« PreviousContinue »
every necessary. From their narrative, drawn up in that ftyle of artlefs fimplicity which affords the strongest prefumption of veracity, I fhall extract the most material circumftances.
At their wintering place was fortunately a large fubftantial wooden building, erected for the ufe of the coopers belonging to the fishery. Within this they built a ímaller one, which they made very compact and warm. Here they constructed four cabins, with comfortable deer-skin beds; and they kept up a continual fire, which never went out for eight months. They were tolerably fupplied with fuel from fome old cafks and boats which they broke up for the purpofe. Thus provided with lodging, their principal care was about their fubfiftence. Before the cold weather fet in, they killed a good number of deer, the greatest part of which they cut up, roasted and stowed in barrels ; referving fome raw for their Sunday's dinners. This I ima gined mull have been frozen ; as it began to freeze fharply before they were fettled in, their habitation. This venifon, with a few fea-horfes and bears, which they killed from time to time, conftituted their whole winter's provifion, except a very unfavoury article they were obliged to make out with, which was whale's fritters, or the scraps of fat after the oil had been preffed out. Thefe too having been wetted and thrown in heaps were mouldy. Their ufual courfe of diet then, for the first three months, was one meal of venifon every day in the week except Wednesdays and Fridays, when they kept faft on whale's fritters. At the end of this period, on examining their stock, they found it would not hold out at this rate, and therefore for the enfuing three mouths they retrenched their venifon meals to three days in the weck, and appeafed their hunger as well as they could on the other four days upon the mouldy fritters. At the approach of fpring, they had the good fortune to kill feveral white bears, which proved excellent food; and together with wild fowl and foxes which they caught, rendered it unneceffary any longer to flint themselves to fo rigorous an allowance; fo that they eat two or three meals of fresh meat daily, and foon improved in ftrength and vigour. Their only drink during this whole time, was running water procured from beneath the ice on the beach, till January; and afterwards fnow water melted by hot irons. The cold in the midst of winter was extreme, it raised blifters in the flesh; and when they went abroad they became fore all over, as if beaten. Hen, on being touched, fuck to the fingers, like bird-lime. The melancholy of thear fituation was aggravated by the abience of the fun from the Lerizon, trum October
14th to February 3d, of which period twenty days were paffed in total darknets, except the light of lamps, which they conti. nued to keep continually burning. With all this, it does not appear that any of them were affected with the fcurvy, or any other diforder; and the degree of weaknefs which feems implied by the mention of their recovering strength in the fpring, may be fufficiently accounted for, merely from their thort allowance of nutritious food. At the return of the ships on May 25th, they all appear to have been in health; and all of them returned in fafety to their native country.
The lait relation I fhall adduce, is one of late date, confiderably refembling the foregoing in feveral of its circumftances, but still more extraordinary,
In the year 1743, a Ruffian fhip of Eaft Spitzbergen, in lat, between 77 and 78, was fo inclofed with ice, that the crew, apprehenfive of being obliged to winter there, fent four of their men in a boat to feek for a hut, which they knew to have been erected near that coaft. The hut was difcovered, but the men, on returning to the fhore, found all the ice cleared away, and the fhip no longer to be feen; and indeed it was never more heard of. I pas over their first tra fports of grief and defpair, and alfo their many ingenious contrivances to furnish themselves with the neceffaries they food moit a need of. Their diet and way of life are the chicumfrances peculiarly connected with my fubject. After fitting up their hut as comfortably as they could, and laying in drift wood collected on the fhore for fuel, they turned their attention chiefly to the procuring of provifion. Three fpecies of animals, which they caught and killed by various devices, conftituted their whole variety of food. Theft were rein-deer, white bears and foxes. The flesh they eat almost raw, and without falt; ufing by way of bread to it other fleth, dried hard in the fmoke. Their drink was running water in the fummer, and melted ice and fnow in the winter, Their prefervatives against the fourvy were, fwallowing raw frozen meat broken into bits, drinking the warm blood of rein-deer juft killed, eating fcurvy grafs when they could meet with it, and using much exercife. By thefe means three of them 1emained entirely free from this difeafe during the whole of their abode. The fourth died of it, after lingering on to the fixth year. It is remarked, that this perfon was of an indolent difpofition, and could not conquer his averfion to drinking the rem-deer's blood. The three furvivors, after ren aiming fix years and three months on this defol. te and folitary ifland, were happily rescued by a ship driven cafually upon the
coaft, and returned home in fafety. They were strong and healthy at their return; but by habit had contracted an inability of eating bread, or drinking fpirituous liquors.
To the above relations, I fhall add the following thort quotations relative to the fame fubject.
In a note to the account of the four Ruffians, it is faid, "Councellor Muller fays, the Ruffians about Archangel fhould be imitated; fome of whom every year winter in Nova Zembla without ever contracting the fcurry. They follow the example of the Samojedes, by frequently drinking the warm blood of rein-deer just killed. The hunting of these animals requires continual exercife. None ever keep their huts during the day, unless ftormy weather, or too great quantity of fnow, hinders them from taking their ufual exercife."
In a manufcript French account of the lands lying between Kamíchatka and America, drawn up by that eminent naturalift and geographer Mr. Pallas, I find it mentoned, that "the Ruffians in their hunting vorages to thefe iflands, (an expedition gene. rally lafting three years) in order to save expence and room in purchafing and towing vegetable provifion, compofe half their crews of natives of Kamchatka, because these people are able to preferve themselves from the fcurvy with animal food only, by abstaining from the ufe of falt.”
Lastly, in the excellent oration of Linzeus, on the advantages of travelling in one's an country, printed in the third volume of be Amanitates Academicæ, it is afferted,
"that the Laplanders live without corn and wine, without falt, and every kind of arti- ficial liquor, on water and flesh alone, and food prepared from them; and yet are entirely free from the curvy.” *
Having thus ftated the facts which have fallen in my way relative to this fubject, I proceed to a comparison of their feveral circumftances, and some remarks on the general refult.
The Scurvy appears to be the disease peculiarly dreaded, and fatal in all the above related attempts to winter in extremely cold climates. Whether the circumftance of cold itself, or the want of proper food occafioned by it, principally conduces to the generation of this difeafe, is a point not clearly ascertained. From the preceding narrations, however, no doubt can be entertained, that it is poffible for perfons to keep free from the scurvy, in countries and seasons the most intenfely cold, provided their diet and manner of living be properly adapted to fuch fituations; and this without the aid of fresh vegetables, or any of those other preservatives which have of late been proposed by ingenious writers.
When we compare the hiftories above recited, it is impoffible not to be immediately ftruck with thefe leading circumstances, that thofe in whom the fcurvy raged, fed upon falt provifions, and drank fpirituous liquors ; whereas those who escaped it fed upon fresh animal food, or, at least, preferved without falt, and drank water
[To be continued.]
planting and Ornamental Gardening; a Practical Treatife. 8vo. 8s. Boards. Dodfley. 1785.
HIS Practical Treatife opens with the
"The intention of this Publication is to bring into one point of view, and arrange in
"In Lapplandia obfervabit homines abfque Cerere & Baccho, abfque fale & potu omni artificiali, aqua tantum & carne, & quæ ab his præparantur, contentos vivere.
Quare Norlandi, ut plurimum, fcorbuto fint infecti; & cur Lappones, contra, hujus Barbi prorfus expertes ?"
&c. &c. the propagation of trees and shrubs adapted to the open air of this climate, forming only a small portion of their respective publications.
"Miller and Hanbury, however, are the only writers who could afford us the required affiftance; and we were led to a choice of the latter, as our chief authority, by three principal motives :-Hanbury wrote fince Miller, and having made ample ufe of Mr. M.'s book, his work contains in effect the experience of both writers: Miller is in the hands of most gentlemen; Hanbury is known to few; his book, either through a want of method, a want of language, or through an ill-judged plan of publishing on his own account, has never fold: and lastly, Miller's botanical arrangement is become obfolete; Hanbury's is agreeable to the Linnean fyftem.
a compendious form, the Art of Planting
"Cook is our fift writer on Planting; nevertheless EVELYN has been ftyled the Father of Planting in England. It is probable that, in the early part of life, Evelyn was a practical planter upon his estate at Wotton in Surrey; but his book was written in the wane of life, at Greenwich, during a long and painful fit of the gout. His Sylva contains many practical rules, valuable, no doubt, in his day, but now fuperfeded by modern practice; and may be faid to lie buried in a farrago of traditional tales and learned digrefiions fuited to the age he lived in *. MILLER at length arofe among a group of minor planters; and after him the indefatigable HANBURY, whofe immenfe labours are in a manner loft to the Public.
"Cook and Evelyn treated profeffedly of FOREST-TREES, Miller and Hanbury include ORNAMENTALS; but their works, which are voluminous and expensive, alfo include kitchen-gardening, flower-gardening, the management of green-houses, ftoves,
"Since Mr. Hanbury's death, the public. have been favoured with a new and fumptuous edition of Evelyn's Sylva; with notes by Dr Hunter of York, confifting of botanical descriptions, and the modern propagation of fuch trees as Evelyn has treated of. Thefe notes, however, contain little new informathe descriptions being principally copied from Miller, and the practical directions from Hanbury.
"Left unacknowledged affistance, or affiftance acknowledged indirectly, should be laid to our charge, it is thought proper in this place to particularize the feveral parts of this publication which are written from thofe which are copied.
"The INTRODUCTORY DISCOURSES, containing the Elements of Planting, and the Outline of the Linnean System, are, as ru diments, entirely new; excepting the quotations from Linnæus's work, which quotations are extracted from the Litchfield Translation of The Syftema Vegetabilium of that great man.
"The ALPHABET OF PLANTS, fo far as it relates to TIMBER-TREES, and other NATIVE PLANTS, as well as to fome of the more USEFUL EXOTICS, is either wholly our own, or contains fuch additions as have refulted from our own observation and experience: fo far as it relates to ORNAMENTAL ExoTICS, it is en rely HANBURY's; excepting the quotations which are marked, and excepting the GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, which is entirely new. HANBURY has not less than fix diftinct claffes for the plants here treated of, namely, deciduous Foreft-Trees, Aquatics, evergreen ForestTrees, deciduous Trees proper for ornament
*The first Edition was printed in the year 1664, having been previously read before the Royal Society in 1662.
tranfplanting trees and fhrubs in general. In this part of the work, the business of the feminary, of the nursery, and of young plan
and fhade, evergreen-trees proper for ornament and shade, and hardy climbing Plants. The first three claffes are without any fubordinate arrangement; in the last three the plants_tations, are distinctly detailed, and the minuare arranged alphabetically, agreeably to their time of each operation defcribed in a compreganera. This want of fimplicity in the ar- henfive manner. rangement renders the work extremely heavy and irksome to refer to; and is prodaftive of much unneceflary repetition, or of tirefore references from one part of his onwieldy work to another. His botanical fynonyms we have wholly thrown afide, as being burdenfome, yet uninstructive; and in their place we have annexed to each Species the trivial or specific name of LINNEUS, which in one word identifies the plant with a greater degree of certainty than a volume of Synonyma. Other retrenchments, and a multiplicity of corrections have taken place › however, where practical knowledge appears to arife incidentally out of our author's own experience, we have cautiously given it in his own words: likewife, where interefting information lies entangled in a fingularity of manner, from which it could not well be
extricated, we have marked the paffages containing it, as literal quotations ;-to diftinguish them from others, which, having been written in a manner more properly dafic, or brought to that form by retrenchment or correction, we confider as being more fully entitled to the places we haven' figned them.
The articles TIMBER, HEDGES, and WOODLANDS, are altogether new *, being drawn from a confiderable share of experience, and an extended obfervation,
The article GROUNDS is likewise new, if ay thing new can be offered on a fubject upon which to much has been already written. Tate, however, is a fubject upon which all men will think and write differently, even though their fources of information may have been the fame. WHEATLEY, MASON, and NATURE, with fome EXPERIENCE, and much OBSERVATION, are the principal Sources from which this part of our work was drawn; if we add that it was planned, od in part written, among the magnificent fcenes of nature in Monmouthshire, Herefrdfhire, and Gloucestershire, where the rich and the romantic are happily blended, a a manner unparalleled in any other part of the liland, we flatter ourselves no one will be dietatisfied with the origin of the production, let the Public fpeak."
To this Advertisement fucceed fuch general rules for planting as are applicable to the propagating, training-up, planting-out, and
These general rules are followed by a full defcription, and the modern method of cultivating each diftinct plant adapted to the purpose of useful and ornamental planting, comprehending every tree and fhrub, whether native or exotic, which will bear the open air of this climate. The plants are arranged alphabetically, agreeably to the generic names of Linneus, whofe admirable system we find here briefly explained. As a fpecimen of our author's method of arranging the feveral fpecies under their respective genera, as well as to convey fome idea of the manner in which this part of the work is executed, we shall lay before our readers an extract from the article Quercus.
"LINNEAN Clafs and Order, Monoecia Polyandria: Male flowers containing many ftamina, and female Aowers containing one piltil, upon the fame plant: There are
"Excepting fuch extracts and quotations as are marked, and have their refpective auGorities fubjoined.”
10. QUERCUS Suber: The CORKTREF; an evergreen tree; native of the fouthern parts of Europe.
"11. QUERCUS Ilex: The ILEX, COMMON EVERGREEN OAK; an evergreen tree; native of Spain and Portugal.
12. QUERCUS Coccifera: The KERMES OAK; a tall evergreen jkrub; native of France and Spain.
66 13. QUERCUS Molucca: The Live OAK; an evergreen tree; native of America.
Bentley, was, at feven feet, thirty-four There is a large excrefcence at five an feet that would render the measure ur In 1778, this tree was increased half an in nineteen years. It does not appear ti hollow, but by the trifling increase I conc it not found." Extraordinary, however thefe dimenfions may appear, they are ceeded by thofe of the BoDDINGTON ( a tree which we believe does not appear where upon record, except it be allude 66 I. The ENGLISH OAK will grow to in Mr. Evelyn's lift. This oak grows great ftature and live to a great age. EVELYN, piece of rich grats land, called the whofe learning and induftry are evident in O chard Ground, belonging to Boddin every page of his elaborate work, fatigues Manor-Farm, lying near the turnpikeus with a tedious account of large trees, between Cheltenham and Tewksbury, it which either were growing in his time, or Vale of Glocefter. The ftem is remark which he found in the mouth of tradition, or collected and fnug at the root, the fides o in the pages of learning and hiftory. We trunk being more upright than those of 1 would rather however refer our readers to trees in general; neverthelefs its circur his detail than either copy or abridge it; rence at the ground, as near to it as one confining ourselves to a few individuals of walk, is twenty paces: measuring wit our own time, which now are (or were two-foot rule, it is fomewhat more t very lately) actually standing in this kingdom. eighteen yards. At three feet high it i The CowTHORP-OAK, now growing at fures forty-two feet, and at its fmallest Cowthorp, near Wetherby in Yorkshire, menfions, namely, from five to fix feet h has been held out as the father of the foreft. it is thirty-fix feet. At about fix feet it Dr. Hunter of York, in his brilliant edition. gins to fweil out larger; forming an et of Mr. Evelyn's book, has favoured us with mous head, which heretofore has been : an engraving of this tree; the dimensions of nished with huge, and in all probability which, as he justly obferves, "are almoft tenfive arms. But age and ruffian wi incredible." Within three feet of the furface, have robbed it of a principal part of the Doctor tells us," it meatures fixteen grandeur; and the greatest extent of arm yards, and clofe to the ground, twenty fix prefent (1783) is eight yards from the the yards. Its height in its prefent ruinous ftate From the ground to the top of the crowns. (1776) is about eighty-five feet, and its prin- the trunk is about twelve feet, and cipal limb extends fixteen yards from the greatest height of the branches, by eftimati bole. Throughout the whole tree the foliage forty-five feet. The item is quite hollo is extremely thin, fo that the anatomy of the being, near the ground, a perfect the antient branches may be distinctly feen in the forming a capacious well-fized room; wh height of fummer. When compared to this, at the floor meafures, one way, more th all other trees (the Doctor is pleated to fay) fixteen feet in diameter, The hollowne are but children of the foreft." If indeed however, contracts upwards, and forms the above admeasurement might be taken as felf into a natural dome, fo that no light the dimenfion of the real fiem, its fize would admitted except at the door, and at be truly enormous, and far exceed that of aperture or window in the fide. It is A any other Oak in the kingdom. But the perfectly alive and fruitful, having this ye Cowthorp Oak has a fhort ftem, as mott a fine crop of acorns upon it. It is obfers very large trees it is obfervable have, ipread-able in this (as we believe it is in molt o ing wide at the bafe, the roots rifing above the ground like fo many buttrelies to the trunk, which is not like that of a tall-itemmed tree, a cylinder, or nearly a cylinder, but the fruftum of a cone. Mr. MARSHAM gives us a plain and accurate account of this
He fays, "I found it m 1768, at four feet, forty feet fix inches; at five feet, thirty-fix feet fix inches; and at fix feet, thirty-two feet one inch." Therefore in the principal dimenfion, the fisse of the ftom, it is exceeded by the BENTLEY OAK; of which the fame Gandid obferver gives the following account: "In 1759, the Oak in Holt-Fereit, near
trees), that its leaves are remark bly fal not larger in general than the leaves of Hawthorn,
"In contemplating these wonderful produc tions of nature we are led to conjecture th period of their exiftence: Mr. MARSHAN in his Paper published in the First Volume o the Tranfactions of the Bath Agriculture So ciety, has given us fome very ingenious cal culations on the age of trees; and concludes that the Tortworth Chefnut is not lefs than eleven hundred years old. We have however fhewn under the Article Cheinut, that Mr. MARSHAM is miftaken in the dimen