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vent, who accompanied Poncet to Abyffinia, cet's narrative, who was prevented by illness but unfortunately died there I.

from visiting the very spor, but hath given an Driven however from this hold, the ob. ample relation from an Abyssinian, who had jectors will possibly retain their increduli. often been there. Poncet, moreover, had ty as to many particulars to be related, which obtained leave from the Emperor to make I will shortly endeavour to answer, at least this journey, which he states as not being a in regard to two of the principal ones, which distant one, and that the Emperor hath a are often much dwelt upon.

palace near the very sources. The first of these is, the having visited the If it be doubted, whether Mr. Bruce hath sources of the Nile, which, from classical visited every source of the Nile, I answer, education, we cannot easily believe, as they that perhaps no Englishman hath taken this were unknown to the ancients, though they trouble with regard to the sources of the had so great curiosity with regard to this dif. Thames, which, like most other rivers, is cuvery *.

probably derived from many springs and rills Many things, however, have been accom- in different directions. plished by travellers in modern times, which The other objection which I have often the ancients never could archieve, and which heard, is, that Mr. Bruce hath mentioned in may be attributed to their want of enterprise + conversation, that the Abyslinians cut a flice (as travellers, at least), of languages, and from the living ox, esteeming it one of their Lastly, the not being able to procure credit greatest delicacies. when in a distant country. Mr. Bruce could This sort of dainty indeed is not so considernot have continued so long as he did in Abylo ed in other parts of the globe ; but every natwia, unless he had drawn from Gondar up- tion almost hath its peculiarities in the choice on a merchant established at Cairo.

of their food. The difficulty, however, with regard to Do not we eat raw oysters within a second reaching the sources of the Nile, ariles prin- of their being separated from the shell ? And cipally from the uncivilized Itate of Abyffinia, do not we roast both them and lobsters whilft unless the traveller had a proper introduction . alive, the barbarity of wbich practice seems When once this is procured, all difficulties to equal that of the Abyssinians ? Do not cooks seem to cease, as we find by Lobo's || account skin eels whilft alive? and do not epicures of this fame discovery, and likewise by Pon- crimp filh for the gratification of their appetites!

It must be admitted, however, that we owe to the zeal of the Jesuits, the best accounts we have both of China and Paraguay. Few laymen have been actuated so strongly for the promotion of geography and science as Mr. Bruce; and we must, therefore, (upon the order of Jesuits being abolished) look up chiefly to the Milliouaries from the Church of the Guitas Fratrum, who, though vittering fo totally in other respects, seem to have an equal arvour with the Jesuits for instructing the inhabitants of countries unfrequented by Europeans. Such missions are already established in W. Greenland, the coast of Labrador, N. lat. 56, the back settlements of Carolina and Pennsylvania, in India, Bengal, and the Nicobar Iands. Those established on the coast of Labrador send over yearly meteorological journals, which are commun:cated to the Royal Society. As for the dispute between Poncet and Maillet, the French consul at Cairo, see Mod. Univ. Hift. vol. VI.

* We cannot be surprized that the Greeks and Romans should have had this curiosity, the Nile not only overflowing during the summer, but receiving no tributary stream through lo large an extent of country. The not being able to reach the source, however, argues a grex want of enterprise in them, especially as both of these nations were masters of Egypt.

+ Perhaps ailo of curiosity. How little do the Romans seem to have known of the Pg. renecs or Alps ; I had almost said, of their own Appenines.

| Some of the most accumpl.Shed Romans could indeed speak Greek, but the Greeks no language except their own.

Š The professing the knowledge of medicine was Poncet's introduction, and seems to have been that of Mr. Bruce. Even in our own civilized country, how are quacks and mounte. banks resorted to ? And what an impression must Mr. Bruce, with his magnificent and scientific apparatus, have made upon the inhabitants of such a country as Ahytiinia.

|| In Father 'Telles's compilation. See also Ludolf, who describes the sources from Gregory: who was a native of Abyflinia. Father Payz was the first who visited them, A. D. 1622. His account of this is laid to be in the archives of the College de Propaganda Fide at Rome, It is believed that there many o:fier curious particulars for the illustration of geograplıy, to be found in the same depository. Dr. Shaw mentions, moreover, some papers of Lappi (who accompanied the French embally into Abytiinia, A. D. 1704) which are to be found in the Bøtanical Library at Oxford,



That the Abyssinians eat beef in a raw flesh, never could obtain any credit + after. ftate, is agreed by both Lobo and Poncet ; wards from his brother-fellows of the same and the former says reeking from the college, though many of them were learned Mr. Antes moreover was told by a Francis. can Monk, who went with the caravan from It is well known, however, though Dr, Abyffinia to Cairo *, that he was witness of Shaw states this same circumstance in the an ox being killed, and immediately devoured publication of his Travels, that he is cited by the band of travellers.

with the greatest approbation in almost every One reason, perhaps, for this usage may be part of Europe. the great heat of the climate, which will not The natural cause and progress of the in permit meat to be kept a fufficient time to credulity which a traveller gener::lly experie make it tender (as with us); and it is gene- ences, seems to be the following: rally allowod, that a fowl, dressed immedi- When he returns from a dittant, and little ately after it is killed, is in better order for frequented country, every one is impatient exting, than if it is kept four and twenty hours. tu hear his narrative, from which, of course,

Is it therefore extraordinary that an Abys- he selects the more striking parts I, and parfinian epicure may really find (or perhaps fan- ticularly the usages which differ most from cy) that a piece cut from the beast whilst our own. Some of the audience disbelieving alive, may be mpre tender, or have a better what the traveller had mentioned, put quesrelih than if it is previously killed by the tions to him which shew their distrust. The butcher ? To this I must add, that according traveller by this treatment becomes irritated, to the information which I have received on and answers some of them peevithly, others this head, Mr. Bruce's account of this practice ironically, of which the interrogators afteris much misrepresented by the objectors, wards take advantage to his prejudice. who suppose that the ox lives a considerable I have been at the trouble of collecting time after these pieces are cut from it. these facts, and which I have endeavoured to When these dainty bits, however, have been enforce by such observations as occurred, from sent to the great man's table, (and which are being truly defirous of seeing Mr. Bruce's probably taken from the fleshy parts) the account of Abyllimia, who is certainly no beast foon afterwards expires, when the first common traveller, nor can the publication artery is cut, in providing fices for the nu. be a superficial one, as he refided there to merous attendants.

long, Upon the whole, the not giving credit to That Mr. Bruce hath great talents for the a traveller, because he mentions an usage information of his readers appears by his difwhich is very different from ours, (and 15 sertation on the Theban hasoll, which Dr. undoubtedly very barbarous) seems rather to Burney hath inserted in the first volume of aigue ignorance, than acuteness.

his History of Music, and in which Mr. Bruce This brings to my recollection the incre also mentious several of the Abyltinian inftrudulity which was shewn to another diftin.

Mr. Bruce moreover is said to have guilbed traveller, Dr. Shaw, who having a great facility in learning languages of, and mentioned, in an Oxford common room, that talents for drawing, ** nor perhaps was any fome of the Algerines were fond of lion's other traveller furnished with lo large and


* This points out another channel, by which a traveller of enterprise may visit Abyffinia.

+ Sir William Temple fomewhere mentions that a Dutch Governor of Batavia, who lived much with one of the most considerable inhabitants of Java, could never obtain any credit from him, after having mentioned, that in Holland water became a solid budy.

# Quanto mi giovera, narrare altrui
Le cose verdute, e dire to fui ?

ARIOSTO, The traveller who first saw a Nying fish, probably told every one of this extraordinary circunstance as soon as he let his fous on Thore, and was as probably discredited with regard to the other particulars of his voyage.

Nothing is more irritating to an ingenuous person than to find his affertions are disbe. lieved. This is commonly experienced in the cross examinations of almost every witness. To the distresses of the traveller, on his rolurii, I may adid, the being vften teszed by very ignorant questions. # Thebes in Egypt.

Some of the incredulous hare expressed their doubts with regard to this, but ample proof would be produced were it at all neceifary.

** Mr. Bruce is said to have spoken the Arabic when he first entered Abyssinia, but afterwards acquired the language of the country. EVROP. Mao.



scientific an app: ratus of instruments. This I other person in Europe, who ever was is will add, that Mr. Bruce's spirit and enter. Abyssinia. prise will not be easily equalled.

ii a traveller describes a country frequent • If I can therefore be the least instrumen- ed by others, he is liable to contradiction, tal in the earlier production of so interesting and may be foon detected by the cross examian account of an almost unfrequented part of nation of those who have been equally eyeAfrica, my pains wili be amply repaid. witnesses as himself. But where is the tra

As this is my fule view in what is here laid veller to be found, who hath braved the before the public, I am not under the obli. dangers that must have surrounded Mr, Bruce gation of making apologies to any one but during four years residence in a barbarous Mr. Bruce himself, who perhaps may not empire ? have occasion to thank me, for undertaking Mr. Bruce himself, moreover, hath no his defence, to which he is so much more the means of refuring the groundless infinuequal in most respects.

ations of Baron Tott, which I have happened A defence, however, from himself merely, to procure, and which indeed have been the will never be a complete one with those who principal cause of my entering into this cosare mcredulous, because it muft depend upon troversy. his own affertions, as there is perhaps no






Quid fit turps, quid urile, quid duloc, quid non. Letters concerning the Northern Coast of the County of Antrim, By the Rev. William

Hamilton, A. M. Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. 8vo. 4s. Robinsons. 1786. THE learned and ingenious author of these fcribed as being a fimple, laborious, and how

entertaining Letters, after giving a gene- neft race of people, possessing a degree of Til sketch of the northern coast of Anrum, affection for their iLand, which to a stranger and making some oblervations on its struc- may appear surprising. They speak of Irecure and the arrangement of its foffils, as land as of a foreign kingdom, and have scarte likewite of the island of Raghery, which lies any intercourse with it. fix or seven miies off ihe northcoast of An- « The tedious processes of civil law, trim oppofite to Ballycaftle Bay, concludes, Mr. Hamilton observes, are little known in froin the same kind of materials being simi Raghery ; the fimplicity of their manners renfarly arranged at equal elevations on the ders the interference of the civil magistrate main-land and the island that they were ori. very unnecessary. The seizure of a cow, or a ginally united, but separated by fume violent borse, for a few days, to bring the defauker to convulsion of nature.

a ser fe of duty; or a copious draught of faltThe land is near five miles in length, water from the surrounding ocean, in crimiand three quarters of a mile in breadth ; it nal cases, form the greatest part of the fanc. contains about 1200 inhabitants, and is ra- tions and punishments of the land. If the ther over-peopled, as there is no confiderable offender be wicked beyond hope, banishinanufacture to employ any superfluous ment to Ireland is the dernier resort, and hands. The cultivated part of it produces frees the community from this peaidential excellent barley ; fix liundred pounds worth member. * his grain have been exported from it in " In a requestered inand like this, ose a plentiful season ; and upwards of an hun- would expect to find bigotted fuperftition cred tons of kelp have been manufactured in flourish under the auspices of the Roman a year from the lea-weed found on the rocks. church; but the fimplicity of the iflanders The hories as well as sheep are small but ex- does not foster any uncharitable tenets; they treintly service.ble. The inhabitants are de. are neither groftly superstitious, nor rank bsgots. Of their good will to the established to look at, separates it from the adjacent church they give an annual proof, rarely land, in the bottom of which the sea breaks found in any other part of Ireland. When with an uninterrupted roar over the rocks. they have got in their own harvest, they The iBand itself is inaccessible on every side give the parson a day of their hories and except one spot, where, under the shelter carts, and bring the entire tythe home to his of an impending rock, a luxuriant herbage farm yard."

flourishes ; but the wildness of the coast The author next describes Ballycastle, the and the turbulence of the sea make it very ftate of its manufactories, and collierics. In difficult to land here. there about twelve years ago, the workmen “ In this perplexity there is no resource, unexpectedly, in pushing forward a new adit except in acteripting to throw a bridge of toward the coal, broke through the rock to ropes from the main land to the island, a cavern, which on examination' was found which accordingly the fishermen every year to be a complete gallery, carried forward ma- accomplish in a very singular manner. Two ny hundred yards, branching off into various Itrong cables are extended acrofs the gulph chambers, with pillars left at proper inter- by an expert climber, and fastened firmly rals to support the roof. The discovery of into iron rings mortifed into the rock on this colliery, Mr. Hamilton thinks, tends either side. Between these ropes a number ftrongly to thew, that there was an age of boards about a foot in breadth are laid in when Ireland enjoyed a considerable share of succession, supported at intervals by crosscivilization. He farther quotes the round cords and thus the path-way is formed, touers of Ireland, of which there are up which, though broad enough to bear a man's wards of fifty still remaining, which are ori. foot with tolerable convenience, de; by no ginal in their kinds, and not inelegant in mears hide from view the pointed rocks their structure, as proofs that there were and raging sea beneath, which in this situapublic monuments in that kingdom before tion exhibit the fatal effects of a fall in very the arrival of the English. To these he adds Atrong colouring; while the swingings and the numerous instruments of peace and war, undulations of the bridge itself, and of the the many curious and costly ornaments of hard rope, which no degree of tenfion can dress daily dug out of the fields, as irrefraga- prevent in so great a length, suggest no very ble teftimonies that the arts once flourished, comfortable feeling to perfons of weak and that the precious metals were not un- nerves. — Upon the whole, it is a beautiful known in Ireland. Not content with e11a. bridge in the scenery of a landscape, but a blishing the claims of the Irish to ikill in frightful one in real life. architecture and mechanical works, he with “ The mode of fishing on this coast is dif. truly patriotic zeal adduces the authority offerent from any I have seen. the venerable Bede and other ancient authors “ The net is projected directly outward from to prove that it was many centuries ago a the shore, wish a light benu, forming a borich and happy kingdom, undisturbed by fom in that direction in which the falmun chole bloody wars which harrassed he rest of come. From the remote extremity a rope the world ; the seat of learning and of is brought obliquely to another part of the piety.

more, by which the ne! may be swept round In his next letter, the author gives the fol. at pleasure, and drawn to the land ; a heap lowing account of a singular flying bridge of small Atones is then prepared for each per. at Carrick-a-Rede, and the salmon-fishery fon. All things being ready, soon as the on that coast.

watchmon perceives the fith advancing to the “At a particular season of the year, the nel, he gives the watch word; immediately salmon fish come along the court in queft of lome of the fishermen seize the oblique rope, the different rivers, in which they annually by which the net is bent round to enable caft their spawn. In this expedition the the salmon, while the rest keep up an incesfth generally swim pretty close to the shore, fant Candonade with their amciunition of that they may not miss their port. The Itunes, to prevent the retreat of the fish till fishermen, who are well aware of this wasting the nei lias been completely pulled round voyage, take care to project their nets at such them ; after which they all juin forces, and places as may be most convenient for inter- drag the net and fish quietly to the rocks." cepting them in their course,

Mr. Hamilton here relates an amusing in" lc so happens that Carrick-a Rede is ftance of fagacity which he obierved in a the only place on this abrupt coast which is water dog of this countiy, who had become inited for the purpofe. – Here then, or no a moft excelient fither. Wiere, must be the fishery--but how to get “This dog, as soon as he perce'ved the men # the rock is the questiop.--A charm full began to baul their net, initantly ran dou sa to feet in breadih, and of a depth frightful the river of his owu accord, anat took post


After a

in the middle of it, on some shallows where ance of art and regularity, resembling the he could occasionally run or swim, and in this work of mep, but exceeding any thing of position be placed himself with all the eager- the kind that had been seen. They, hotness and attention so strongly observable in a ever, concluded. that human ingenuity 314 pointer dog who sets his game.-We were for perseverance, if supported by sufficient power, some time at a loss to apprehend his fcheme, might have produced it. The chief difficuly but the event foon fatisfied us, and amply seems to have been the want of strengo justified the prudence of the animal : for the equal to the effect. This the traditions of a nith, when they feel the net, always endea. fanciful people foon fupplied, and Fin m3 vour to make directly out to sea. Accord. Coal (tive modern Fingal) the celebrate ingly, one of the salmon escaping from the hero of ancient Ireland, became the gat net, rushed down the stream with great ve. who erccted this curious structure. locity towards the ford where the dog food. A pile of similar pillars were afterwan to receive him at an advantage --A very dia' discovered somewhere on the oppofite coarte verting chace now commenced, in which, Scotland, and latitudes and longitudes 101 be from the Mallowness of the water, we could ing at that time accurately underttool, a condiscern the whole track of the tiih, with all fused notion prevailed, that this role : its rapid turnings and windings.

once continued across the sea, and joined the smart pursuit the dog found himself confider- Irith and Scottish coasts together. ably helind, in confequence of the water Towards the end of the last century, the deepening, by which he had been reduced to Royal Society began to busy itself about th the neceility of swimming. But inttead of fingular and original wonder. But the in following this desperate game any louiger, he formations they received were imperfet readily gave it over, and rarı with all lis Dr. Moliineux took considerable pains 99 {peed directly down the river, till he was procure information concerning this phær Gure of being again to seaward of the salmon, menon. At his instigation, the Dublin Sowhere he took post as before. Here the fith ciety employed a painter of fome eminect, a second time met bion, and a fresh pursuit to make a general sketch of the coast peu ensues, in which, after various attempts, the Causeway; but neither the talents oor the salmon at lait made its way ou: 10 sea, fidelity of the artist seem to have been fuited notwithstanding all the ingenious and vigorous to the purpose of a philosophical landscape. exertions of its purtuer.

From that period the Batalt Piliars par? | “ Though the dog did not fucceed at this almost unnoticed for half a century, mert i time, yet I was informed it was no unusual science appearing unwilling to engage wch thing for him to run down his game; and the an object which had hitherto boiled the ato hthermen afsured me that he was of very tempts of the bleit cheorists. great advantage to them, by turning the ial

In the year 1740, Mrs. Suíonah Dt.:17 mun towards the net; in which point of made two very beautiful and correct pairl. view his efforts in fome measure corresponded ings of the Gunts Causeway, which ohc3. with the cannonade of Itones mentioned at ed the premium for the encouragement of arti Carrick-a-Rede."

in Ireland ; and being engraved by an €07 The two next letters contain an account of nent artist, and publihed, again directed the the incursions of the Scots - Duoluce cattle- attention of the curious to this i'vel and the history of pts old lord M.Qullar; Tubject. Soon after Dr. Pococke mide 1 Logether with a pathetic and interesting ac- tour through the county of Antrim, atid count of an unfortunate family settled in the

took a general view of the court; but r. promo tory of Bengore. Of the antient ftale content with matters of lac, le vensured to and history of this part of Antrim licte re- Itart a theory, unatle to land the test of mains now discoverable.

critwal examation, auibuting the regular Among the natural curiofities on the coast, figuse of the columus to repeated precipit the most remarkable is that curious combi- tions of the batalies, fuppofed to have been nation of basaltic pullars commonly called the once suspended in a watery medium. Giants Causeway, which next engage: cur au- Mr. Hamilton gives us the following is thor's attention. The native inhabitants of the count of these ftupendous columns : coaft who first observed this wonder, attempt- " The causeway is generally describe! .. ed to account for its produciion by a theory a mole or quay projeciing from the base of 1 rude and simple indeel, but not grossly bar- Peep promontory fome hundred fret itu the birous or absurd. Tue filhermen, whole (0.1, and is formed of perpendicular pillors it daily necessities led them thicker fur fubfift. bafalter, which God in contact with edi ence, observed that it was a regular mole obber, exlubiting an appearance nu imi! projecting into the sea ; on closer inspection unlike a felid honeycomb. The pillu i was discovered to be built with an appear. istegias puims, of various decoming thing

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