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he thinks, was the Britons uniformly nego on account of the marshes and inequalities of lecting to ctablish a naval power, though ex- the ground, marched on foot. perience and the nature of their situation H4 The Welth either went with their feet pointed out the expediency of the measure, entirely bare, or used boots of raw leather, as the only effectuat means of contending instead of Thues, fewed together with raw with, and counteracting the designs of their skin. enemies; a mode of defence fo obvious, that “ These people were not given to exceis ; it might have struck the minds of any peo- they bad no set time for their meals, nor any ple more rude than the Britons, who from expensive richness in their cloaths. There their infuiar situation were naturally exposed was not a beggar to be seen among them, to continual invasions.

for the cables of all were common to all ; The third book treats of the wars between and with them bounty, and particularly hosthe Saxons and Well, to the death of Ro. picable entertainment were in higher eftideric the Great. About the conclusion of mation than any of the other virtues. The the sixth century, the ancient Britons loft offer of water for the purpofe of washing their name with their situation, and became the feet, was considered as an invitation to distinguished by that of Welth. Possessed of accept of hospitable entertainment. The the warlike spirit which marked the British strangers who arrived in the morning, were character, they carried into their mountains entertained until evening with the convería. that rooted inveteracy against the Saxons, tion of young women, and with the music which hereditary wars, heightened by every of the harp ; for in this country almost every injury, would naturally excite. But the same house was provided with both. Hence we severity of fortune awaited the descendants may reasonably conclude they were not much o! that brave people in their last asylum, as addicted to jealousy. In che evening an ecthe corquest of this barren domain became tertainment was provided according to the the object of ambition and policy to the Saxon number and dignity of the persons. The and Norman Princes. After a recital of in- guests were placed by threes at supper, and roads and battles, the author relieves the the dishes at the same time were put on whes, reader's mind, by opening to this view the in large and ample platters maule of clean modes of life and private manners of the grass, with chin and broad cakes of bread Welsh, whose national character be thus baked every day. At the same time, the describes.

whole family, with a kiod of emulation in “ They were a nation light and nimble, their civilities, were in waiting ; the master and more fierce than strong; from the lowest and mistress in particular were always standto the highest of the people, they were de ing, very attentively overlooking the whole. voted to arms, which the plow man as well “ The women of this nation, as well as as the courtier was prepared to seize on the the men, had their hair cut round at the ears firit summons.

and eyes. The women also, as a head-dress, “ Their chicf sustenance in relpect of food, wore a large white robe, folding round, and was cattle and oats, besides milk, cheese and rising hy degrees inco a graceful tok or

butter ; though they usually ate more plenti- crown. . fully of flesh-meat than of bread.

“ The Welsh were a people of an acute “ As they were not engaged in the occu- and subtle genus, enjoying to rich a vein of pations of traffic, their time was entirely natural endewments, that they excelled in employed in military affairs. They were so wit and ingenuity any other of the Western anxious for the preservation of their country Dations. In private company, or in sealons ar:d its liberties, that they esteemed it delight- of public feftivity, they were very facetius ful to sacrifice their lives for them : and in their conversation, entertaining the com. agreeab!y to this spirit they entertained an pany with a display of their wit. idea, that it was disgrace ul to die in their • There were among the Welsh, what were burts, but honourable to fall in the field. Such not to be found among other nations, certain was their eager courage, that unarmed they persons whom they called Awenydbcon, (a word dured engage men entirely covered with are expreslive of poetical raptures) who appeir niour, and by their activity and valour ulu. to have been fulely under the influence of ally came off conquerors. Their offenfive the imagination. These perfons, when they weapons were arrows and long (pears. Their were consulted about any thing doubtful, 11bmws were usually made of light i wigs join- fiamned with a high degree of enthusiaim, ed or twisted together, and though rude in were carried out of themselves, and icemed their form, they discharged an arrow with as if poffeffal by an invisible (pirit. great force. The chietiains, when they went Pride of ancestry and nobility of fami. to War, were mounted on (wift horles, bred ly were points held in the highest ettimation w the country ; the lower forts of people, aniong the Well, and of course they were far more desirous of noble than of rich and object ; the king's prerogative, with the ecosplendid marriages. A Welshman was con- nomy of his court ; the affairs of civil jurislidered as honourable, if among his ancestors prudence ; and the criminal law. there had been neither flave, nor foreigner, Among the officers and domestics of the por infamous person. Yet if any foreigner royal household, as enumerated by our Auhad saved the life of a Welshman, or deli- thor, the JUDGE OF THE PALACE claims vered him from captivity, he might he natu- particular attention. ralized, and was entitled to the rights of “ The court in which this judge presided, Welthmen; and any foreign family, having was the principal court of Wales. It is said tefided in Wales for four generations, were that he always lodged in the hall of the paillo admitted to the same privileges.” lace, and that the cushion on which the King

Roderic, who by his countrymen was filed was seated in the day, served for his pillow the Great, in Mr. Warrington's opinion, but at night. On his appointment he received ill deserved so distinguished an appellation. an ivory chess-board from the King, a gold His reign opened with important advantages, ring from the Queen, and another gold ring which, directed by a wise policy, might from the domestic bard ; which he always probably have secured the independency of kept as the infignia of his office. When he Wales, and fixed its governmeut on a basis entered or departed out of the palace, the fo permanent, that it might have supported great gate was opened for him, that his diga the storms of ages. But instead of profit ing nity might not be degraded by palling under by this fortunate conjuncture, instead of act. a wicket. He determined the rank and duing up to the great design of government, he, tv of the soveral officers of the household. without precedent to palliate, or apparent He decided poetical contests; and received Ceceffity to enforce the measure, yielded up from the victorious bard, whom he rewardthe independency of Wales; enjoining his ed with a silver chair, the badge of poetical pulterity to pay to the Saxon Kings, as a preeminence, a gold ring, a drinking-horn, mark of subordination, a yearly tribute, which and a cushion. If complaint was made to became the foundation to that claim of supe- the king, that the judge of the palace had riority ever after aflerted by the English. pronounced an unjust fentence, and the accuThe division which Roderic made of his doe lation was proved, he was then for ever deminions, was another source of civil dissen- prived of bis office, and condemned to lose tions and national weakness, which foon his tongue, or pay the usual ransom for that czuled a decline in patriotism, a ftriking har- member. The other julges were also subbarity in manners, which terminated in the ject to these severe bue falutary conditions. ruin of the state, and the loss of the polítical A person ignorant of the laws whom the existence of the nation.

King designed to make his principal Judge, The fourth book contains the history of was required to reside previously a wbole Wales, from the death of Roderic to that of year in the palace, that he might obtain from Bleddyn ap Cynvin, the King of North- the other Judges, who resorted thither from Wales, and Powis, who was affassinated by the country, a competent knowledge of his Rhys, the son of Owen ap Edwyn, and the duty and profeflion. During this year, the Nobility of Ystrad Tywy. Among the Princes difficult causes which occurred, were stated who during this period attained the sovereign- and referred by him to the king : at the exty of Wales, Howel Dha, or the Good, de piration of this term he was to receive the servedly holds the first place,

facrament from the hands of the domestic To reduce his subjects to a sense of order, chaplain, and to su čar al the altar, that lie and to render them fubordinate to civil au- would never knowingly pronounce an unjuft thority, he collected into one code the an- fentence, nor ever be infoenced by bribes or cient customs and law's of Wales, which intreaties, hatred or afection : he was then bad nearly loft their efficacy and weight in placed by the King in his feat, and inverted the lapse of ages, and in the confusion and with the judicial authority; and afterwards turbulency of the times. "This code," our received presents from the whole household author observes, " is the best eulogium of this It was reckoned among the remarkable and Prince's memory, and raises him as much peculiar customs of the Welth, that the above the rett of the Cambrian Princes, as congues of all animals slaughtered for the peace and gentleness of manners, and a re- household were given to the Judge of the pulated state, are preferable to the evils inse palace.”. parable from war, to the fierceness of unci- The Author concludes this book with re. vilized life, and to the habits of a wild inde. marking, that Bleddyo Cynvin might have pendency."

transmitted his name with credit to pofterity, These laws we se divided into three parts, if he had not betrayed the liberties of his each of which had a distinct and separate country, and yielded up its honour, by deign

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ing to receive his crown from the hands of with an eager desire to enjoy her. The fat its hereditary enemy, and by consenting to night returning with a troop of his wild com ho!d is authority as a tributary of the English panions, he secretly entered the castle, an Princes,

in the confusion occafioned by setting it o The fifth book contains the history from fire, surrounded the chamber in which Gerald the death of Bleddyn ap Cynvin, to that of and his wife Nept. Awaked by the noise, Gryffydh ap Cynan. We bere find William he rushed suddenly out of bed, to enquire Rufus entering Wales with a royal army, in into the cause of the disturbance; but his support of a claim to which he had no legal wife fuspecting some treachery, presente pretensions. At this period, a series of feuds his opening the door ; then, advising him to and hoftilities too descriptive of the manners retire to the privy, she pulled up the board, of the Welsh occurred, which were the and still farther atlifting her husband, he les means of accelerating the ruin of the state. himself down, and made his escape. Owen The following traníaction may serve as a and his followers instantly broke open the dreadful specimen.

door; but on searching the chamber no “ In the Christmas holidays, Cadwgan ap finding Gerald, they seized his wife and two Bleddyn invited the chieftains in his neigh- of his rous, besides a son and daughter which, bourhood to a feast at his house in Dyvet. In he had by a concubine ; then leaving the the course of the entertainment Medh or cattle in flames, and ravaging the country, he Mead, the wine of the country, having raised carried off Neft and the children to Powis. their spirits, Nest, the wife of Gerald, Go. This adventure gave Cadwgan the greatest vernor of Pembroke Castle, was spoken of unealmess. Afraid left Henry might revenge in terms of admiration; the beauty and ele- on his head the atrocious action of his son, gance of whose person, it was said, exceeded he came into Powis ; and requested Owen those of any lady in Wales. The curiosity that he would send back to Gerald his wife of Owen the son of C.dwgan was strongly and children, as well as the plunder which excited to see her; and he had little doubt of be had taken. The young chieftain, whose obtaining admiurance, as there was a degree love was heightened by the poffeffion of his of relationship fubfifting between them. Un mistress, refused to restore her. Whether der colour of a friendly visit, the young the yielded to the violence of her lover from chieftain, with a few of his attendants, was choice or from necefsity, is uncertain ; but introduced into the castle. Finding that fame he foon after sent back to Gerald all tis had been cold in her praise, he returned home children, at her particular request.” detply enamoured of her beauty, and fired

[To be Continued.] A Trip to Holland, containing Sketches and Characters : together with cursory Observations

on the Manners and Customs of the Dutch. 8vo. 28, 6d. Becket. OT Solomon with all his concubines in its influence; and that the man who has

112d near so numerous an illegitimate resided for any little time in Holland, muft iffe as the author of Triltram Shandy : yet neceffarily become as dull and phlegmatic as few of his descendants, tho' not begotten in many of its inhabitants ?" I do. “ You imz. the " stale bed of matrimony," have inhe- gine likewise, that a Dutchman is totally derited even a spark of their father's fpirit: void of sentiment; and that a Dutch wonian this Belgie traveller, however, seems an ex- is an utter stranger to those finer affections of ception to the observation. The features of the soul which so eminently characterize the parent may be, perhaps loo evidently, our lovely countrywomen ?" Undoubtedly traced in this his progeny ; but even admit- “ Why then you are undoubtedly mistaken." ting it, we cannot help cherithing the infant -And so is the author, in making French for the father's fake.

the universal language in Holland. We can The following is a strong family-feature : readily conceive the Vrows taking up their

“ Observations made in a Trip to Holland brooms to prołect their newly-cleaned houfes
-Ha! ha! ha! And why that laugh, good from his intrasion; but their " fortez d'ici"
Mr. Critic? You imagine perhaps that a is a child of his own imagination.
Belgic sky has fomething particularly baneful

The Tour of Valentine. 8vo. 25. 61!. J. Johnson. 1786.
HIS little volume was not intended to tion thus communicated is apt to make the

add to the already enormous mass of deepest impreffion, as mankind interest them. adventures, romances, and sentimental efiu- felves particularly in the actions and characfious; on the contrary, the author bath cloth- ters of their fellow.creatures, even when ed a work intended and calculated to promote feigned, if agreeable to na'ure and truth. The christian piety in a fanciful dress, solely with author's intentions we think highly laudable,

view to its being by that means likely to be but we doubt of his fuccefs.

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Memoirs

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Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester. Vol. I. & Il. 8vo.

125. Boarvis. 1785. Cadell.

( Continued from Page 102.) Thoughts on the Style and Taste of Garden- behind each other, make one think, Pliny

ing among the Ancients. By Dr. Fal. was rarher describing a Vlla of king Wilcober, Read Dec 11, 1782.

liam, or Louis XIV. than one of a Roman HIS is a subject suitable to the genius nobleman, and enator, seventeen hundred

and talle of our learned Author; and years ago. ere we find our expectations fully gratified: “ Some circumftances, in the above dea even M. W.Ipole is out-hone (though by scription, appear in many refpects absurd no mea i ne-written), and Mr. Barringtone, and exceptionable. But let us not be too

are both; we mean, a5 describers of hasty in our censures; but consider, whether aic ent gardens. The garden of Eden the nature of the climite and country may tule alluded to in the Song of Solomon and not vindicate them, in several respects, from in the bo:k of the Prophet Ezekiel - the the imputations which might have been justgarden of Al inous-the hanging gardens of ly ascribed to them, under different cir. Babylon—the garden of Cyrus at Sardis, cumstances. The walks bordered with box, the park of Cyrus in Phrygia (stocked with a tree of clore growth, and said to A urith wild beasts for the purpose of hunting)—the extremely in that situation, formed a conve. Aidemus of the Greeks, with the garden nient shelter from the torrid rays of an Itaof Pico and of Epicurus-the gardens of lian fun. The fhearing of the trees contriLucullus and of Pliny-respectively pass un- buted also to thicken their shade, and to render review.-The Tuscan Villa of Pliny der them more commodious for this purpose ; with the garden and ground belonging to it through, I confess, it was not neceflary, for are described with minuteness.-After this this end, that they should be cliped into recital of facts respecting the gardens of the aukward imitations of animals, &c. which anc enes, the Doctor proceeds to take his it is surprizing a man of the taste of Pliny own observatio!15. In doing this, his good could approve, Tlie fence to the garden fense and discerunent are fully evinced; his was, in Pliny's Villa, concealed hy trees ituly, it is plain, has not been confined to an. improvement on the modern ratte referred ciellt gardening alone, but has been ex- to; a long rauge of bare brick walling have tended, and with considerable advantage,to mo- ing been often esteemed an object of beauty din gardening ;-án art wlrich seems to be or magnificence. growing every day niore and more fashion. " Fountains, likewise, and jers c’ean, avle. No other apology we fatter ourselves however useless, and therefore absurd and will be requifice for taking an extract of un- ungatural, in Great Britain and Holland, may ulaal length from this valuable paper. still be in perfectly good talie in Italy. The

" It is obvious, that the above descriptions dispersion of muisture cools the air, by the beat a striking resemblance to the latte in evaporation it produces ; and the very margerdens that prevailed in this country, and niur of the falling of water gives the idea of Indeed throughout Europe, towards the-be. coolness, by association of fenfitions. They ginning of the present century. The walks feem here to have been difpoled with judy. bordered with box and rosemary ; the ter- ment, some of them being fitnated near tive Tace planted with violets, at the Laurentine alcove, and resting places, as a refreshment Villa ; and the court divided into partei re to those fatigued with heat and exercise ; diuifions, edged with box ; the figures of and others dispersed through the grass, rs! animals cut ou in box trees, placed opposite to cause a fucilith furprise, anid to endanger each other, upon the flope ; with the fur. the health of those pathug that way, by wele Tunnding walk inclosed with tonnile ever- ting their cloaths, but to water the trees, greenis cut into shapes,, point out the cool the ground, and refresh the verdure ; fame resemblance in the gardens at the circumstances indispensable to the beauty of

The circular amphitheatre the scenery and profpect, in a bot climate. of bryx cut into figures, and the walk co- " The same apology may, I think, bo vered with graduated shrubs, are all exactly made for the regularity of the walks in the ia the same ftyle. The fountains overfow- Hippodrome, and the minute parts and disse ing; the marble basons; the little jets d'eau fions in which i: wus di pored. ab uut the seats, and under the alcove ; the " It is probable, the extent of ground it. fudden disappearance of the water ; self was not iarge. Diftant walks would he Iparits in the grass ; the regular disposition fatigumg in an Italian summer, and would of the trees in the Hippoirome, in lines too much trouble and expence to keep as itraight, and regularly curved;' gother closely thatedas would render them funiciwith the arrangement of the different kinds ently agreeable. They were diercture, in a EPROP. MAG.

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manner compelled to make as much as por- to he very rational. Natural beauties, or fible' out of the space of ground ; which they resemblances thereof, are chitty aicmped ; accomplifhed, hy dividing it into as many which are the more proper, as being more walks and prachs as poliible.

conformable to the climate and fituation of “ The parterre likewise, parted into the country, and difpofition of the people, beds of varous Mapes, was necellary for who are heft pleased with great and iubi ne. How'ers, which were highly valued in warm objects, which are to be found only in naclimaces for their perfume, but do not thrive, The close walk, however delightful unless kep: ditlindt and free from the proxi- in ltaly, or Purfia, is here judicioufiy ex. mity of other crees or plants.

changed for the open grove, and the mouture iš It is remarkable here, that the taste of of grais for gravel. The coniure of trees is the autir lor the heaut es of nature, breaks alsu laid aside ; not only as impairing their out among bis defcription of the most artifi- beruty, but alio as thickening their ihale, cial ornaments. immediately after derrri- more than would be necefiany or agree:hle, bing the fence of the garden, corered with where a free intercourse of air is so requisite graduated box trees, he adus, that the ad. to di pel camps and exhalations. Fountains, joining meadow was as heautiful by nature, on the fame acc unt, are laid afide, and we as the garden had beer rendered by art; and, are content with the natural current of in avother pl.ce, mention, the coutrast of the fireams, which exhale less moisture, and beauties of rural nature with those of art produce less cold, than water spouted into the as one of the chief ornaments of his garden. air by the fantastic, but less beautiful diitribuThe fime apology that lias been made tor the tion of it by a jet d'eau. The gardens, or style in u hichi Pliny's gardens wire laid out, pleasure-grounds, in our country, are likeis applicable to the sitten giudins in gene- wise very proua ly of much larger extent, rai, and holds till more firongly, as the than those in toe climates. Pleasure, in the buat becomes, more conitant and intense. later, is always combined with fomewliat We may farther observe, that this mode of indolence and inactinin; in the former it is fies the difpofition of the eastern people, in connected with exercise and activity. A many other refpects. The regularity and large scope of ground, therefore, that offerd. formality of their minner of living, and ed op portunity for the latter, would be more manners, corresponds with their talie fur re- Couform.ble to the genius of the people, as gular figures, and unfurnity of operance, well as to the climate, in which the luxurious is the laying out of gicurd. It may not, indulgence, le den htful when the heat is perhaps, be too great a refinement to remaik, tente, cule! very seldom be tafely praci.ted. that iach a tafte is conformable also to a def- On the rive, I am inclined to believe, that, potic governin eit, which is jealous of:ll in- potiiibiianding our wait of the orumcuis novations, ard, of course, itlurus no oppor. proper for hoe climates, in our gardens and tunity for exertions of sonius, in any capaci- picarue-grounds, Great Britain is capable of ty. It is wrthy of observation, that the atforvirg more real and gebore beauty ja regul ur tafte, at ve rehrred to, prevailed in viens o! this kind, than is, perlaps, i ny uliere this country at a time when our fylien of ellu to lie mrri uith. Tie Invie und regular manners, (rels, and teariour wins exirene. verdue whicin odway's cloilies been the carih ly ceremonicus, fo mal, and reserved, and and the trees; the vanielj of the lierlyse, approaching to thote of the eaftern countries. and ile {126 to which onks and other foreit As this flitine's wore (ff, the taste of the Irtes, congenial to the country, will arrive', people improved. Shakespeare was impart á bezuty and magider.ce to uur por lung' r centured for inate can to drn auc reets, a dand opportunities for the juuici. Atridness; the turgid but regular bombuft of ous interpustiet, vi art, fur fuperior to WWE Blackmore fell into direpute and ridicuit, is to be met witls, where licie acvantages to and 3 more easy and natural Gyle is is adepta er, b. tla in lentinient and writing

“It'e are ftruck with cl.fic del riptions, “ The general method of laying out and atiected by the circumstances whici, by grounds, in this country, feens i prelent their connection, they recall to the memory;

10

not (CCUT.

Jurenal appears to bare primited a good tiste in greening, and Jay ng out grure, fiom w hat lie 1.55 of the shtifanial griltrips at Ancinun, and the dormit to ulkment the wake by luliituting table, in place of its natural bouncuy of herbage.

1, Vallem lugerix descendimus, et fpeluncas
Dilimides veus : quanto præfiart:us eliet
Nimen agnie, vent's fimg cl clauderei unds
Husbus puc 1256-1 selu se bazeul a menampion?

Tube, Suisr. ill. .

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