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would he ever accept a favour to lefsen his he once had a great partiality for Mr. Fox, free agency. To establish a more equal re- but never could be prevailed on to forgive presentation was one of the most leading ob- the Coalition, which he considered as a con. jects of his heart ; and he endeavoured in the federacy of interest; and if justifiable in one, newspapers to communicate every informa- it might be so on every occasion, and the tion by which he could instruct the people, people be never certain of the objects of that by the nature of the constitution, the their confidence. A heart so traly devoted rights of election ought not to be bartered by to accomplish the prosperity of merit, and the venal, or oppressed by the families of lo anxious to see both good men rewarded, power. His next favourite object was the as well as excellent measures promoted, could establishing a law, in conformity to the boalt- not be continually stabbed to the soul by seeed notion of English freedom, to prevent a ing the reverse of the medallion.---Such frecreditor from claiming the liberty and person quent mortifications preyed on his health, of a fellow.creature for life, if his fortune and the exertions he made to promote the Ahould be by chance, or even indiscretion, good of his country, 'wore out his conftitu. unable to pay his debts. He was fond of tion, and deprived mankind of a friend and employing his pen in the service of the peo. ornament. His attention to the happiness of ple, and did not blush to own, that he often others made him neglect his own interest, at wrote in the public papers, which he respect least in a worldly sense ; but the fame good ed as the centinels of liberty.

God who gave him such difinterested virtues, « In bis political friendihip he was mild, has the power to reward them in a more ex. firm, and condescending, though not convi- alled station, to which they cannot fail to vial. He was attached particularly to Dr. lead him, and where alone fo good and value Northcote, Mr. Williams, and Mr. Lofft ; able a citizen can receive justice."

To the PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY. GENTLEMEN, If you will admit the following into your entertaining Magazine, you will oblige a conftant reader.

PHILOCRITICUS. DR. Warton's

observations on Pope's Effay many paragraphs might change places with on Criticism are in general remarkable out any injury to the context, or violation of for learning and taste. He is however inju- the sense. diciously severe upon Addison, for asserting In the perusal of this beautiful and delightthat Pope like Horace was not studious of ful poem it is curious to remark the different close connection in the conduct of his poem. modifications of meaning which Pope hus The microscopic eye of Hurd can alone dif- annexed to the word wit. cover the minute chain of thought which

1. unites the parts of the Art of Poetry. Dr. « Nature to all things fix'd the limits fit, Warton seems ambitious to obtain the repu- “ And wisely curb'd proud man's pretending tation of equal discernment with respect to

« quit. L. 52 the Essay on Criticism, without giving himielf “ One science only will one genius fit, the trouble of declaring the reasons on which “ So vast is art, so narrow human wil. L. 69. he grounds bis opinion. Unlike the com. In these pallages the word is used for all municative Warburton, who, to convince the the faculties of the mind-be intellecinal fysier. world of its stup.dity and his own discern

11. ment, lifted up the veil which concealed the « For wit and judgment often are at strife, mysteries of Ceres ; Dr. Warton lints that " Though meant each other's aiu, like man he is in poffeffion of an important secret, < and wife. L. 82. which he is too wise to reveal. These great “ –Works may have more wit than does críticks, so renowned for marvellous disco.

rt them good, veries, are like drunkarus seized with giddia " As bodies perith thro' the excess of food. nels, who fancy every thing around them is Here is evidently means livelinefs and briiin motion, whien the vertigo affects nothing liancy of imagination. but their own heads. It is a difficult matter

III. for them to make any so intoxicated with pa- 66 Receiv'd his laws, and stood convinc'd radox as themselves. When Dr. Warton af.

< 'twas fit, serted that a regular concatenation was disco- “ Who conquer'd nature, should preside o'er verable in the poem above-mentioned, he

" wit. L. 651. wrote without proper attention to its con- " To him the wit of Greece and Rome was tents and the nature of the subject. It could

“ known, be proved by many quotations, that Adeli- « And every author's merit-but his own. fon's remark is indisputably true, and that

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L. 727.

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In these places wit is intended to signify Jack the Giant-killer, are all equally witty. to various productions of genius.

Pope was more licencious in the use of IV.

this word than any author who preceded Pleas'd with a work where nothing's just him. Shakespear and Dryden generally li. " or fit,

mited themselves to the first and fecond "One glaring chaos, and wild heap of wit.” senses of the word. It is now the fashion to

The context will admit the reader to in- stamp a very confined signification upon it, clude under the term in this place, extrava- lo common conversations or even elegant gant conceit, quaint antiebesis, poirt and pun.- writing, it passes current for ebat vivacity of Cowley perhaps is the best example of it. ehoug bes which confifts in bons mots and repar

But he never gives the word a greater la- tees. Hence the confusion between wit and titude of meaning, or a more extraordinary genius is avoided. The difference indeed be. fignification, than when he thus defines it. tween them is as strongly marked as the differ

ence of their effects: the former is the proper" True wit is nature to advantage dress'd, ty of a quick mind ; the latter of a sublime one. " What oft was thought, but ne'er fo well Martial is the best representative of the one, " express’d.” L. 297.

as Homer is of the other. Wit is like the Dryden most probably suggested this den. Aath of a firework, which dazzles the eye nition, or rather, this loose description : he for a moment, and then vanishes. Genius realerts wit “ to be a propriety of thoughts sembles the luftre of the Sun, which is not and words adapted to the subject." If those only permanent, but increases our admiration be its precise characters, the Iliad of Homer, the longer it is surveyed. the Elements of Euclid, Tom Jones, and

V.

THE

L O N D ON RE VI E W,

A N D

LITERARY JOURNAL.

Quid fit turpe, quid utile, quid dulce, quid non. The History of Wales, in Nine Books. With an Appendix. By the Rev. William War

rington. 460. l. is. London, J. Johnson. 1786. HE history of a people who, tho' in out tracing back effects to their causes, or

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ways distinguished for an independency of gesting the narration, totally wants the most spirit which might have done honour to effential characteristics of history. more refined and cultivated manners, cannot To fupply this deficiency, and to rescue bat afford a most interesting spectacle. To from oblivion the warlike atchievements of

free chem defending for ages their liberties this hardy race, our historian steps forth with ' with a fortitude and perseverance that affords a zeal the more laudable, as it proceeds, he

unquestionable proofs of their valour, mult, tells us, “ neither from the partiality of an while it awakens our curiosity, excite our ad- author to his subject, nor the prejudice of a miration, and call forth every liberal senti- native, but is merely the voluntary cribute of ment.

justice and humanity to the cause of injured Attached as the Welch are, almost “ to liberty." idolatry," to the renown of their progenitors, Our Author in the first and second books it is forprizing that no native has ever at. gives a review of the British History before tempted to give a regular history of his gal- the retreat of the Romans out.of Bricain, ard lant ancestors. The only attempi of the kind from the time of their final retreat to that is the Chronicle of the Monk Caradoc of period when the ancient Britons were driven Llancarvan, which as it is only a simple de into Wales, Corawa.l, and Armorica One tail of facts, without investigating the motives of the principal causes that contributed to the of policy which gave rise to them, with- decline of the British einpire at this period,

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he thinks, was the Britons uniformly nego on account of the marshes and inequalities of
lecting to erablish a naval power, though ex- the ground, marchied on foot.
perience and the nature of their situation " The Welth either went with their feet
pointed out the expediency of the measure, entirely bare, or used boots of raw leather,
as the ouly effettual means of contending instead of thues, fewed together with raw
with, and counteracting the designs of their fkin.
enemies; a mode of defence so obvious, that “ These people were not given to exceis ;
it might have struck the minds of any peo. they bad no set time for their meals, nor any
pie more rude tiun the Britons, who from expensive richness in their cloathis. There
their insular situation tvere naturally exposcd was not a beggar to be seen among them,
to continual invasions.

for the cables of all were common to all ; The third book treats of the wars between and with them bounty, and particularly hosthe Saxons and Welth, to the death of Ro. picable entertainment were in higher eftideric the Great. About the conclusion of mation than any of the other virtues. The the sixth century, the ancient Britons loft offer of water for the purpofe of washus their name with their fituation, and became the feet, was considered as an invitation to diftinguished by that of Welth. Possessed of accept of hospitable entertainment. The the warlike spirit which marked the British strangers who arrived in the morning were character, they carried into their mountains entertained until evening with the conversathat rooted inveteracy against the Saxons, tion of young women, and with the mufic which hereditary wars, heightened by every of the harp ; for in this country almost every injury, would naturally excite. But the same house was provided with both. Hence we feverity of fortune awaited the descendants may reasonably conclude they were not much of that brave people in their latt asylum, as addicted to jealousy. In the evening an enthe corquest of this barren domain became certainment was provided according to the the object of ambition and policy to the Saxon number and dignity of the persons. The and Norman Princes. After a recital of in- guests were placed by threes at supper, and roads and battles, the author relieves the the dishes at the same time were put on nahes, reader's mind, by opening to his view the in large and ample platters made of clean modes of life and private manners of the grass, with chin and broad cakes of bread Welth, whose national character be thus baked every day. At the same time, the describes.

whole family, with a kind of emulation in “ They were a nation light and nimble, their civilities, were in waiting ; the master and more fierce than strong; from the lowest and mistress in particular were always ftande to the higlieft of the people, they were de- ing, very atienitively overlooking the whole. voted to arms, which the plow man as well “ The women of this nation, as well as as the courtier was prepared to seize on the the men, had their hair cut round at the ears firit summons.

and eyes. The women also, as a head-dress, “Their chicf sustenance in respect of food, wore a large white robe, folding round, and was cattle and oats, besides milk, cheese and rising hy degrees into a graceful tok or butter ; though they usually ate more plentifully of flesh-meat than of bread.

“ The Welsh were a people of an acute “ As they were not engaged in the occu- and subtle gemus, enjoying to rich a vein of pations of traffic, their time was entirely natural endowments, that they excelled in employed in military affairs. They were fo wit and ingenuity any other of the Western anxious for the preservation of their country Dations. In private company, or in seasons and its liberties, that they elteemed it delight of public feftivity, they were very facet nous ful to sacrifice their lives for them : and in their conversation, entertaining the com. agreeably to this spirit they entertained an pany with a display of their wit. jues, that it was disgraceful to die in their • There were among the Welth, what were Lurly, but honourable to fall in the fiell. Such not to be found among other vations, certain was their eager courage, that unarmed they persons whom they called Awenydbcon, (a word cared engage men entirely covered with ar expreifive of poetical raptures) a lo apper njour, and by their activity and valour ulu. to have been fulely under the influence of ally came off conquerors. Their offenfive the imagination. These persons, when they weapons were arrows and long spezi's. Their were consulted about any thing doubtful, inbrows were usually made of light twigs join filamed with a high degree of enthusiam, ed or twisted together, and though nude in were carried out of themselves, and leemed their form, they discharged an arrow with as if politlled by an invisible (pirit. great force. The chieftains, when they went “ Pride of ancestry and nobility of farri. to war, were maunted on (wift horses, bred ly were points held in the higheft estimation in the country ; the lower suits of people, anyong the well, and of comie they were

Crown.

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far more desirous of noble than of rich and object ; the king's prerogative, with the ecosplendid marriages. A Welshman was con- nomy of his court ; the affairs of civil jurisfidered as honourable, if among his ancestors prudence ; and the criminal law. there fiad been neither Nave, nor foreigner, Among the officers and domestics of the tva infamous person. Yet if any foreigner royal household, as enumerated by our Auhad saved the life of a Welshman, or deli- thor, the Judge Of THE PALACE claims vered him from captivity, he might he natu- particular attention. ralized, and was entitled to the rights of “ The court in which this judge presided, Wellhmen; and any foreign family, having was the principal court of Wales. It is said refided in Wales for four generations, were that he always luged in the hall of the paalso admitted to the same privileges." Jace, and that the cushion on which the King

Roderic, who by his countrymen was stiled was seated in the day, served for his pillow the Great, in Mr. Warrington's opinion, but at night. On his appointment he received ill deserved fo distinguished an appellation. an ivory chess-board from the King, a gold His reign oponed with important advantages, ring from the Queen, and another gold ring which, directed by a wise policy, might from the domestic bard ; which he always probably bave fecured the independency of kept as the insignia of his office. When he Wales, and fixed its government on a basis entered or departed out of the palace, the fo permanent, that it might have supported great gate was opened for him, that his digthe storms of ages. But instead of profit ing nity might not be degraded by palling under by this fortunate conjuncture, instead of act. a wicket. He determined the rank and duing up to the great design of government, he, ty of the several officers of the household. without precedent to palliate, or apparent He decided poetical contests; and received Leceffity to enforce the measure, yielded up from the victorious bard, whom he rewardthe independency of Wales ; enjoining his ed with a silver chair, the badge of poetical pulterity to pay to the Saxon Kings, as a preeminence, a gold ring, a drinking-horn, mark of subordination, a yearly tribute, which and a cushion. If complaint was made to became the foundation to that claim of supe- the king, that the judge of the palace had Tiority ever after allerted by the English. pronounced an unjust sentence, and the accuThe division which Roderic made of his do- sation was proved, he was then for ever demunions, was another source of civil dissen- prived of bis office, and condemned to lose tos and national weakness, which foon his congue, or pay the usual ransom for that cused a decline in patriotism, a striking bar- member. The other juiges were also subbarity in manners, which terminated in the ject to these severe but falutary conditions. tuin of the state, and the loss of the political A person ignorant of the laws whom the existence of the nation.

King designed to make his principal Judge, The fourth book contains the history of was required to reside previously a wbole Wales, from the death of Roderic to that of year in the palace, that he might obtain from Bleddyn ap Cynvin, the King of North- the other Judges, who resorted thither from Wales, and Powis, who was aflaffinated by the country, a competent knowledge of his Rhys, the son of Owen ap Edwyn, and the dury and profetlion. During this year, the Nobility of Ystrad Tywy. Among the Princes difficult causes which occurred, were stated who during this period attained the sovereign- and referred by him to the king : at the exty of Wales, Howel Dha, or the Good, de- piration of this term he was to receive the lervedly holds the first place,

facrament from the hands of the domestic To reduce his subjects to a sense of order, chaplain, and to sudar al the aliar, that he and to render them lubordinate to civil au- would never knowingly prvnounce an unjuft thority, he collected into one code the an- sentence, nor ever be infuenced by bribes or cient customs and law's of Wales, which intreaties, hatred or affection : he was then bad nearly loft their efficacy and weight in placed by the King in his seat, and inverted the lapse of ages, and in the confusion and with the judicial authority; and afterwards turbulency of the times. " This code,” our receivcu presents from the whole household author observes, " is the best eulogium of this It was reckoned among the remark.ble and Prince's memory, and raises him as much peculiar customs of the Welih, that the above the rett of the Cambrian Princes, as tongues of all animals Naughtered for the peace and gentleness of manners, and a re- tousehold were given to the Judge of the gulased state, are preferable to the evils inse. palace.". parable from war, to the fierceness of unci- The Author concludes this book with re. vilized life, and to the habits of a wild inde marking, that Bleddyo Cynvin might have pendency."

transmitted his name with credit to pofterity, These laws were divided into three parts, if he had not betrayed the liberties of lus each of which had a distinct and separate country, and yielded up its honour, by deigning to receive his crown from the hands of with an eager desire to enjoy her. The fame its hereditary enemy, and by consenting to night returning with a troop of his wild comhold its authority as a tributary of the Englith panions, he secretly entered the castle, and

a Princes.

in the confusion occafioned by setting it on The fifth book contains the history from fire, surrounded the chamber in which Gerald the death of Bleddyn ap Cynvin, to that of and his wife fept. Awaked by the noise, Gryffydh ap Cynan. We here find William he rushed suddenly out of bed, to enquire Rufus entering Wales with a royal army, in into the cause of the disturbance; but his support of a claim to which he had no legal wife suspecting some treachery, presented preten focs. At this period, a series of feuds his opening the door ; then, advising him to and hoftilities too descriptive of the manners retire to the privy, the pulled up the board, of the Welth occurred, which were the and still farther atlifting her husband, he let means of accelerating the ruiu of the stare. bimself down, and made his escape. Owen The following transaction may serve as a and his followers instantly broke open the dreadful specimen.

door ; but on searching the chamber got “ In the Christmas holidays, Cadwgan ap finding Gerald, they seized his wife and two Bleddyn invited the chieftains in his neigh- of his sons, besides a son and daughter which bourhood to a feast at his house in Dyvet. In he had by a concubine ; then leaving the the course of the entertainment Medh or castle in flames, and ravaging the country, he Mead, the wine of the country, having raised carried off Nest and the children lo Powis. their spirits, Nest, the wife of Gerall, Go. This adventure gave Cadwgan the greatest vernor of Pembroke Castle, was spoken of unealmess. Afraid left Henry might revenge in terms of admiration; the beauty and ele- on his head the atrocious action of his son, gance of whose person, it was said, exceeded he came into Powis ; and requested Owen those of any lady in Wales. The curiosity that he would send back to Gerald his wife of Owen the son of Cadwgan was strongly and children, as well as the plunder which excited to see her; and he had little doubt of he had taken. The young chieftain, whose obtaining admitance, as there was a degree love was heightened by the pofleffion of his of relationship fubfisting between them. Un mistress, refused to restore her. Whether der colour of a friendly visit, the young the yielded to the violence of her lover from chieftain, with a few of his attendants, was choice or from necefsity, is uncertain ; bac introduced into the castle. Finding that fame he soon after sent back to Gerald all his bad been cold in her praite, he returned home children, at her particular request." deeply enamoured of her beauty, and fired

[To be Continued.] A Trip to Holland, containing Sketches and Characters : together with cursory Observations

on the Manners and Customs of the Dutch. Svo. 25. 6d. Becket. OT Solomon with all his concubines in its influence; and that the man who has

had near so numerous an illegitimae resided for any little time in Holland, muft iffure as the author of Triltram Shandy : yet neceffarily become as dull and phlegmatic as few of his descendants, tho' not begotten in many of its inhabitants ?” I do. “ You ima. the “ stale bed of matrimony," have inhe- gine likewise, that a Dutchman is totally derited even a spark of their father's spirit: void of sentiment; and that a Dutch woman this Belgic traveller, however, seems an ex- is an utter stranger to those finer affections of ception to the observation. The features of the soul which so eminently characterize the parent may be, perhaps 100 evidently, our lovely country women ?" Undoubtedlyfraced in this his progeny ; but even admit- " Why then you are undoubtedly mistaken." ting it, we cannot help cherishing the infant-And so is the author, io making French for the father's like.

the universal language in Hollanů. We can The following is a strong family-feature : readily conceive the Vrows taking up their

“ Observations made in a Trip to Holland brooms to protect their newly-cleaned houses -Ha! ha! ha! And why that laugh, good from his intrafon; but their “fortez d'in?" Mr. Critic! You imagine perhaps that a is a child of his own imagination. Belgic sky has something particularly baneful

The Tour of Valentine. Svo. 25. 61. J. Johnson. 1786. HIS little volume was not intended to tion thus communicated is apt to make the 1

add to the already enormous mass of deepest impression, as mankind interest them. adventures, romances, and sentimental effu. selves particularly in the actions and characfous ; on the contrary, the author liath cloth- ters of their fellow.creatures, even when ed a work intended and calculated to promote feigned, if agreeable to na'ure and truth. The christian piety in a fanciful Jrels, solely with author's intentions we think highly laudable, a view to its being by that means likely to be but we doubt of his fucceis.

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