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or negative) repel each other; and, when clouds, or the fuperabundant quantity in the electrified by the different powers, that is, air, will electrify those black clouds, by which the one plus and the other minus, attract means the particles of vapour will be exeach other : on coming into contact, an equic panded, raised higher, and the air become librium is restored, and neither of them will clear. Clouds may be melted away, even thew any signs of electricity.
when we are looking at them, by another * Prom this it follows: If two clouds are cause, that is, by the heat of the sun. We eletrified by the same power, they will re- know, that transparent bodies are not heated pel each other, and the vapour be suspended by the fun, but opaqué ones are : the clouds in both; but when one is positive and the being opaque bodies, are warmed by the rays other negative, they will attract each other, of the sun shining on them, and any addition and restore an equilibrium. The electric al quantity of heat will rarify the vapour, and power by which the vapour was suspended, occasion its expanding in the air, which will being now destroyed by the mutual action of foon become transparent. When vapour is the clouds on each other, the particles of wa- made to expand more than it would otherter will have an opportunity of running to- wise do, a certain quantity of absolute heat gether into each other, and, as they augment is necessary to keep it in the form of vapour ; in fize, will gain a greater degree of gravity, therefore, when the receiver of an air-pump defcenuing in small rain, or a heavy shower, is exhausting, it appears muddy, and a numaccording to circumstances.
ber of drops are found within it: the moi" A cloud, highly electrified, passing over sture contained in the air, in the form of va. a high building or mountain, may be attracted pour, being made to occupy a greater space by, and be deprived of its electricity, without than what is natural to it, and receiving no or with a violent explosion of thunder. If addition of heat, a part of it is condensed. * the cloud is electrified plus, the fire will “ If, therefore, the air is suddenly rarified, descend from the cloud to the mountain ; a few drops of rain will descend, as may but if it he electrified minus, the fire will often be observed in the summer season.” afcend from the mountain to the cloud. In The Doctor concludes his
paper both cases, the effect is the fame, and ge- a short summary of the whole. nerally, heavy rain immediately, or foon 1. That heat is the great cause by after, follows: this is well known to the which water is converted into vapour, which inhabitants of, and travellers among moun- is condensed by cold. tains.
2. That electricity renders vapour spe“ From this we can easily account, why cifically lighter, and adds to its absolute heat, ---thunder-Showers are often partial, falling repelling its particles ; which particles would
near, or among mountains, and the rain in be condensed by cold: and that electricity such quantities, as to occasion rivers to be is the great agent by which vapour ascends overflowed; whilft, at the distance of a few to the upper regions. miles, the ground continues parched up with
3. That when the electric power by drought, and the roads covered with duft. which vapour is suspended in the atmosphere,
" It often happens, that one clap of thun- is destroyed, a heavy mist, small rain, or der is not sufficient to produce rain from a thunder-showers, will be the consequence. cloud, nor even a second: in Thort, the
Had the advocates for the doctrine of folution, claps must be repeated, till an equilibrium is made heat and electricity the solvents, their restored, and then the rain mutt, of confe- theory would have been less exceptionable." quence, fall. Sometimes we may have vi. olent thunder and lightning without rain, and on the Comparative Merit of the Ancients the black appearance of the heavens may be and Moderns with respect to the Imitative changed to a clear transparent sky, especially Arts, By Mr. Thomas Kershaw. Read in warm weather. To account for this, it
Feb, 19, 1783. must be remembered, as I lately said, that Modesty has ever been the companion of one or more claps of thunder are not always true courage: shat Mr K. is a man of Ipirit, fufficient to produce rain from the clouds: thus to lift his voice among a host of learned fu, if an equilibrium be not restored, little Doctors, must be confeffed. or no rain will fall, and in a short time the
* This short essay, he says, is intended to point electric matter, paffing from the earth to the out the excellencies of the ancients in the imi.
*" On this principle, we can readily account for th: mift, which appears on discharging
air-gun: the condensed air in the samler of the barrel, on being set free, will expand suddenly, occupying a larger space, an i no id litional heat being acquired, the vapours must pecessarily be condensed in the form of mift." EUROP. MAG.
tative arts; yet, at the same time, to allow the " That part of the art termed keeping, moderns their due thare of fame, in having the ancients seem to have been but little ac. not only made some improvements, but in- quainted with, and without a due manageventions, of which the ancients were entirely ment of this, every picture would be filled ignorant.
with confufion. Instead of a proper fubore “ That the ancients bear the palm from dination, each group or figure would seem the moderns in sculpture, will not be conteft. to contend for precedence. This want of ed: their religion sanctified and encouraged Order destroys all dignity, and prevents the that branch of science. Gods, Demigods, artiit from forming an agreeable whole. and heroes, all conspired to bring it into the
“ Any attempts in antique landicape highest repute : and their images were often with which we are acquainted, are executed deposited in buildings of the nwft exquisite wretchedly. In that part of the art, the taite, to commemorate particular occur. superiority of the moderns is manifeft. The rage for highly ornamented
“We have the authority of Frefroy † to edifices, perhaps, never rose to a greater say, that Michael Angelo furpatsed not height than amongst the Romans. These only all the moderns, but the ancients in sons of fortune acquired so much wealth, architecture: he quotes the St. Peter's at and, by plundering distant climes, had so Rome, the Palazzo Farnese, and the St. collected the riches of whole kingdoms into John's at Florence, as proofs of his opione city, that there was no way left to diffi. nion." pate such immense sums, but by engaging in
“ Etching, engraving, mezzotinto, and ibe most expensive works of art. Each am. aquatinta are all of modern invention, and bitious conqueror, desirous to transmit his of great utility. They deliver down to us own actions and those of his ancestors
accurate copies from the works of eminent to pofterity, called in to his aid the sculptor
men at a smalt expence; and diffuse abroad and the architect, whose utmoft skill was the bright Aame of science, so that even those, exerted to blazon their atchievements in the who are far diftant from the centre of the folidity of stone and maible.
arts, may rouse their souls to action, and " This shews, in fume measure, why enlighten that spark of genius, which might sculpture outstripped her fifter art; for the hitherto have lain dormant." specimens of ancient painting are much infe.
Having spoken of these and some other rior to modern productions. They are de. plain truths, the author very prudently ficient in colouring, chiaro - obscuro, and makes his retreat under cover of the Sociekeeping Several of the Classics * tell us, ty's candour. there were but four colours or pigments in “ From the candour of this learned socie. use amongst the ancient artifts, viz. black, ty, the writer of this essay claims protection, white, yellow, and red. Now, it is impor. and hopes, an attempt to investigate truth sible to produce from those colours only, will not be deemed audacity." the variety of tints necessary to equal even a tolerable colourist of the moderns. Although this evinces nothing against the abilities of the
On the Impropriety of allowing a Bounty ancients, we may fairly conclude, that the
to encourage the Exportation of Corn, &c, rich and luxuriant descriptions handed down
By Jofeph Wimpey. Read Feb. 26, 1783. to us, are infiated with hyperbole, sufficient This paper was written in consequence to make us doubt the veracity of some of of one read priorly on Economical Retheir authors. Unfortunately for these warm gisters :- it is not confined to the exportation advocates, the discoveries of Herculaneum of corn, but extends to the oceanly subjecthave spitefully contradicted their assertions, free ports. The writer's arguments, howand furnished us with means to draw our ever, are too long (though by no means own conclunions. It is very possible they loose) for our insertion ; nevertheless, they might admire, and be surprised ar a light of, are such as merit an impartial perufal by what appeared to them the ultimatum of every landed and commercial man in the perfection.”
kingdom.Suffice it for us to say, Mr. “ Chiaro-fcuro, or the art of diftributing Wimpey maintains, that allowing a bounty the lights and thadows in a picture advan- on the exportation of corn, is “ execrable ma• geoully, as well for the repose and satisfac- nagement :”-and that as to throwing open tion of the eye, as for the effect of the whole the ports, “ nothing could sooner reduce this together, seems to be a modern invention.”
country to the deepest poverty and distrets." * Pliny, Cicero. + Fresnoy, a French artist well known for his Latin poem de Arte Graphica.
viz. that the sea was originally created fale On the Natural History of the Cow, so in support of this theory, and in objection to far as it relates to its giving Milk, particu- the others, especially to that which afferts larly for the Use of Man. By C. White, Esq. the origin and supply from the land, it has F. R. S. &c. Read March 12, 1783. been advanced, that a great part of the finny
All that this little efsay attempts to con- inhabitants of the ocean cannot exist in fresh vey is, that the cow" having a larger and more
water, and therefore it is not to be supposed, capacious udder, and longer and thicker teats
that they should ever have been placed in a than the largest animal we know;"-also, ha- fituation unsuited for their fupport. It might ving“ four teats, whill all other animals of the also have been added, that there is as fame nature have but two ;-also, because much difficulty in accounting for the origin the “ yields the milk freely to the hand, of the falt which the rivers are supposed to whilst most animals refuse it, except their wash down, as for its formation in the sea. young, or some adopted animal be allowed to
But might not the grea: Creator, by whole partake ;"_" was, by the omniscient Author Fiat all things were produced, accommoof nature, intended to give milk, particularly date the first inhabitants of the sea to their for the ase of man.”
temporary situation ; and gradually produce
such changes in their constitutions, as to On the Natural History and Origin of make the faltness of the water necessary for Magnesian Earth, particularly as connected their support ? Changes equally great, apwith those of Sea Salt, and of Nitre ; with pear to have taken place in the human habit. Observations on some of the Chemical Pro. The duration of lise, in particular, was properties of that Earth, which have been, hi- tracted, in the earlier ages, to a length contherto, either unknown, or undetermined. venient for the speedy population of the By Thomas Henry, F. R. S. &c.
world; and when that end was accomplished This is a masterly differtation on magne- to a certain degree, Providence assigned li. fian earth, which this excellent Philosopher mits to the existence of mankind, at the ute has pursued to the lowermust depths of che- most of which we seldom arrive, and beyond mistry ;--nay, followed to the lowest abyss which we never pass. of ocean's self!
« Notwithstanding what I have here adThe main subject of this paper, how im- vzniced, I must confess myself inclined to portant foever it may be to the professionalist join in the opinion, that the sea was origiand the philofopter, is, in a manner, unin- nally created falt. But all faline fubstances teresting to readers in general ; nevertheless with which we are acquainted, are subject it must not be passed over in silence. li to gradual decay, decomposition, or volatili. would be difficult perhaps to produce a zation, in long process of time, and when more striking instance of the power and uti- exposed to the action of air, moisture and lity of the imagination, (so well defended in heat. Nature has established an universal a former paper) than is to be found in the system of alternate destruction and recompaper before us. It is by means of this in. position in her works; and is continually tellcétual eye, that men of genius are ena- carrying on processes in her grand laboratoble to trace, perhaps from the smallest ry, which art is unable to imitate. Ani. causes, effects of the utmost magnitude. Thus mals and vegetables perish and decay ; and, our ingenious author, in tracing the origin of when corrupted, contribute to the support or magnesian earth, strikes out a rational theory to accommodation of each other ; and many account for the undecaying faltness of the sea, mineral substances, though more permanent
“ Philosophers, he says, have been much than those which constitute the other kingpuzzled to account for the original salt- doms, are liable to considerable changes, are Bets of the sea. Some have imagined it must frequently decomposed, and forced to enter have been furnished by rivers which, into new combinations. It is not therefore flowing from the land, conveyed with to be supposed, that the same individual salt them such quantities of la't, from accu- has been contained by the ocean from the mulations of that mineral formed within the creation to the present time. We know bowels of the earth, as to communicate, and that the waters are continually evaporating continually supply faltness to the sea ; while into the atmosphere, forming clouds, descendothers have attributed its impregnation to ing again in rain, replenishing the earth, and, rocks of salt, situated at the bottom of the after forming rivers, returning to the sea.
To both these opinions objections Sea falt rises, by a moderate heat, with the have been made; anal the learned bishop vapour of water, and is often carried by of Landaff * bas chosen to adopt another, storms to considerable distances. By thele
* Watson's Chemical Effay, Vol. II.
Y y 2
and other means, it is probable, there must seem to have a similar origin ; and it is not be a continual waste of salt, which nature without good grounds, that they are faid to must have some mode to supply.
he modifications of each other." “ The ocean is replete with animals and plants. The destruction and corruption of
Such are the contents of the first volume these must furnish much matter fitted for of these entertaining Memoirs, which, being the formation of faline substances, much
the joint production of various writers, and earth, much of the principle of inflammabi- each paper having been already spoken to lity, and of air; and if water were not a
separately, will not admit of many general
observations: however, as part of their composition, the sea would
a collection, plentifully supply that elementary ingredient, it has some features pretty strongly mai ked? By the putrefaction of similar fubftances, there is an evident prolixity—a want of mixed with calcareous earth, moistened with closeness-in many of ihe papers ;-quotawater, and exposed to the gradual action of tions and notes of immoderate length too the air, Nitre is formed. May not the same frequently give additional looseness to the substances, under different circumstar.ces, page and languor to ihe argument; whilft covered by the depth of the ocean, and re
an inordinate display of the learned languages parated thereby from immediate communi.
convinces us, that even the Manchester Scication with the air, produce sea-salt? It bas ciety is not altogether weaned from ideat ico. lately been dirovered, by an ingenious che- latry which has, age after age, been the hane mift *, that though Nitre is produced by the
of true philosophy. Neverililles, we are ab ase fubiiances, with the access of air, yet fully authorized by the volume before us to it licy be lo placed that the air may be ex
say, that facts--the only foundation of mocüed, and the situation perhaps 1100 too
dern poilofophy--ale held in due veneration moitt, Sulphur, and not Nitre, is the re
by some of the most respectable Víembers of fult.So that the three mineral acids should this truly refpeciable suciety.
Discourses on Prophecy, read in the Chapel of Lincoln's- Inn, at the Lecture founded hy
the Right Reverend William Warburton, late Lord Birhop of Gloucester. By East Apthorp, D. D. Rector of St. Mary-le Bow. 2 Vols. 8vo. 125. Rivington, Lidon, 1766.
1. History of
HESE Volumes contain a series of lec- neration and careful ftudy," will, to those su
iures which present a forcible and con- le ft who are not as great adepts as the nected argument in favor of the truth and Doctor “ in symbolic language,' we doubt, certainty of revealed religion, drawn from prove, in many instances, “ a flumbling black."
accomplishment of a variety of pre- This work is divided into fuelve lecturas di tions respecting Christianity.
In tre.t- on tle following subjects. ing this joteresting subject, the aucjor bas Prophecy. 2. Crons of Interpretation. 3. proved himself fully adequate to so important Pephecies on the Birth of Christ. 4. Chroan undertaking, and has displayed so much nological Characters of the Mefliah. I he. learning, prosound erudition, and uncom- ological Characiers of the same. 6. The monly extensive reading, in the inveftiga. Chain of Propliecies relating to him. 7,8, tion of it, as to render it vifficult to deter. and 9. Propliecies of the Death of Christ, mne whether he is most conspicuous as in and of his Kingdom.
10. Character of historian, a critic, a philosopher, or a Antichrift. 11. The myitic Tyre; and Chriftian dicine. Put though we are trappy 12. Prophecies of the Origin and Progress of in paying this just tribute to Dr. Apthorp's the Reformation. There leveral subjects the unquestionable merits, we cannot help la- author has treated fully and with great per: menting that he has ventured, we think, ra- fpicuity, and supported and proved where ther ralhly on a dangerous coaft, which has proof was posible) what he has asserted by a proved fatal to the most experienced and vast variety of illustrations and eminent auable mariners, on which even the immortal thorities. Newton binself narrowly escaped shipwreck. " Although prophecy,” he občerves, " 21:45 The Revelation of St. John, however "cun- illumined all ages in a just degree, there are genial the book itself may be to the ancient four eminent periods in which it was improphecies, however worthy the majcity of parted with fignal luftre: namely, in the inspiration, however entitled to profound re- age of Moses :--in that of Daviu :-Juning
* M. Fougeroux. Vide Memoires de l'Academie Royale des Sciences pour l'année 1786. The Sulphur produced under the above circumstances, was found amidit the ruins of an old bvufe which had been built in a very filthy place, contained in a mass of earth, and in part crystallized; and confticuting, in several of the large portions of the earth, a third of the whole mals.
the Bahçlonian and Persian empires;--and christian religion were announced to the pro. in the evangelic azo, or first century of the pher Daniel in the reign of Cyrus, with christian church. The last and greatest of an exact ipecification of the very time the chriltian prophets was the writer of the of Christ's miniitry, and the year of his pas. Revelation, after whole death, it is reason- fiun, with his signal jugment on the Jewish able to think that this excellent gift entirely nation after 40 years, " when be sent forth his ceaied : the few notices we have of it after- armies, destroyed bose murderers, and burned warus, beingliule more than the lively impres.
He has likewile thewn, that the fion which so great a miracle made on the several characters of redemption these dismincs of men, till
he memory, or report of it, tinctly revealed are inapplicable to any civil or gradually died away, like the faint murmurs secular events, and a proper demonstration of the diftant thunder, or the heaving of the that the religion of Christ being divinely preocean when the storm fubfides,"
dicted was divinely revealed. Hiving in the first lecture stated the ge- In the fixth ePure the whole chain of neral idea of inspiration, and given a short prophecies respectig the promited Saviour is bitcry of prophecy; he, in the following clearly stated, with sufficient examples to words, recapitulates the subject of this dis. prove the certain conclusion drawn from that course.
admirable conibination of separate proofs, " Predictions of the highet import (r3u- resulting from predictions of the whole histoscend the Jide of the most anunt writings, ry of the Melliah, and of the most refined dicand are coeval with the wor! itself: others trines of bis religion. “ The coincidence are cotemporary with the pirarchis and with of the historic with the theologic characters,'' the law : many, most duerminate and cir. our author observes, “ doubles the effect of a cumstantial, occur in the rolms: another, demonftration which is perfect in each. and the largest class, ale from Dccc to The hiftoric events, unconnected with the Pc years prior to Chriftianity ; which is itself religious truths, alone ascertain the infpira. prophetic of its own hiftors to the end of tim. that foretold then. But the internal time. These prophecies, taxen collectively, conftitution of the new religion thus inseparespect not only future fa&ts, but future ideas rably blended with its history, times, and and ducirines : they describe the events and fortunes, gists fuch an accumulared evidence, opinions of diftant ages : and they all cermin as to overcomie the most pertinacious sceptipate in the founder of a religion of universal cism, so long as it retains an ingenuous sense extent and eternal fanctions. If the descrip- and love of ti uth." t10!s, notes, and characters of a predicted In the leventh discourse, after giving an ad prophetic Saviour are fulfilled in the au- analysis of the book of llaiah from the 40ih THOR AND FINISHER, OF OUR PAITI: We to the 66:1 chapter, and a particular illustra. will exclaim with reasonable confidence and tion of the three laft verses of the 520 and honest rapture, We have found him, (of cuเวช twelve first of the 530 chapter, the author Mofos in ebe Law, and obe Propbers did curile, proceeds to demonftrate the truth of chriftia Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Jofeph : and anity from this prophecy, and the expiation thus finding him, we will ever pay hin our of finly the death and facrifice of Christ. graceful homage and doration), THOU
In the ciglih and ninth lecture, the agree. THE SON OF Go1), THOU ART THE KING ment of prophery and history is Meu'n in a OF ISRAEL."
general view of the adverse and prosperous In the second lecture Dr. Apthorp pro- fortune of the chritian church, persecuted ceeds to establish the most useful carons of both by the pigan and antichriftian powers, interpretation ; especially that which addresles yét victoribus, progrellive, univerfal. In Kielf to the sincere and unritiated co:nmon Jinje the tenth, the author of our faiths is corof a wise and virtuous man, reiulting from trastest with that hostile power which hath the natural and obvious coincidence of predic- so long exerted its mslevolence in opporLions with events; exemplified in the diar- tion to the philanthropy of Chiilt, all the mung between the religious prophecies and milchief ended in the nfurpeu domicion of the life of Jesus Christ: to these h: lits annexed antichoft. The temporal splendour of tie licerary observations on the myftic and dou- church, and the decline of learning. our au. ble sense, on prophetic actions, and the fym. tor confiders as the primary cau'es of the bolic language.
corruption of christianity. He next In the third lecture the virgin-birth and ces the origin and progress of the papal sublime attributes of our Redeemer are supremacy, brings instances of its excellis, illustrated, cathew the greatness and fanctity and goes con to describe the marking chaof his person and character, both human and racters of antichritt, viz. insolence of pou'divine.
er, idolatry, persecution, papal supremacy, In the fourth and fifth, the Doctor thews mercenary superstition, the doctrine of meris, bat the divine author and doctrine of the and military and ecclefiaftical fraternities, in