. This opinion has proved facal to thouare qualified for such a talk. It can only be (ands; and will, in all probability, destroy accomplished by practitioners who refide at many more before it can be wholly eradicated. the fountains, and who, pollelling minds íu. Purging is often useful in acute diseases, and perior to local prejudices, are capable of in chronical cases may pave the way for the distinguishing diseales with accuracy, and of operation of other medicines ; but it will salforming a sound judgment respecting the ge. dom perform a cure; and by exhausting tive pune effects of medicines.
Itrength of the patient, will often leave bina The internal use of water, as a medicine, in a worse condition than it found him. That is no less an object of the physician's attention this is frequently the case with regard to the than the external. Pure elementary water more active mineral waters, every person is indeed the molt inoffensive of all liquors, conversant in these matters will readily allow. and constitutes a principal part of the food of Strong Itimulants applied to the stomach every animal. But this element is often im. and bowels for a length of time, mut tend pregnated with substances of a very aclive to weaken and dettroy their energy ; ausd and penetrating nature ; and of such an infi- what itimulants are more active thin salt aed dious quality, that, while they promote cer. Tulphur, especially when these subitances are tan secretions, and even alleviate some dif- intimately combined, and carried tlrough agreeable symptoms, they weaken the powe the system by the penetrating medium of waers of life, undermine the conat tntion, and ter? Those bowels must be strong indeed loy the foundation of worle diseases than which can withitand the daily operation of toe which they were employed to remove. Such active principles for moaths together, Of this every practitioner must have seen in- and not be injured. This, however, is the 1tances; and physicians of eminence have plan pursued by most of those who drink the more than once declared that they have purging mineral waters, and whole circum. known more d seases occasioned than removed stances will permit them to continue long hy the use of mineral waters. This, doubt- enough at those fashion.tble prices of reloit. dels, has proceeded from the abuse of thuse Many people inagine, that every thing de powerful medicines, which evinces the ne- pends on the quantity of water taken, a vd ceility of ufing them with caution.
that the more they drink they will the food. By examining the contents of the mineral er get well. This is an egregious error; for waters wbich are mott used in this country, while the unhappy patieut thinks he is by We shall be enabled to form an idea of the this means eradicating his disorder, he is rifdanger which may arise from an improper ap- ten, in fact, undermining the powers of life, plication of them either externally or inter- and ruining his conftitution. Indeed nothing rally, though it is to the latter of these that can do this so effettually as weakening the the present observations are chiefly confined. powers of digestion by the improper appia
Tlie waters most in use for medical pur. tion of strong stimulants. The very essence poles in Britain, are those impregnated with of health depends on the digestive organs perfalts, fulphur, or iron, either separately, or forming their due functions, and the most variously combined. Of these the most pow. tedious maladies are all connected with india erful is the faline fulphureous water of Har- gestion. Towgate, of which I have had more occasion Drioking the water in too great quantity, to observe the pernicious consequences, when not only injures the bowels and occasions in. improperly used, than of any other. To this digettion, but generally defeats the intention therefore the following remarks will more for which it is taken. The dileases for the immediately relate, though they will be found cure of which mineral waters are chietly ce. applicable to all the purging waters in the lebrated, are mostly of the chronic kind; kn3dm which are strong enough to merit and it is well kr.own that such disea'es cha
only be cured by the low operation of alterThe errors which so often defeat the in- atives, or such medicines as act by inducing tention of drinking the purgative mineral a gradual change in the habit. This requires waters, and woich so frequently prove inju- length of time, and never can be effected by trus to the patient, proceed from the manner medicines which run off by stool, and only of dranking, the quantity taken, the regimen operate on the first patsages,