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A N D
LONDON RE V I E W;
M A Y, 1786.
For the EUROPEAN MAGAZINE,
[ With an ENGRAVING of him. ] W WILLIAM EDEN, Eig, is of the great ability ; and, in addition to the emolu
antiont and respectable family of the ments of his office, had the post of one of Edens, which has long been feated in the the Directors of Greenwich Hospital given northern part of this kingdom. He is the to him : He was also taken under the patro. second brother of Sir John Edlen, and re- nage of the duke of Marlborough, and chosen ceived an excellent education ; whichi, heing member for Woodstock. In March 1776, employed on talents and industry seldom he was advanced to the dignity of a Lord of to be met with, has already placed him ir Trade and Plantations; and in 1778, when sicuations both of honour and profit, and we the too late adopted plan of treating with the hesitate not to predi&t, will elevare him to ftill Colonies was determined upon, he, with lord higher and more dignified employments in Carlisle and governor Jobostone, was nomithe state than he has hitherto filled.
nated to the important office of Commis. After the elementary parts of his education fioner. were finished at Eton, he was placed at He embarked for America with his coadChritt-Church, Oxford, where he took the jutors ; but their million, as our readers will degree of M. A. June 2, 1768, and after, recollect, was not attended with any success. wards became a member of one of the Inps It seems, however, to have been the means of Court. He at first devoted his attention of introducing him to the friendihip of lord to the law, with a design of following the Carlisle, whom, in December 1780, he ac. practice of it, and actually went the northern 'companied to Ireland as Secretary. He concircuit, beiog patronized and recommended tinusd in this station until the change of the by Mr. Wedderburne, in concert with whom mioilliy, in April 1782, when he defended he is fupposed to have planned and effected his patron with a degree of warmth and fpithe Coalition. But having, in the courle of rit, which before had not been discovered to his studies, viewed his profession with rather form part of liis character. Being in England more philosophical eyes than is common with at this juncture, he took a very decided part those who derive the greatest emoluments againit the new adminiftration. The follow. from practice, he was foun discovered to polo ing letter to lord shelburne, at that time sess abilities that might be more profitably handed about, will thew how much be re. cmployed in affairs of Itace than in Westmin- fented the treatment his friend had just then ster-Hall. - In 1971 he published " Prin experienced, ciples of Penal Law, 8vo.; a work confiit. ing of detached observations, but without any
Downing-forect, April 5,1782. regular chain of causes and effects. It, how- " My Lord, ever, discovered a considerable share of ioge- 6 HAVING reconsidered the conference nuity and genius, and recommended its author with which your lordship, yelterday, indul. to the notice of the Minister, who soon af. ged me, I think that I ought specifically to terwards appuinted him under-secretary of Itate my reatons for having often declined plate for the northern department., lo this your intimations to me to enter into opinions employment he conducted himlelf with and facts respecting the present circumstances
of Ireland, and the measures best to be pur. as fully as a weak voice will permit, what I sued there. When I arrived in London, I conceive to be the present circumstances of had come prepared, and disposed, and in Ireland : I shall do this without any mixture structed, to serve most cordially in the criti. of complaint, and with the most anxious recal measure of closing the Lord Lieutenant's gard to facilitate any subsequent system for government, so as to place it with all practi. the publick tranquillity. I thall only with to cable advantages in the hands of whatever let it be implied by the world, from Iruh perfon his Majefty's ministers might have facts, in contradiction to English treatment, destined to succeed to it.
that the present Lord Lieutenant of Ireland I pre supposed, however, that either his (I borrow his own words from his last letter Excellency would be recalled very soon, but to your lordship) “ has had the good fortune not without the attentions which are due to to conduct the business of Ireland, at a molt him, his station, and his services; or that critical period, without discredit to his Mahis Majesty's ministers would alift and in- jesty's goverument, and with many increasing Itruct him in first concluding the business of advantages to the interests of his kingdoms. the session, and the various publick measures “ I have the honour to be, &c. and arrangements, of some difficulty and con
! WM, EDEN." sequence, which are immediately connected with it, and which cannot be completed in In 1779 he published “ Four Letters to less than four or five months.
the Earl of Carline Od certain perverFinding, however, to my extreme fur- qons of political reasoning ; and on the nature, prise, that the manner of giving the lieute. progress, and effect of party-spirit, and of nancy of the Eal Riding to lord Caermar- parties. – On the present circumstances of then had been such as to amount to a mark- the war between Great Britain and the comed and personal insult, when it is considered bined powers of France and Spain. - On the that the thing taken is merely honorary, and Publick Debts, on the Publick Credit, and on that the person from whom it is taken is an the Means of raising Supplies. - On the Reabsent viceroy; and hearing also from your presentations of Ireland respecting a free lordship, that the duke of Portland is not un- Trade." 8vo. In the next year he re. likely to be made the immediate and actual published them with the addition of a fifth, messenger of his own appointment, I from • On Population ; on certain Revenue Laws that moment declined any communication re. and Regulations connected with the Interest specting facts and measures, because this line of Commerce; and on Publick Ok conomy." adopted towards the present Lord Lieutenant All these Letters are written in a very mastermust, in my opinion, be fatal to the ease of ly style, and thew coniummae knowledge his successors for a long period of time, and and information on the subject. ruinous to all good government, and the con- In times like the present, a neutrality in Sequent peace of Ireland,
politicks is impracticable, and the most mo. “ Your lordship has informed me, that this derate, by the versatility of the leaders of party, is not meant as a personal exertion of power have found themselves affociated with thote against lord Carlinle, but that bis Majesty's whom they have most violently opposed. This ministers have adopted this mode of removing was the case of Mr. Eden, who, a few the Lord Leutenant, as a wise measure of go- months afterwards, was whimsically enouglı vernment. I differ fu totally in my judg- connected with persons whose principles ment, that it would be idle in me lo trouble and practices lie had certainly no relpect for. them further respecting Ireland.
The Thort period of Mr. Fox's adminiftra"I fall, as the duty of my situation requires, tion left him in an opposition to Government, wait on such of his Majelty's ministers as are from which be bas just emancipated himielf, disposed to see me, and with that respect by accepting the employment of negociating which is due to them, shall submit what I a commercial treaty with France, which buch have here stated.
parties acknowledge him peculiarly adapted “ My next anxiety is to act as I believe for by bis pursuits and abilities. lord Carlisle would wish me to act, for his Mr. Eden's acceptance of this employ. honour and the publick service; twó objects ment, which was negotiated by the Archwhich cannot at this moment be jeparated. bishop of Canterbury, who married his filter, I am really this evening, or to-morrow morn- made him the subject of many fatrical epiing, at any hour, to attend the commands of grams, and laughable paragraplis in the pub. his Majelty's ministers, either separately or lick prints ; nor did the paniters omit the collectively. To-morrow at ino, I shall go fair opportunity his name afforved them of into the country, to make a visit of personal displaying their talents : but what was ifirespect and private friend hip; and on Mon- nitely of more consequence, many respectable day, in the House of Commons, I Mall state, persons confidered lus conduct, in this in.
Itaoce, as inconsistent with the just claims an first appeared to have been a defertion from old friend, patron, and benefactor had on his the principles of gratitude anu honour, will gratitude, and recent political a:liances were be found perfectly confitent with both. la fupposed to have on his honour : but we ap. a word, we confider this step of Mr Edeo's prehend the time is not far distant when his as part of a concerted plan between tum aud charucter will appear in a different point of his noble frıend, and as a predude to Lord view; and we will hazard an opinion (not North's withdrawing bacit hom an Ophastily adopted, or founded on mere cun. poficion which experience duas taught him jecture), that the behaviour of Lord North, mult be in vain agamat au admunt alion lo whom, and to whom only, Mr. Eden was who lo industrioully and luccefstully puriuc any ways accountable, will 100 2 juttify the the wilcit meatures for the public boutfit. political conduct of his friend, and what ac
THE POLITICAL STATE of the NATION and of EUROPE, for MAY 1786."
No. XXVII. our last we left the East India Gover. one House to the Minister's face, in one
of the mult masterly pointed harangues that form of process, promising a termination by has been delivered, at least 10 as wicacto our and by. This process was a hearing of both attention, inis Sellion, without making the parties, by the prosecutor being enjoined.co leatt impresiion upon his mind, or any visible bring forth his specific articles of charge change in his countenance: it was not even agalott the defendant; and the latter coming honoured with the formality of a sporch forih a volunteer, by permillion of the Houle, from the M.nitter in reply. Well, tiren, to answer to the charges in propria perjona, may our humble plalu lucubrations de pe without the aid of Countel, Attorney, or glected and despised. Sulic for, or other legal atiittant. The are Some ftrenuous efforts were likewise ticles, which are numerous and voluminous, made by some nobie Lords in the other with the answer, are both before the House House to open the eyes of Mimiters to see and the Public; it would, therefore, ill be. the errors of their ways, and the weakness of come us to comment or criticile upon either, the foundation on which they are fuauly aud or buch, it the moment of writirg: we muit, vainly building the ponderous íupestui učiure cherefore, recur to our former observation, of national credit; buc ali to nio purpose. that, in the event, fomebuly must lose hu- How thail we enter upon and coa é cubnour or reputation, either the accuser or ac- ject which has occurred this month, tu tie cused : they could not even divide the guilt aitonishment of all niankind, except tise acbetween them, without scaling both the cha- Lors in the icene! A wilu, vilionary, 100 Țacters with infamy. ln all events, may mantic 1cheme of fortification, which wt ad unct impartial jultice take place to its the honour to reprobate in Februyaud çxtent!
March, which was reprobated by Parlament, We likewise noticed the splitting the which was reprubaled by the whole nation, amendment of the East-India regulating-act men and women of understuding and reinto two parts, predictiog that all three flection--was in this month rc-inti oduced would want amendment in the courie of two with lets ceremony than ül the firit, as a piece or three years. Onc-half of our preuiction of mere routine bulines, and maiter has been fulfilled in the couise of this re- of iodifference to the Nation !- was volving month: an amendment of the first instantly met by the laaie gcutiensan amendment ran through both Houses in one who attacked it to successfully in the first inday! Of this we need say no more Itance, and with equal or more rapid fucceís present.
than before ; in burn which cales lie las acWe hinted at some apparent inconsistencies quired immortal honour. Will duching reach and palpable errors in the report of the Secret the Minister, lo brug conviction nome to his Committee concerning the national revenue niind, that he is erroneous in his conduct, and expenditure, which we offered to point and, confequently, growing daily more obout on demand, on condition of our rennon- noxious to the peopic, whole voice and spint Itrances being attended to. It is well we did ulhered ium into power?-ll these incmene bor give ourselves that trouble; fur true and tos will not ww, we know not what will folid informacion and correction of errors is Itrike conviciion upon buis callous mind! : not what our Minister's want.
We speak The Mimiter pertevercs in poiturg thround pot wantonly, or at random : fume, nay his Excile.ichome, let what will be the mapy, of thule errors and defects of the state. sequence! For the muit pernicious, uncorement of finance and expenditure have been ficutmonal, and oppuellive measures, a minipointed out very clearly by a Member of the Iter of tale never !!!! proierce, The
increase of therevenue is the present minister's ministers do not cis: to publish, the pra. standing dim, to answer all purposes.-- The gress of their money-bills on deals and bat.. revenue, the revenue ! is the only ohjeet he tens through the House has been retarded, and places before his eyes; it absorbs all his fa. the impost considerably altered, enough to culties, and engrosses all his attention. To Thew with what little judgment the business this he seems willing to sacrifice nien's liberty was first entered upon. and property, and even their lives, with every The Americans are going grent lengths thing that is dear and valuable to freemen, to in contraband trade among our West India rational beings, to Englishmen! So madly Idlands ; and it is even said that the Con, bent is he on his revenue-schemes, his ex- gress, by their Ambassador here, is calling cife fchemes, and stamping schemes, that he our Ministry to order upon that subject, wants to make it criminal in the subjects to This we must leave to future inveftigation, petition, to complain, to remonlirate, against when the fact is more firmly establ. med, and the multicudinous, heavy, opprettive burders the concomitant circumstances are more clear• he is daily heaping upon their shoulders, and ly deve'oped. the galling fetters and chains which he is contia The liith Parliament have been prorogued, pually rivetting upon their arms and limbs. after a inolt gracious Speech from the Throne, To comfort them under the pressure, or ra- all pracitic and calm, undisturbed with foreign ther to mock them, he gravely tells them, poliiss or the commercial regulation win their burden will be lighter a hundred years Great Britain. It does not appear from that bence, by the means of luis moon-Mine füheme Speech that there is any connection or mutual of paying the national debt GRADUALLY.- dependence between England and Ireland. Gradually indeed! by flow degrees ; -the This puts a flat negative upon all the arguments benefit to be felt a hundred years hence; of Ministers and their friends, adduced to en. that is, if Frenchmen, and ail their force the famous Propofitions being carried friends and followers, shall continue lo long in!o a law. The fears and tremblings of our peaceable neighbours, and Itaunch friends to courtiers on that score are all completely done Englishmen; and these latter shall have an away, and we hope such arguments will neuninterrupled run of prosperity all that time, ver be taken up again, to terrify or precipi and provived the Minister and his select com- tate our legiNators into any national compact mittee have made no blunders in their calcu. whatsoever. lations of Debtor and Creditor of the publick The face of Europe appears at present very money. Not one of these data, however, calm and serene. "The Durch seem drpored do we subscribe tn. In the mean time, to settle their internal differences among Rockjobbing acquires an additional spring to themselves, without calling in foreign Powers its motion, and gainbling will rise in the to the aid of either of the contending parties : Alley to a greater pitch than ever, under the this is one great step towards preserving the mípices of the Right Hon.the new Superine public tranquillity undisturbed. The little tendants of that illustrious branch of traffick, progress made openly in the Emperor's
To this rapacity of revenue the poor haw. Ichemes is another circumstance which comkers and pedlers bave fallen a totsi sacrifice, tributes to the same falutary purpose. But and are literally finking under their burden! the piecarious state of the health of the King Lively emblem of their brethren burden-bear- of Pruilia seems to be the key-stone of the ers, the tradesmen all over the kingdom. It is present pacific state of Europe : whenever what they are all destined to come to,aecord. that drops out, the political fate of Europe ing to our most excellent Minister's plan, in will probably affume a new aspect
. If to their several turns, one body of men after that should be added the demise or deposition another, by partial pointed taxation.
of the Grand Seignior, the scene would be Owing to fome secret obstruction, which come gloomy and dangerous indeed.
For the EUROPEAN MAGAZINE, DESCRIPTION of the CHATEAU of FERNEY, the Seat of the late M. DE VOLTAIRE
[ Illustrated by an ELEGANT ENGRAVING. ] WHEN Voltaire quiteed a rented house land bounding on the south-west fide of the
whidi he inhabited on the territory of lake. Genevi, because he was prevented by the At Ferney, his place of residence, be Garies from exhibiting a play there io the found a large old French chateau, which he Mathal Duke de Richelieu, he purchased a razed to the ground, and in its stead he vást tract of land in that part of Burgundy erected a very noble feat-like house ; but by properly called the Pais de Gex, which preserving some awkward gateways and terstretches almost to that gate of Geneva which rets, the beauty of the building is much
opens into France
deformed on that front which faces the cres