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convey to the mind feelings equally disgusting."
We could dwell with pleasure on every Stage of this delightful art ; buil, having al.
ready exceeded our intended bounds, we m refer the amateur to the work itself further information on this engaging fu ject.
Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester.
Boards. 178;. Cadell.
Vol. I. & II. 3:
HE origin of this Society and the na. That it be recommended to each memb T
ture of ils Memoits are set forth in a to enter the Society's room with silence as prefatory addres. Many year's fince, without ceremony. a few gentlemen, inhabitants of the town, That a library be formed for the use who were inspired with a taste for literature the Society. and philosophy, toimed themselves into a That a gold medal be given to the autho kind of weskly club, for the purpose of con- of the best Experimental Paper on any tuh verfing on subjects of that nature. These ject relative to Arts and Manufactures ; an meetings were continued, with some inter.
to encourage the exertions of young men wh ruption, for several years; and many respec- attend the meetings of the Society as visieurs table persons being desirous of becoming that a silver medal be annually given to an members, the numbers were increased to one of them, under the age of twenty-one far, as to induce the founders of the Society who shall, within the year, have furnished to think of extending their original design. the Society with the best paper on any fubjeci Presidents and other officers were elected, of literature or philofophy: and a code of laws formed, and a regular Society That the Society Mall publish a volume of conftituted, and denominated, The Literary Miscellaneous Papers every two years.and Pbilo npbical Society of Manchejice.” This we beg leave to object to : it is the refo
The following are some of its laws and re. lution of a fraternity of publishers, rather gulations :
ihan of a fociety of literati ar:d philosophers. That the number of members invested The harvett of literaturc is uncertain, and with the privilege of voting, elecling mem- the volume, we presume, must be of or near bers, &c. be limited to fity.
unto fome certain size. If a paucity of papers That honorary menibers, residing at a dis- occur, the chatt mult be thrown in to (well tance from Mancheliei, be eligible, &c. out the bag. If an abundance should in
That every election be conducted by bal- any two years be the case, valuable papers lut, &c.
must be shut out for want of room. We That iwo prefi 'ents, four vice-presidents, bumbly conceive, that this and every other two secretaries, a ucalurer, and librariari, be Philo:ophical Society should publish their elected annually, &c.
Transactions whenever they have collected a That a committee of papers he appointed volume of some certain fize, without any reat the same time, confitting of the above and gard whatever to stated times of publication ; Tix ou dinary nienilers, who are to decide hy and generally the smaller the volume, and conballot concerningilie miertion in the reg Iter, fequently the more frequent the publication, or the publica'ii'n, of any paper which thail t'le betier: fur in this philosophic age no time have been reidd helore the Suid-ty, &c. Thould be lost in communicating discoveries to
That vifiors be inli uduced with permission the world: every spark either adds to the light, of the chairman.
or kindles a freth fame; and who can forelee That the subjects of conversation compre- the period of existence of the present blaze of hend Natural Philosophy, Theoretical and human invention and discovery? Like a fire Experimental Chemistry, Polite Literature, that has been long (mothered under a weight Civil Law, General Politics, Commerce, and of rubbi, h, it now burits forth with a degree the Arts; but that Religion, the Practical of fervor perhaps before unknown : but Branches of Physic, and Britim Politics, be bright as it now appears, it must, as all nature, deemed prohibited.
have an end; and no time mould be loft, That the Society meet every Wednesday nor opportunities neglected, to increase, evening, except during the months of June, whilft we can, the extent of human knowJuly, Auguft, and September; and that each ledge. meeting commence at half past six, and be concluded at half past eight o'clock.
This respectable Society at present consists That each member ihall pay one guinea of annually, to defray the rent of the room,
Massey, . other incidental expences; and also to esta. blish a fund for the benefit of the Society.
Thumnas Percivali. D. &c. Prefidentes
The Rev. Thosi. BarnesR. T: } Secretaries. haps by its tonic influence, increzfes elite
The Rev. Sam. Hill, A. M.
it would be presumption to affert, that thefe Chas. White, Esq. F. R.S. &c. Vice-Presi- enabled to relift the effects of external heat.
are the only means by which the body is George Lloyd, Esq.
dents, Mr. George Bew,
There may be others; and it is not unreaion.
able to suppure, that as external cold, per, F. S.S Mr. Ifaac Moffe,
Treasurer. power of the body to generate heat, so exMr. Thomas Robinson, Librarian,
ternal heat may diminish that power, and with about thirty ordinary members, and up
thus leffen the quantity of heat generated withwards of forty bonorary members, among in, while the evaporation, produced by the whom the names of Dr. B. Franklin, Dr. same cause, guards it against receiving any
acceflion from without." Priestley, and other great men are enrolled forming together the brightest constellation of
On the Advantages of Literature and Thi. Philosophers which, perhaps, ever appeared in a provincial society. The select papers of lofophy in general, and especially on the
Consistency of Literary and Philosophical with luch a Society cannot fail of being highly in.
Commercial Pursuits. By Thomas Henry, teresting to the philosophical world at large,
F. R. S. Read O&t. 3, 1781. and an analysis of them muft, we flatter
This is a well-written paper ; but we difcurselves, prove acceptable to our readers
fer efsentially from its ingenious author with Some Remarks on the Opinion that the respect to the general application of literature Animal Boly poffelses the Power of generat- and philofopby to commerce and manufacto. ing Cold. By George Bell, M. D. Read ry.-Geography and the living languages May 16, 1781.
may be as useful to the merchant, as some This paper contains some valuable obser. knowledge of mechanics, hydraulics, che. rations on the well-known experiment of mistry, and the polite arts, so far as they Drs. Fordyce and Blaguen in a beated room ; serve to establish a justness of taste, may be Ebere, finding that the heat of their own to the manufacturer : but we are firm acd bodies did not increase in proportion to the clear in our opinion, that business, in what. heat of the air in the room, they concluded ever Mape, and fi udy are utterly incompatible, that arimal bodies have a power of generating saving such studies as are immediately conmold. This our author confiders as an erro- aected with the business of the student ; and Acous conclufion; and accounts for the effect to the young tradesman we would rather rea in the following manner :-" The first commend Postlethwaite than the Claflics, caule," he says, “ which prevented their and the conversation of men of business tha22 bodies from receiving a greater degree of that of men of erudition. There may be beat was, the rarefattion of obe air with some few “ tradesmen of fortune" in the wvbicb bey were furrounded. Second, The neighbourhood of Manchetter, who may seem meperation made from the surface of the to be an exception from this general pofi:ion ; bás.-And laltly, The fuccellive aflux of but we conceive it to be a miitiken and misbind to be surface of a temperature inferior chievous employment to low the feeds of re* bas of be surrounding air; by which means finement, the parent of inactivity and extrathe small quantity of heat which penetrated vagance, in a manufacturing countıy. We the ikin would be immediately carried off and agree with this very sensible writer, that the Brassferred throughout the body; and it gentleman and the profelli»n lit reap many would have required the space of many advantages from Itudy; and that “the purtours before the whole mass could have re- suit of knowledge, when properly appliel, ceived any con5derable increase of heat."- and under due influence, is of the greaielt Aber supporting his theory by a variety of importance to mankind.” By civilization, scher reasonings, our author thus concludes even “the horrors of war itielt ere lortened ; bis ingenious paper :
an enemy is treated with hum nity and kinde * These may be said to be the means nels; the miljer virtues fiud du i tance through which the human body is preserved among the clath of arms; and then, when i seriy the same temperature, when it hap- compelled to hoftilities, ieck victory not to pens to be placed for a time in an atmosphere enllave or destroy', but in the inom: nt of triof a superior degree of heat. They seem to me umph seek opportunities to evince their cle. to adequate to this effect, tbac i would even mency and genervsaty to the vanquished foc." yazare co impure the increase of the tempera. Nevertheless we are of opinion with our care of the body, from 96 to 100 degrees, author's adversaries, that “i the commerci.. which happened in the experiments, ratier to man should contine bis kuowledge to trade ; the acceleration of the blood, than to the in- and that his compting house lliould be his fur of heat from the external air. While study.” We alio agree with them, in that the De cause of animal heat remains unknown, knowledge of the inatufacturer should be fuch Ec 302, Mac.
as will lead him to judge of the quality of raw 2div, a salt formed by the union of the same materials, and whether bis wares be pro- acid with magnesian earth; and lastly, a periy fabricated and finished, rather than in small quantity of selenite. The quantity of ieating history, folving problems in Euclid, salive matter contained in a pint of sea water, or poring over the pages of polite literature; in the British seas, is, according to Neumann, left « his refined ideas thould teach him that about one ounce in each pint. When this suspicion is niean;" and left his “credulity water is fowly evaporated, the common sale should plunge him into ruin.”
first cryitallizes, and the marine magnesian falc is left in, what is called, the billein,
from which, by a subsequent procels, the On Crystallization. By Alexander Eason,
purging bitter salt, commonly named Epłom M. D. Read Nov. 14, 1581.
falt, is obtained. By this separation, the sea This paper contains some loose thoughts on
or bay salt is rendered much better adapied the interesting subject of cryftallization. The
for the preservation of animal subítances, writer thinks it “ highly probable that the
than the ialt of the rocks and springs in Cnecrystallization of falts, the freezing of wa
Mire and Worcesterthire, where, from what ter, and the formation of precious Itones,
I apprehend to be a mistaken notion, that bifaltes, &c. are all the effects of the saine caufe ; and if, he adds, we conjecture the liquor is fo haitily evaporated, that the cryi
this bitterní does not exist in the brine, the selling of inetals is a species of crystallization,
tals of common falt retain much of the magwe shall not he wide of the truth. This
nesian falt among them. For the magnesian much is certain, that all the semi-metals,
falt is highly reptic, and greatly impairs the when brokan, discover a laminated texture,
properties of the other. and in each particular metail, the luniina are
“ The tuo methods uhich occurred to me, always of a given or constant form."
as likciy to a: (wer the wishes of my friend,
were, it, the addition of queklime, and o the Prefervation of Sea-ivater from
2dly, that of common falt. To the trial of Purefact on by means of Quicklime. By the foimer I was induced by ies krown antiIhmas Henry, F. R.S. *
sepiric etfects on common water; and it is Here we see this fenfible and instructive ascertained, that a small portion of common writer in his proper element, chemitry, "A. falt promotes, u hereas a larger retards, pu. bout the time," be lays, “I published my trefaction. method of preferving water, at sea, from " Experiment. To one quart of sea water putrefaction, &c. † a gentleman, who had were added two scruples of fresh quicklune; oransd a quantity of lea witer, for the to another, half an ounce pf common culinary pusoe of bathing a child, complained to falt ; and a third was kept as a ftand:rd, me that it is on became putridi, and requested without any addition. The mouths of the ta I would think of fime expedient to bottles being lootely covered with paper, prele, ve it.
they were exposed to the action of the fun, "The principal faults con'ained in sea u ater
in lume the hottest weather of the last are, alt, commun nime or culinary fali, summer. compounded of tourii alkali and maiine acid;
* To this paper is annexed an acccuni of a newly invented machine for impregnating witer or viber Aund with tixed air, &c. communicated to Mr. Henry, by J. Haygarth, M. 3. F R. S. Read Nor. 21, 1781.
+ An account of a method of purecorving water, at sea, from putref:&tion, and of restoring to the water its original purity and pleasantners, by a cheap anu easy process, &c. London, 1931.
I in Sir 'Toutern Bergnyan’s analysis of sea water taken un, in the beginning of June 1976, about the intrude of the Caries, from the depth of fixty fathoms, the folid Contents 16 p... of the u ater were
Dr. Scr. Grs.
Aiame of the work: at lort'wich, the evaporation is carried on in so gentle a man*** cuhild Liitals ie tuin.ed; and the fait thus prepared is tad to be equai in Lót d'y fa's.
* In about a week, the standard became on which Manufactures principally depend. very entiensive; and the water, with the ad- By the same. Read Jan. 9, 1532. dibunal quantity of Calt, did not continue The foregoing paper.evinced in a sufficient sweet many beurs longer ; whereas that degree, the Icarning and ingenuity of its 11with lime cruinued many months, with. thor : this does more, Thewing us at the our ever exhibiting the least marks of putrifame time his good sense and judgmentdity." - To this iucceed twelve other experi- qualifications, we conceive, of infinitely ments i
after which the antisormukes, greater volue. After having set forth in a anong others, the following oblervations. fatisfactory maoner the wility of general
# He also see, that there are limits to the knowledge in the acquisition of particular a 'viton of quicklime, beyond which we arls and sciences, he lys, “ I have ventured cal proceed without forming lime wa- to chalk out the outlines of a plan--the
dice quantity of two scruples to a fole object and principle of which is, the qurt't lea water, though not suicient to improvement of our manufaciures, by the deere the whole of the magnesian fall, improvenient of those arts on which they
au mulequate to the preservat on of the depend,-—Those arts are Chemistry and NieWaite. (..e drachm niore quic' lime separa- chanics. The fuít object of this icheme is, leu toe wwe ot the magnetia, and, when a to provide a public repofitory among us, for furtit addition was 'n ide, a lime water was chemical and mechanic knowledge. lo immcdiately formeu.
this repository are to be collected models of machines, &C.--Igre 'ient, for dyeing, &c.
with a superintendant to give lectures, advice Da the Nature and effential Character of and attintance. An end of this mechanic Pretry, as ditinguished from Prose. By Ichool is to finish the education of a young Tunas Barnes, D. D. Red December 5, tradesman or manufacturer. 181.
“ But the principal advantage I Mould iter mich laborious writing--an unne. propofe from this scheme," is this: Here tary stundance of fancy printing-vith would be a kind of general oracle, whicii m wlog arguments and learned quotations- thore might consult, who were engaged in usluctur very honettly leaves the lubject mechanical improvements, and who miglie Winte be fouud it.
here, at once, gain that information, which it might cost them months and years to ub
tain ly their bun unaflifted etrurts.” On the Affinity subiitting between the We mention this scheme the rather, as At, with a Plan for promoting and extend. out of it grew the prelent College of Man. i Manulatures, by encouraging those Arts obefier. (To be Continued.)
A Posophical, Historical, and Moral Exluy on Old Mus, by a Friend of the Sisterhood.
In 3 vols 8vo. London, T. Cavell, 1785.
[Consinued from Page 444 of Vol. VIII.] A
GRLEARLY to our promise, we glad- of curious characters in the fifterhood of old
ly embrace the opportuoity of rendering maids, and whenever I g.un intelligence of jut.ce to the venerabie Sifter bood, by offer a new curbli'y belonging to this clars, I for. ES 100r readers the more piealing consider. fake all othri occupations, to ludy it with 2+of those amiable qualities, which, like the patient attention of a true virtuolo. La fimble, are peculiarly their own.
“ Asioon as I am priipeily introduced to the To involve either the whole sex indiferi. frem ancient maiden, I sitplitvio pliically doesna minately, or any class of females in one blind, and envieas our to discover through that inaa 31J**gu thed censure, would he equally cruftatica of little singularities vlod a long tilaal aad absurd: as well might a man life ci celibacy has provuced, hier genuine chaprawunce a pine-apple a very bad fruit, be- racter, the real difpofition of her heart, aud cuile he accidentally tasted only a piece of the exact alirude of her head. terhand, which had left a blister on lois lips. “ Having made an accursie drawing of this
* While other antiquarians,” says our piece of antiquity in its preient ttate, ( (onfi.
ht,“ have laborioudly employed and ex- der what the must have been in her youth ; Eweltheir powers in searching for old ruins and, having settled my conjectures on the o Gochic architecture, or fome Druidlical re- point, I proceed to reflections on the kind of theit, I have traverled the kingdom in queft wise she might probably have made, aud
" These proportions may vary according to the strength of the quicklime employed."
teach myself whether I ought to contemplace who retain their health and faculties, rarely her present state with fatis action or concern. cease to practise any ingenious art, or to dif
“ Every man has his taste. Whether my play any amusing accomplishment, which speculations may be fnperior or not to those of had ever gained them applause. more fashicnable antiquaries, is a point I shall Indeed that perfect leisure, and that exleave to the world 10 confider; I will only emption from the burthen of household fay, that if the Society of Antiquarians shouid cares, which the old maid enjoys, is highly think this Itudy of mine may entitle me to calculated to aflift her progress in works of be admitted of their community, I could ingenuity ; and such works, by detaching enrich their Archäologia with sketches of ma- the mind from idle, impertinent, and centuriny a fair neglected ruin, which have hither- ous ideas, contributes much to support the to escaped their researches.
natural benevolence of the heart, and to “ With some of these sketches I have in- confer a degree of happiness on many a wordeed attempted to adorn my own little vo- thy spintter of gentle manners and of easy Jumes; but others I shall Mill retain in my fortunes. private Cabinet, ull I have happily awaken. The truth of this remark is exemplified by ed in our country a more lively and affec. the history of the elderly daughter,of a Doctor tionate relish for the fingular branch of virtu, Coral. The Doctor was educated in the study which I am now introducing for the first of physic, but having a greater paliion for the time to the notice, and I hope the cultiva- curious than the useful, degenerated from a tion of the public.
physician to a virtuoso. He was, however, “ In the many years of profound specula- enabled to live without the aid of his profes. ţien which I descted to the study of old (10u by means of bis wife's fortune, who, maids, before I began this el. borate, and I being of a de icate constitution, and dying in ciut this onmortai essay, I observed that the child-bed, lest bim an only daughter, of better part of the fifterhood are distingu.thed whom he was as fond as a virtuoso can be of by three amiable characteristics -- Ingenuity, any living and ordinary production of nature. Patience, and Cb.ri:y."
As she grew up, the displayed a talent for To each of these our author has given a drawing, and by surprising her father by anfeparate chapter : cur lints will however accurate delineation of three of the most preonly permit us to touch each lubject lightly, cious articles in his cabinet, so warmed the which he has with great skillexpatialed on at old naturalist's heart, that he declared, he large.
would give her socol. onthe day of marriage. Though ingenuity may be considered as a Theodora, who had now reached the age of characteristic of the fai: tex in general, yet nineteen, was of lo affectionate a dispofition, there are many circuinstances which tend to that the not only loved her father must weaken and diminish this quality in the mar. tenderly, but looked upon his whimfical r.ed woman, and many others which have hobby-horse with a partial veneration. This an equal tendency to strengthen and increase circumstance contributed much to their mu. it in ine'o'd maid. The married dame, the tual happiness, and rendered the young author not unaptly though somewhat severely lady less eager to escape from the cuttedy of compares to the high-fed indolent prelate, a fanciful old father. Theodora, hou ever, who having gained the olject of his pursuit, admitted the vifits of a Mr. Blandforu, a and clated with the ceremonwus dignity of his young man of acute inderitanding and polithstation, is liable to neglect the cultivation of ed manners, who liad the address to ingratishote spiritual talents which ought in adorn it; ate himself with the Doctor, wlio very while the ancient virgin is opposed to re- candidly told the young man what he intend. semble the unbeneficed ecclefialtic, who, con- ev for vis daughter, «ieciaring at the same time, ício is of his humiliating condition, endea- that he left her entirely at her own disposal.
to iurmoune its ditadvantages, by Theodora, though prejudiced in favour of her te acquisition and display of thote accom- admirer, had bitherto given no other answer phiun.ents, which, if they do not raise him to bis addresses, but that the thought herself w a tugher rank, forure him undignified as too young to marry. While matters were tie is bith attention and efteem.
in the situation, Dr. Coral was summoned to Married iadies, it is a general complaini, a difta:e by a letter from a friend, informing are apt to neglect tho.e 3* TOU's pursuits him of the death of a brother virtuoso, with a subich dinguished their youth; the harpria bint that he might enrich himieif by the por. chord and the pencil, thoie ginichil is well chase of a very choice collection of the most aspicating amnements, are generasy configned valuable rarities, which, if he was quick to oblivion (ous atter marriage, owns to the enong: in liis .pplication, he might potiidly his vel or withpata evhich foceeed the fe. obt hy tale contract. This was too great ft:ity of Hymen Omais, on the contrary, len plat.on to refift; without waiting the