« PreviousContinue »
bns of that tree. Nevertheless, if it stood fore-fathers, merely from the magnitude ana in the days of King John, six centuries ago, majesty of its appearance, the veneration due and was then called the Great Chesnut *, we to its age, and gratitude perhaps for some my venture to suppose it not much less than few economical uses they might apply it to, we thousand years of age; and further, if paid divine honours to this lite; how much we consider the quick growth of the Chelmut more behores it us, circumstanced as we are, compared with that of the Oak, and at the to pay due homage to this our national saviour ! fame time the inferior bulk of the Tortworth How could our Kings be invested with the Chesnut to the Cowthorp, the Bentley, and ensigns of royalty, or our Creator receive at the Boddington Oaks ; may we not venture stared times the gratitude and praise which to inser, that the existence of these truly ve- we owe to him, with greater propriety than terable trees commenced some centuries prior under the shadow of this sacred trees Acts to the era of Christianity?
like these would stamp it with that respec" The root of the Oak strikes deer, tability and veneration which is due to it: especially the middle or tap-root, which has and to corroborate these ideas, as well as to been traced to a depth nearly equal to the inftirute such laws as might be found necefheight of the tree itself: nor do the lateral fary, the state of the growth of Oak in roots run fo shallow and horizontal as those Great Britain ought to be a standing enquiry of the Ath and other trees; but perhaps the of the British Legislature. It is far from befoots of very few trees range wider than ing impracticable to have annual returns of those of the Oak. The stem of the Oak is Oak fit for ship-building in every parish in naturally fnort, and if left to itself, in aur the kingdom ; with the distance it stands opea fituation, it will generally feather to from water-carriage. It avails but little our die ground. It has not that upright tendency making laws of police, or forming foreign is the Am, the Esculus, and the Pine-tribe: alliances, unless we take care to secure in Devertheless, by judicious pruning, or by perpetuity the defence of our own coast. It planting in close order, the Oak will acquire is idle to think of handing down to posterity a great length of stem : in this case, how. a national independency, if we do not at Evet, it rarely swells to any considerable the same cime furnish them with the means girt. Mr. Martham indeed mentions one in of preserving it. the Earl of Powys' Park near Ludlow, “ The Propagation of the English Oak. which in 1757 measured, at five feet, fixo We do not purpose in this ploce to give diteen feet three inches, and which ran quite rections for raising woods or plantations of ftra.ght and clear of arms near or full fixty Oak : this we reserve until we come to feet. But, as has before been observed, Oaks treat of plantations in general, under the tiwhich endure for ages have generally short tle Woodlands; for by collecting the more ftems; throwing out, at fix, eighi, ien, or useful trees into one point of view, we fall tweise feet high, large horizontal arms; be better able to judge of their comparative thickly set with crooked branches; termi- value ; and the methods of raising the seve. rizing in clubbed abrupe twigs ; and closely ral species for the purpose of timber (Rhipcovered with smooth gloffy leaves; forming timber excepted) being nearly the same, we the richest foliage, irregularly swelling into Thall be enabled to give our directions more the boidest outline we know of in nature. fully, yet upon the whole much more conThe Pine-tribe and the Esculus may be called cisely, than we could have done, had we elegant or beautiful ; hut the general assemblage retailed them separately under each article : of a lofty full-furnished Oak is truly sublime. therefore, we mean to abide by the same
“ It is somewhat cxtraordinary, that the rule under the present head that we have obmolt granenial tree in nature should, at the served throughout this part of our work ; fare time, be the most useful to mankinil. namely, to treat of the plant under considera 1's very leaves have been lately found to be tion merely as a nursery plant." of etsential use to the gardener ; the husband- The choice of acorns--the preservation of man is well acquainted with the value of acorns—time of fowing-method of sowing its scorns; and every Englishman experi. -the operations of transplanting into, and ences daily the useful effects of its bark. It training in the nursery, &c. &c. are distinctly is wholly unnecessary to mention the value of laid down. The varieties of the species is timber : it is known to the whole world. Quercus Robur are then described ; which The Oak raised us once to the summit of na- done, the Section English Oak is closed. The total glory : and now we ought to hold in willozu-leaved oak and the other deciduous remembrance that our existence as a nation kinds are next described; but the mode of depends upon the Oak. If therefore our propagating the several species of deciduous
*" As Tradition says it was."
foreign oaks being the same, a repetition of it “ We do not deliver the foregoing sketch becomes unnecessary; and we accordingly as a perfectly correct account of the applicafind it placed in ample terms at the close of tion of woods in this country: The attempt this Clais of Quercus: finally, the ever-green is new, and that which is new is difficult. species pass under description, and the article We have not omitted to consult with profercloses with general directions for their pro- fional men upon the subject; and we believe pagation.
it to be sufficiently accurate for the purpose Having, in a similar way, gone through of the planter. If we have committed any the entire Alpbabet of Planes, (containing material error, we ask to be set right. We several hundred species) the author proceeds do not wish to descend to minutix: it would co treat generally of the subject of plantations; be of little signification to the planter, to be but previous to his entering upon this impor. told what toys ard toothpicks are made from: tant subject, he endeavours to ascertain the it is of much more importance to him to species of TIMBER most proper to be raised. know, that, of English Woods, the Oak is
“ Timber (he says) is the great and primary most in demand, perhaps three to one, object of planting. Ornament, abstracted perhaps in a much greater proportion ; that from utility, ought to be confined within the Ah, the Ilm, the Beecb, and the Box, narrow limits. Indeed, in matters of plant- follow next ; and that the Chefrui, the Wal. ing, especially in the taller plantations, it nul, and the Prunus and Pinus tribes are were difficult to separate entirely the idea principally valuable as substitutes for Oak and of ornament from that of use. Trees in Foreign Timber. It likewise may not be imgeneral are capable of producing an orna- proper in this place to mention, that the mental effect; and there is no tree which Oak, though of Nower growth than the Amh, may not be said to be more or less useful. the Elm, the Beech, the Larch, the Firs, But their difference in point of value when and the Aquatics, is nearly of twice the vac arrived at maturity is incomparable ; and it lue of any of these woods at market ; there. would be the height of folly to plant a tree fore, in a private and pecuniary point of whose characteristic is principally ornamen- view, the Oak is the most eligible tree to be tal, when another which is more useful and planted : in a public light, it rises above squally ornamental may be planted in itsstead. comparison."
“ Therefore, previous to our entering at The business of the live-bedge, bedge-row Jarge upon the business of planting, it will simber, the wood, timber-grove, coppice, ozier. be proper to endeavour to specify the trees bed, woody-waste; together with the folling most useful to be planted. In attempting and falling of timber, are all distinctly, fully, this we must look forward, and endeavour and practically treated of. As a specimen, to ascertain the species and proportional we will lay before our readers the author's quantities of Timber which will hereafter method of pruning hedge-row timber-trees, be wanted, when the trees now to be plant- & work which appears to us to be less uned fhall have reached maturity. To do this derstood than any other department of ruwith a degree of certainty is impossible ; ral æconomy. customs and falhions alter as caprice and “ The method of training the young plants necessity dictate. All that appears capable has already been described ; it now only reof being done in a matter of this nature is, mains to say a few words as to the pruning to trace the great outlines, and, by observing and setting-up Hedge-row timbers. what has been permanently useful for ages * Low-headed trees have been already conpaft, judge what may, in all human proba- demned, as being injurious to the Hedge, as bility, be also useful in ages to come. well as to the Corn which grows under them. Ships,
Machines, and To remove or alleviate these evils without Buildings, Utensils,
injuring the tree itself, requires the best skill have been, are, and most probably will con- of the woodman. The usual method is to tinue to be, the consumers of Timber in this hack off the offending bough; no matter country.
We will therefore endeavour to how nor where ; but, most probably, a few come at the principal ipaterials made use of inches from the body of the tree, with an in the construction of these four great con- axe ; leaving the end of the stump ragged!, Teniences of life.
and full of difts and fissures, which by receiEach article is then taken separately un- ving and retaining the wet that drips upon der consideration-analysed into its several them, reuder the wound incurable. The hi anches--and the proportional consumption mortification in a short time is communicated of each branch ofcertained with confiderable to the item, in which a recess or hollow beexa ineis; the kriter ck sing this novel, ing once formed, so as to receive and retain but neceflary, article in a Treatise on Plant water, the decline of the tree, though other. ing with the flowing oblervations:
wise in its prime, from that time must be has swelled over the stump, or the stump dated; and, if not presently taken down, its has rotted away to the item ; and, either properties as a cimber tree will, in a few way, a mortification is the probable conse. years, be changed into those of fire-wood quence. Even supporing the stump to live, only. How many thousand timber-trees either by means of some twig being stand at this hour in the predicament here de. left upon it, or from fresh shoots thrown cribed, merely through injudicious lopping. out, the cicatrization, even in this case, will It is this vile treatment which has brought be Now (depending entirely upon the fecble Hedge-row timber into a disrepute otherwise efforts of the bark of the itump); and beundeferred.
fore it can be accomplished, the Tree itself u There is a wonderful similarity in the may be in danger. But, had the amputation operations of Nature upon the Vegetable and been made at a difiance from the stem, and Animal Creation. A night wound in the immediately above a trvig, strong enough to Animai Body foon heals up, and skins over, draw up a supply of sap, and keep the stump whāit the wound succeeding the amputation alive upon a certainty, no risque would have of a limb is with difficulty cicatrized. The been incurred ; especially if the end of the efects are fimilar with respect to the Vege- stump had been left smooth, with the Dope tahle Body : a twig may be taken off with on the under-side, so that no water could fatety, whilst the amputation of a large hang, nor receís be formed. bough will endanger the life of the tree. “ From what has been said, the followAzan, pare off a small portion of the outer barking general rules with respe&t to setting up of a young thriving tree, the first summer's. low-headed trees may, we humbly conceive, szp will teal up the wound: if a small twig be drawn with safety : small boughs should be had been taken off with this patch of bark, cut off close to the flem : but large ones at a the effect would bave been nearly the same; distance from it, and above a lateral branch the wound would have been cicatrised, or large enough to keep ib. liump alive. Thus, barked over, in a similar manner ; and the supposing the stem of a tree in full growth bay of the tree as safely secured from out- to be the size of a man's waift, a bough the ward injury, as if no such amputation had thickness of his wrist may be taken off with taken place. Even a considerable branch safety near the stem ; but one as thick as his Day be taken off in this manner with impu- thigh should be cut at the diftance of a: least Day, provided the surface of the wound be two feet from it ; leaving a fide branch at kit fimooth and Auth with the inner bark of least an inch in diameter with a top in prothe Tree; for, in a few years, it will be portion, and with air and head-room enough completely closed up, and secured from inju- to keep it in a flourishing state. For this T} ; though an eschar may remain for some purpose, as well as for the general purpose sers longer. But if a large bough be thus of throwing light into the head, the Itanding fevered, the wound is left so wide, that it bouglis should be cleared from their lower requires in most trees a length of time to branches, particularly such as grow in a hak it over ; during which time the body of drooping direction. In doing this no great the tree having increased in fize, the parts caution is required ; for in taking a bough inmediately round the wound hecome turgid, from a bough, let their fizes be what they Lift the face of the wound itself is thrown may, little risque can be thereby incurred uptack into a recess; and, whenever this be- on the main body of the tree. comes deep enough to hold water, from that “ There is another general rule with re. Line the wound is rendered incurable : Na- gard to pruning trees. The bough should be ture has, at least, done her part ; and whe- taken off either by the upward froke of a ther or not, in this case, assistance may be sharp instrument (and generally speaking, at given be opening the lower lip of the wound, one blow), or with a saw : in the latter care emains yet (it is probable) to be tried by it should previously be notched on the underIperiment : until that be ascertained, or side, to prevent its splitring off in the fall, fone other certain method of cure be known, if the bough to be taken off be very large, i were the height of imprudence to risk the the faset way (though somewhat tedious) is welfare of a tree on such hazardous treat- first to cut it off a few inches from the stem ment.
with an axe, and then to clear away the stump Further, although a branch of considerable close and level with a faw, doing away the size may be taken off close to the body of roughnesses left by the teeth of the saw with the tree with safety ; yet if the same branch a plane, or with the edge of a broad-monthed be cut a few inches from it, the effect is not axe, in order to prevent the wet from hangthe same; for, in this case, the stump gene- ing in the wound. A law for this purpose rally dies; consequently the cicatrization Thould be set very wide ; other's ise it will Cannot take place, until the stem of the tree not make its way through the steen wood,
“ The fitteft opportunity for pruning and Antients were admirers of Nature in a flare setting up young timbers, as well as for ta- of wildness ; for, whenei er they attempted king down pollards and dotard timbers, and to embelli,h Nature, they appear lo liave been clearing away other incumbrances, is when guided by a kind of Oraheitean talte ; as tlie the Hedge itself is felled ; and it were well gardens of the Greeks and Romans, like thie for landed individuais (as for the nation at of the modern nations (until of late years in large) if no Hedge was suffered to be cut this country), convey to us no oiher idea down without the whole business of the than that of Nature laron'd, * Hedge-row being at the same time properly “ Mr. Burghi, in a Nute to his ingenious executed."
Commentary upon Mr. Maron's beautiful As we have already protracted this article poem The English Garden, confirms us in to an unusual length, we must now take our these ideas; and, by a quotation from the leave of the more ufrful part of this perform. Younger Pliny, thews the just nocions the ance, and proceed to give some account of Antieists entertained of the powers of human that part which treats of ornamentai gardening, invention, in associating and polithing the at present a fashionable subject, and mult for rougher scenes of Nature : for, after giving ever be a subject honourable to this country. us a beautiful description of the natural scene
“ Mankind no sooner find themselves in ry round his Tuscan villa, upon the banks of fast possession of the neserfaries of life, than the Tiber, he acknowledges “ the view be. they begin to feel a want of its conveniencies ; “ fore him to resemble a picture beautifully and these obtained, seldom fail of indulging " composed, rather than a work of Nature in one or more of its various refinemenis. « accidentally delivered.” Some men delight in the luxuries of the ima- “ We have been told that the English gination ; others in those of the senses. One Garden is but a copy of the Gardens of the man finds his wants supplied in the delicacies Chinese : this, however, is founded in Gaiof the table, whilft another flies to perfumes lic envy rather than in truth ; for though and effences for relief: few men are infenfi. their style of Gardening may not admit ofia. ble to the gratifications of the ear; and men sooings and sopiary works t, it has as little to in general are susceptible of those of the eye. do with natural scenery as the garden of air The imitative arts of painting and sculpture ancient Roman, or a modern Frenchman : have been the study and delight of civilized -The Art of affiling Nature is, undoubt. nations in all ages ; but the art of embellish- edly, all our own. ing Nature herself has been reseryed for this Is It cannot fail of proving highly interesting age, and for this pation !
to our Readers, to trace the rise of this delight" A fact the more astonishing, as orna- ful art. mented Nature is as much superior to a Paint. “Mr.Walpole, in his Anecdotes of Painting ing or a Statue, as a “ Reality is to a Repre- in England, has favoured the public with sentation ;" — as the Man himself is to his The History of modern Tafte in Gardening. A Portrait. That the striking features--the pen guided by so masterly a hand must ever beautiesn-of Nature, whenever they have be productive of information and entertainbeen seen, have always been admired by men ment when employed upon a subject fo truly of sense and refinement, is undoubtedly true; interesting as that which is now before us. but why the good offices of Art, in disclosing Desirous of conveying to our Readers all the these beauties, and setting off those features information which we can compress with to advantage, should have been so long con- propriety within the limits of our plan, we fined to the human person alone, is, of all wished to have given the fubftance of this vaother facts in the Hisory of Arts and Sciences, luable paper ; but finding it already in the the most extraordinary.
language of fimplicity, and being aware of of The Translator of D'Ermenoville's Exay the mischiefs which generally ensue in med. on Landscape has attempted to prove, in an dling with the productions of genius, we introductory discourse, that the art is nothing had only one alternative; either wholly to new, for that it was known to the Antients, transcribe, or wholly to rejeot. This we though not practised But the evidences he could not do, in frict justice to our readers ; produces go no farther than to fhew, that the for, befides giving us, in detail, the advance
* “ The inhabitants of Otaheitee, an island in the Southern hemisphere, ornament their boa dies by making punctures in the skin with a sharp-pointed instrument, and call it latowing The African Negroes are still groffer in their ideas of ornament, galhing their cheeks and temples in a nianner similar to that practised by the English Butcher in ornamenting a foulder of murton, or a Dutclı gardener in embellishing the environs of a manfion." † “ Trees carved by a Topiarius mito the form of beatls, birds, &c."
ment of the art, it throws considerable light every thing may be natural, and every thing upon the art itself; and being only a small adapted to the place; the degree of refinement part of a work upon a different subject, it is constituting the principal difference. the less likely to fall into the hands of those « We do not mean to enter into any arguto whom it cannot fail of proving highly in- ment about whether a state of rusticity or a teresting. We are, therefore, induced to state of refinement, whether the forest or exceed our intended limics in this respect, the city be the state for which the Author of by making a literal transcript ; and hope, in Nature intended the human species : manthe liberality of the author, to be parduned kind are now found in every state and in for fo doing."-We have ic in our power to every stage of favageness, rufticity, civiliza. aid, from the best authority, that the honoura- tion, and refinement; and the particular ble author, with a liberality peculiar to him- style of ornament we with to recommend is, Ilf, gave his permillion for the republicatioa that which is best adapted to the state of reof this admirable paper.
finement that now prevails in this country ; Having thus introduced his subject, the leaving individuals to vary it as their own writer proceeds to treat of the article Grounds peculiar tattes may direct." under the following heads: General princi-.
Under the head General Application, we ples,-fi!,-ground, water, wood, -natu- find among many others, the following general re! accompaniments, -artificial accompanimenes, rules of practice. general applicatio,-hunting.box,
“ It is unnecessary to repeat, that where. mented cellay (e-ville,-principal residence ;
ever Nature or accident has already adapted concluding his performance with a defcrip. the place to the intended purpose, the aftstion and proposed improvements) of Perte. tance of Art is precluded: but wherever field. (See Vol. VIII. page 15.)
Nature is improveable, Art has an undoubted Under the head General Principles, we right to step in, and make the requisite im. meet with the following observations: provement.' The diamond, in its natural " Arts merely imitative have but one prin. state, is highly improveable by art.
“ In the lower classes of rural improreople to work by, the nature or actual state
ments, Art should be seen as little as may be;
In works of of the thing tu be imitatel.
and in the more negligent scenes of Nature, design and in vention, another principle takes the lead, which is lufte. And in every
every thing ought to appear as if it had been
done by the general laws of Nature, or had work in which mental gratification is net Lie only ohject, a third principle arises, grown out of a series of fortuitous circum
stances. But, in the higher departments, hly, or the concomitant purpose for which
Art cannot be hid ; and the appearance of the production is intended.
design ought not to be excluded. A human ** The art of Gardening is subject to these production cannot be made perfectly natural ; tlaire principles : to nature, as being an imi- and, held out as such, it becomes an impobaise ist ; io utilicy, as being productive of ficion. Our art lies in endeavouring to adapt objects which are weful as well as ornamen
the productions of Nature to human talle and tz!; and to taste, in the choice of fic objects perceptions ; and, if much art be used, do the imitaced, and of fit purposes to be pur- not aliempo tu hide it. Who confiders an iged, as alio in the composizion of the leveral accomplished well-dressed woman as in a objects and ends proposeil, so as to produce face of Nature ? and who, se ing a beautia the degree of gratification and usc best suited
ful ground adorned with wood and lawi, to the place and to the purpose for which is is
with water, bridges, and buildings, believes ahmut to be ornamenteu : thus, a Hunting. it to be a natural production ? Art seldom Bir and a Summer Villa, -an Ornamented fails to please when executed in a masterly Cuttage and a Mansion, require a different
manner : nay, it is frequently the design and Fyle of ornament, a different choice of objects, execution, more than the production itself, a different tafie. Nor can talte be confined that Itrikes us. It is the artifice, not the In uture and utilicy, the place and the pur- defign, which ought to be avoided. It is the puse, alone ; the object of the Police Arts labour, and not the ars, which ought to be is the gratification of the human mind, and concealed, A well-written poem would the state of refinement of the mind itself niust be read with less pleasure, if we knew the be coofidered. Men's notions vary, but only painful exertions it gave rise to in the comin different ages, but individually in the same position; and the rural artist ought, upon age: what would have gratified' mankind a every occasion, to endeavour to avoid labour ; century ago in this country, will not please or, if indispensibly necellary, to conceal it. them now; whilft the Country 'Squire and No trace should be left to lead back the mind the Fine Gentleman of the present day re. to the expensive toil. A mound raised, a quire a different kind of gratification : never- mountain levelled, or a useless temple built, Tpsless, under thele various circumstances,