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flected in such a manner as the moon bor- as they may be in the general choice, they rows and reflects the light of the sun. For never descend to particulars but they are lure my part, I like to drink at the fountain-head; to stumble, and shew how much they are in the waters of Helicon lose their spirit, when the dark. My friend Mr. Distich, when conveyed through the leaden and wooden he was all talk the other evening, afferted pipes of imitators and tranflators. After all that Virgil and Talso borrowed every thing such evaporating and flattening conveyance, that was tolerable in their works from Hothey may do very well for you, Mr. Triplet; mer ; but it was only as the moon borrow's but for me, even Milton, with all the advan- ber light from the sun, reflecting back a very tage of blank verse, is but like a tin tunnel feeble ray of the original splendour. Many a calveying the smoke, and but very feldom conceited critic has said the same. But after any of the genuine Aashes of Homer's fire. all, the fact is not altered. And the fact is, luy this manner Dick Dittich triumphed over that Virgil, in his Hell and Elyfium, and ia his flent antagonist ; and it must be owned, many inferior places has lighted a corch at however abruptly he delivered himself, he Homer's candle that has outblazed the origispoke the real sense of many a modern critic. nal light. And there is one great fault that As I am rather inclined to think better of occurs, on every opportunity to admit it, in Virgil and Taffo, I ventured to repeat the Homer ;- a fault that would nigli damn any Ime from Horace at the top of this memo- modern production; I mean the wretched randum, to which I was immediately an- manner in which he acquits himself in his kwered by the following well-known line duels. After the grandeft preparations that from Roscommon :

can be imagined; imagery, fimilies, and de · Is is ! Homer nods, but we ebat dream.

fcription of the noblett kind exhausted, what

a wretched figure do bis heroes make in Homer in every instance, cried our exult. fingle combat !--They first hurl their lances at ing orator, which dulness has called napping, one another ; fo far it is well; then they draw is only preparing his audience for a glorious their swords, but do nothing with them; and burst of lightning and thunder, which his then they throw stones at 0110- another, and feeble imitators can only emulate by fquibs seem afraid to come within each other's reach: and crackers. In thort, Mr. Distich had all and then, if they happen to survive fucb a the triomph and talk to himself. But last dreadful combat, they tell long stories to one night, as mentioned at the beginning, the another, When Hector is like to be mastered tables were fadly turned against him. Tom by Achilles at lance and javelin toiling, he Triplet had recovered the fit of sickness which draws his sword, and flies at his enemy us are the damnation of his ole had given him, and eagle on his prey ; but we hear no more of the came amply prepared to revenge himself on sword, but find Hector immediately tuggin, Dick Diftich, who, when Tom is in spirits, a huge stone that ten men of Homer's days is by no means inis match. Without taking could not raise, wbite Achilles looks on quite a perticular notice of Distich, Mr. Triplet idle jul Hector has rime to throw it at him : expatiated on the absurdity of appealing to he then returns the compliment in kind. the practice of the Greek and Roman poets Hector then takes to his heels, and runs at in delence of English blank verse, the genius least twelve miles at full speed with Achilles of these languages not admitting the smallest after him, evawn by luis immortal horses. comparison. I have often found, laid he, Nay, Smile not at the twelve miles, said Mr. that those who are most fupercilious in de- Triplet ; for a city of four miles in circumfe. spising every thing except Homer in bis na- rence could hardly contain the inhabitants live Greek, pretending with what raplures given to Troy by Homer: yet Hector muit bez relich hin in his owa tongue, are fre- run three dimes round it before Achilles's in, Qideritly, on trial, unable to construe three mortal hories can come up with lum; and lunes of that poet together. I have also met then he must be killed with a lance, at an with many enthusiasts for the superior music opening in dis armour; a victory much about and dignity' of blank verse, who, on trial, as honourable as shouting a man with a pitto have been found to have no ear, and were ut- who has got no pistol to oppose you Interly incapable of reading any one page of their deed Homer's conduct in the death of Hestur: admired Paradise Loft, the Seatons, or the is so absurd, that it would have disgraced any Night Thoughes, with the smallest degree of of Blackmore's Arthurs. And what but wie modulation or harmony. The vanity of be- ulmoft depruvity of taste and perverseness of ing thought wisér than their neighbours, and judgement can be blind to the infinite fupeof superior taite, is the Willo-she-wisp that riority of Tallo in describing his duels. In leads them on; and pitching on Homer and that modern you see the lagh spirit of chivalry, Milton as the objects of 'their admiration, and sword, men in carnett.---There you see they thiqk they cannot be'wrong. And right done what you expected ; no Ychool-boy pelr

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ing with dirt and cabbage-stems, and then For my part, I have no such blind complaieither taking some base advantage, or telling fance to either Virgil or Homer. I fatter tales to one another. Homer's duels deserve myself that I can both see and relish their no better illustration. If you say he describes beauties; but no cool-brained man will turn fingle combat as it really was in his time, I knight-errant, as many of their Critics have deny it. History gives us very different des done, to defend their faults. And so far are fcriptions of the combats when heroes met those paris of Homer which have been called in batcle. When Gryllus, the son of Xeno- nodding, from being designed only to prepare phon, killed Epaminondas, at the battle of his audience, as Mr. Diftich and many a Mantinea, there were no long tales told to doughty critic have asserted, for a glorious burst each other ; there was none of Homer's of thunder and lightning, that the very contratrifling between them. To say that Homer ry is the fact. All the thunder and fublimity deicribed his fingle combats from real prac. are exhausted in the grand preparation with tice is just the same as to say, that a man al- which he introjuces more circumstances than ready overpowered in the conflict could yet his single combats : for often, after raising run twelve miles, or more, ere the feetest the expectation to the very highest pitch, iben horses of the age, for such are those of Achil. comes Homer's nap, and the reader is left dif. les described, could overtake him. Nor appointed and chagrined, in proportion as he is Homer leis happy in his long tales, often entered into the spirit of the sublime introso absurdly told by his heroes in the beat duction. When Hector has stormed the of battle. Prejudice itself, if not downright Grecian camp, and is on the point of burning wilfully blind, muft own, that the narrative their ships, the council of the Grecian chiefs, of Eneas to Dido, long as it is, is animated who are tired out, and mostly wounded in the throughout, and ihat the interest rises to the day's battle, is described with the most folema end is a masterly manner. But what are importance. They are lost in terror, and Homer's tales ? They all either want intereft, know not what to do in this their most dan. or propriety of introduction ; and if we will gerous and critical emergency. The wise alljw ourselves to judge from what we do Ulysies nses to speak; all is attention; even feel, we must pronounce them tiresome. the Gods 1toop down from Olympus to hear What reader has patience to get through the what he has got to say. And what is it? long old man's goffipping ftory which Phæ. Why, truly, what is only fit for a burlesque Dix tells Achilles, and with which one poem.-Connder, lays he, my friends, of the most interesting parts of the Iliad, that fighting requires strength, without u bich the refusal of Achilles to be reconciled to we are sure to be vanquished. Strength de. Agamemnon, is molt disagreeably fufpen- pends on the animal spirits, and those arife ded? The other evening, when I ventured to from good living; from porkers' chines and cite Horace for saying that honeft Homer's muse bowls of generous wine : therefore, I advise sometimes fell alleep, I was pertly answered; you to postpone fighting of Hector, and let It is not Homer nud's, but we thai dream.

us go to supper. -Such is the exact argue

ment of the speech of Ulysses, introduced with The same critic has said,

all the preparatory importance and grandeur “ When Virgil seems to trifle in a line, of which the fublime genius of Homer was

'Tis but the prelude of some grand defign." malter-Cuiera defunt, CURIOUS PARTICULARS of the HORSES of this COUNTRY in ANCIENT

TIMES. [From the NorTHUMBERLAND Household Book, first printed in 1768, the MS. of

which is now in the polletion of the DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND, and which is intatuled, “The Regulations and Enablithment of Algernon Percy, the fifth Earl of Northum. “ berland, begun anno 1512."] THIS is the ordre of the che quir roul of faldili, viza coone for my lorde to ride,

the nombre, of all the huriys of my oone to lede for my to lordis and iny ladys, that are apoynted to be at home for my lorde. in the charge of the hous yerely, as to lay : Item, chariot hors to stond in my lordis gen!ıl bors, palfreys, hobys, nagsis, cloth. Itable yerely, Seven great trottynge bors to Tek hors, male-hors.

draw in the chariott, and a pags for the Firti, geutill hors, to stand in my lordis chariott man to ride ; eight. Again, hors ftable, fix. Item, pudfreys of my ladys, to for lorde Percy, his loruihips fon and her. wit, one for my lady, and twu for her gen. A grete doble trottynge hors for my lorde till women, and one for her chamberer. Percy to travel on in winter. Item, a great Four huby's and naggis for my bordis oone doble trottyage hors, called a curtal, for his




fordship to ride on out of townes. Another only method of conveyance for all sorts of trottyoge gambaldya hors for his lordship to people ; and the Dieen rode bebind her ride upon when he comes into townes. An Malter of the Horse, when she went in ftate amblyoge horse for his lordship to journey on to St. Paul's. This fashion, however, predayly. As proper amblyng little nags for his vailed only in the former part of her reign, iordship when he gacth on banting or hawk. and was totally suppressed by the appearance ing. A gret amblynge gelding, or trotiynge of coaches. Their introduction occasioned a geiding, to carry his male.”

much larger demand for horses than former Such were the horses of ancient days, times had wanted; and such was the number ranked into claties, and allotted to different of them employed in this service, that, at the services.

latter end of the Queen's reign, a bill was The gentil horse was one of a superior and proposed in the Houle of Lords, to restrain diftinguished breed, so called in contrast to the superfluous and excellive use of coaches. such as were of a mean and ordinary extrac- It was rejected upon the second reading. tion. The Italians, at this day, call their The Lords, however, directed the Attorney. noblest breeds, Razza gentile. Genileman is General to peruse the statutes for the promounderstood in this sense, signifying a person ting the breed of horses, and to consider of of better birth and family.

some proper bill in its room. Palfreys were an elegant and easy fort of A gret doble trottynge horse was a tall, hories; which for their gentleness and agree. broad, and well-spread horse, whore best able paces, were used upon common occa - pace was the trot, being too unwieldy in fions by military persons and others; who himself, or carrying to great a weight, to reserved their great and managed horses for be able to gallop. Doble, or double, siguißes battle and the tournament. Their pleasing broad, big, swelled-out ; from the double of qualities foon recommended them to the fair. the French, who say of a broad-loined filletsex, who, having no coaches, used these ed horse, that he has les reins doubles and palfreys, and always travelled on horfe. double bides. The Latin adjective duplex back.

gives the same meaning. Virgil, speaking Hołys were Atrong active horses, of rather of the horse, says, “ at duplex agitur per a finail fize. They are reported to be originally lumbos fpina.” He also utes “ duplex dornatives of Ireland, and were so much liked and fuim," and " dupiex corona," in the sense of ufet, as to become a proverbial expreslion for very bival and large. And Horace has any thing of which people are extremely fond. “ diprice frou," the large broad fig. Nagi come under the same description as to A curtal is a horse whole tail is cut or their size, qualities, and employments. Thortened in the French curtaud.

Clozhek was a cloak-bag horse, as maie. A gambaldynze horse was one of thew and be se was one that carried the portmanteau. parade, a managed borse, froin the Italian Hories to draw the cbariors were waggon gamba a leg. hories; from the French word charrette, An amblynge horse is too well known to whence the English word cars ; for neither need explanation. The ambie, long before coaches, nor even chariots in our present this time, as well as for a long while after, acceptation of that word) were known as was such a favourite pace, and so much likod this time. Indeed, the use of coaches was for its ease and smoothness, that almost all not known in England till the year 1980 (in saddle horses were taught to perform it, Q. Elisabeth's reign), when they were intro- e'pecially those who were rode by the rich, duced by Fitz-Allen Earl of Arundel. Till the indolens, and infirm. this period, saddle horses and carts were the ABRIDGEMENT of a very CURIOUS WORK, (little known) entitled, “ PICTOR

ERRANS," written by M. PHIL. ROHR.

(By the Late Mr. W. Bowser, Printer, F. S. A.] AINTERS err; 1. In representing the man was expelied from ii, Gen. ii. when

the text fuys there were more, Chirubiini, Days" of Dan. vii, 9, censured by Auguftin, plural. See Pole. Ep. cxxii

W. Fulfely mk2 Nol's ark a square II. La painting the serpent which tempted house placed on a round this, whereas the Ere without feer: whereas his creeping on a: kitief was more probably round. his belly was inflicted on him as a punith. V. Mic by the Vuigaie, they represent meot, See Poie's Synopl. in Ger). iii. I. 4. Abrahani wild a sword in his hand, when

11. Many of them pl ce one angel with he was to sacrifice launc, instead of a facrifia dramos sword as a guard to Paradise, when cing knise, as the Mubiew expresses it, Gea Erol, Mac,


P man,


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xx. 1, with which he afterwards new the his hand, with these words underneath, Deus

See Piscator in loc. Pole's Synops. Chriftianorum Ononcbysis. “ This was that &c.

Anah that found the mules in the wilderness, VI. Falsely represent Isaac kneeling be- as he fed the afles of Zibeon his father."fore the pile of wood, with his face towards What they 'Taid of Anah, they ascribed to it ; whereas, as the Hebrew word means, Moses ; and afterwards from the Jews to his hands were tied to bis fuc: backwardi, and the Christians, as Selden tells us, De Diis be was laid on the pile, with his face up. Syntag. II. Vof. de Idul. lib. i. c. 75. wards, as the sacrifice used to be.

XV. Without any authority or reason, VII. Without any authority from Scrip- they represent Joseph, the husbaod of the ture, Exod. xii. 12, &c. represents the 16- Virgin Mary, as an old man. raelites eating the Paschal Lamb at their go. XVI. In the Virgin Mary's Conception, ing out of Egypt fanding. The Scripture is some represent Christ as an infant descending silent as to the posture, whether it was from heaven, bearing his cross in his hand; fitting of standing. See Schmidius on Matth. which, in piclure, is the very sense of the xxvii.

Valenunjan herely, VIII. Exod. xxxiv. 29. the Vulgate ren- XVII. In the pictures of the Nativity, ders QUOD cornuta ejles facies fua * ; whence an ox and an ass are represented feeding 20 the painters have represented Moses with the manger, which arose probably from the horns coming out of his head. But the He falle translation of the LXX. Hab. iii. 2. brew word denotes the glory that thone in his face as the LXX. have rightly rendered it míow ola {wwwyowodás, in medio duorum ania

malium cognofceris. Jerom, according to the δεδοξασαι το προσωπον αυθα.

Hehrew, renders in media annorum vivificas IX. In Canticles i. 4. the Vulgate reads, illud. Vide Car c. Baron. Exerc. ii. & ii. Trabe me, post se currimus in odorem unguento. From this, joined to 11. iii. 1. ibe os Áscous rum tuoruin; which Hermanus Hugo having bis owner, and the ass bis mofier's erit, arose tranNated in his Emblems, lib. ii

. Emblem 8, the custom of placing those two animals as has obliged his painter to represent the bride guests at that solemnity. I groom going before with a censer of frankin

XVIII, The Magi who came to Christ are cenfe, of which there is not a word in the represented as Kings with crowns on their Hebrew, nor in any approved version, the

heads, and to have been three only in numHebrew having only Trabe me poli fe.

ber, and one of them of a tawny complexX. Isaiah is painted as lawn asunder, from

ion : for none of which circumstances we the head thro' the body, of which we have

have any authority. no sufficient authority. But as this has been

XIX. Simeon, Matt. ij. 25. is pitured believed by many of the Fathers, we will in the habit of a priest, and blind, againil all let it pass as dubious.

authority, as Bp. Montague observes, Orig. XI. Cornelius à Lapide says, that in an

Eccl, part 1. p. 161. ancient MS. of Bifilius Porphyrogenitus the XX Matt, iii. 4. Mark i. S. John the prophet Daniel is painted as beheadiil; against the authority of all history, which tei's us that Biptitt is ufually painted as a fatyr, with the

skin of a camel thrown over him. But he be died a natural death, D.n. xii. 13. jo had probaby a coarse vestment made of ca. lephus, Hít. 1. 13. The report of bis he

mel's hair, as Bezz maintains, and Luther's ing beheaded is porzenium jubulæ & puerile verfion expreffes it. dejriumi, says Renfius, Var, Lect. lib. i.

Mact. iv, 6. Cur Saviour is represented

as fet lay the devil on a Mary spiret of the XII. The painting rays of glory round

Temple : but as the roofs of the Je with the heads of Christ, the Virgin Mary, and houtes were flat, furreunded with a para. the Apostles, is an universal custom, taken

pet wall, fo probably a parapet wall was carup without any suficient foundation,

ried round the temple, for umament's cake, as XIII. Jolin the Evangelist painted young, Grotius observes on Deuts911. 8; ad Chrift so bile writing his Gospel

, which he wrote, probably was placed within-fide of that wall. aj kome suppole, at ninety years of age ; but

XXI. The painters represent the houses all agree, when he was very old.

of the Israelites with 11.5t roofs, like our moXIV. To ridicule the Cristians, fome one

deru ones, directly contrary to the command represented a perion in a goun, with arts'

given then, Deut. xxii 18. Whence se cars, and one foot hoofed, holding a buuk in

often find mention made of walking oa the

C. 13.

** The margia of the quarto edition has fplendens, Edit.

The ox and an ass are introduced at the Nativity merely to new that i haprened in a tible. EDIT.

+ The original in Mat. iv. 5. and Luke iv. 9.19 714 yiei, a battlement.

xxvji. 32.


battlements of their houses, 1 Sam. ix. 25, FLAGELLIS verberetur. Rich. Montacut. 26. 2 Sam. xi. 2. xvi, 23. See Matt, x. 22. Orig. Eccles. com. I. part. poft. p. 390,

XXII, Luke xvi. 21. Lazarus is by some from Jerom. But this Artist does not seem ill-represented, lying along in the parlour of to know that flagellum denoted a twig as well the rich man, as if a man full of sores would

as virga. be admitted within doors. By others he is In this scene of the scourging, two execu. represented lashed by the servants, while the tioners are represented as performing the act; dogs lick his fores, to whom he was grown whereas, according to the Roman custom, familiar by his frequent coming thither.- only one was employed, as appears from the Bat he would hardly have come again, if he form before cited; and according to the Jewhad been scourged away by the servants. ith likewise, as Buxtorf news from the

XXIII. Matt. xxi. 21. At Christ's pro. Mishna. According to which likewise the cestion into Jerusalem, boughs and the clothes pillar, to which the criminal was bound, was of the populace are represented strewed under only about a cubit and a half; not of that the feet of the ass; but that, as Lightfoot ob- length in which it is usually painted. serves, would rather have made the ass to XXVIII. Some represent Christ and Simon stumble. It is probable, therefore, that they the Cyrenian both bearing the cross at once, built small houses on the rcad. fide with expressly againft the narration in Matt. boughs, and covered them with their garments, as was usual on the feast of Taber- In some pictures the cross on which Christ nacles. Lightfoot Hor. Hebraic. in Matth. is crucified, is represented like a capital T,

XXIV. Christ is represented fitting at ta- with the upright beam not projecting above kle with his guests the disciples, Matt. xxvi. the transverse ; which, though it was the and John, like an infant, before him, in his form of some croffes, was not so of our Saborom. But the Jews, it is well known, viour's, according to Justin Martyr ; and see like the Romans, used at this time to eat Lipsius de Cruce. lying along, as appears from the words Another mistake is committed when they krarlicbai and xalarníveolar used in the reprefent the feet of Christ faftened to the N. T. and from Lazarus being said to be car

cross with one nail only; i. c. with three nails nied to Abraham's bosom, Like xvi. 12.

in all, two through the hands, and one through XXV. The bread which Christ broke with

the feet : whereas Irenæus, Justin Martyr, his disciples, Matt. xxv. 26, is often repre. Cyprian, Nonnus in Paraplır. p. 230, ver. sented as a piece of a great loaf. But the Jews 37, expressly mention four nails. And the used at their meals small loaves, or manchets, fame method is attested by Plautus ; as we find from the mention of breaking them Ego dabo ei talentum primus, qui in crucem so often mentioned, as Matt. xxvi. 26. Mark

excurrerit, vi. 41. vii. 10, &c. and from the fragments Se'ea lege, ui afigantur, bis pedes, bis bica which were left, Matt. xiv. 20. XV. 37.

shia. XXVI. In the monastery of St. Mary Magdalen at Madgeburgh, Christ is repres who were crucified with Christ, are repre

The two malefactors (ill called thieves); Sented lying down in a brook full of Tharp sented generally with their hands and feet tied ftones. A conceit formed from John xviii.

to the cross : but wlay their hands and feet 1. He went forth with his disciples over the

should not be represented nailed likewise, no brock Cedron; and Psal. cx. 7. He shall drink

reason can be ailigned. Nonnus is express, of the brook in the way; which is no support xilçous aulúteos. See Montac. Orig. Eccl. for the painter's fancy. XXVII. Some painters represent Christ

tom. 1. par. ii. p. m. 393.

A small seat was in the middle of the upicourged with rods, others with thongs or fesurges, Matt. xxvii. 26. Mark x. 26. right beam, as Justin Martyr likewise tettiLuke xii. 33. That the former are wrong

fies; but is usually omitted by the painters of

the Crucifixion. is clear, from the word in the text @galenaõv,

The soldier who pierced the side of Christ Matt. xxvii. 26. Mark xv. 26. and decesorâv, is generally painted on horseback ; contrary Luke zvi. 33. which denote scourges, not to the express testimony of John, an eyered. It is said that the Jews used only witness of the fact, xix. 34. listão sgutootão scourges, Buxtorf, Syn. Jud. c. xx. And though the Romans used rods, witness that aéryn autã ring wherçáo tvrše. The word form, L. liftor folliga marius, caput obnubito, sealurns, by itself, denotes only a foot-loVIZCIS CEDITO; yet this form was left off dier, and the spear nóryn was not the wea. in ume, Cic. pro Rabirio Cos. and scourging pon of the horse. Juftly therefore does Sale was introduced in later times. Sciendum eft, masius blame Xaverius the Jesuit for followPolaza Romanorum legibus judicium miniftrale

, ing this error in the History of Chwist, pub. quibus lancitum erai, isi qui crucifigitur prius lished by Lud, de Dieu. See Salm. ep. ii. ad



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