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opposition to the characters of the Reforma. the emblem of war, and kis left fent elle cion, whose genuine effects are virtue, liber. eurib, the symbol of peact; intimating that ty, and peace.

In the eleventh lecture the Reformation should experience the viciffithese characters, which are mystically descri- tudes of both, but chefly of the former, bed by the Jewith prophets under the em- He cried with a loud voice, as when a lz blems of idolatrous and tyrannic kingdoms, roaretb : the gospel was openly, refoluely, particularly that of the commercial state of and efficaciously preached and published. ancient Tyre, are shewn to coincide with the And wben be cried fever ebunders uttered secularity and mercenary spirit of the antichrif- sheir voices. As Heaven signifies the station of tian church, and with the enormous ambition the Supreme visible Power, which is the poof its visible head. The prophecy of Ezekiel litical Heaven, fo thunder is the voice and prois explained and applied by the author to the clamation of that authority and power, and one city of Rome, which he foretels (how truly its will and laws, implying the obelience of we will not presume to determine) “ will be the subjects, and at last overcoming all ope absorbed into a lake of fire, and sink into the position.* Thunders are the symbols of fea."

the supreme powers who established the ReThe twelfth and last lecture points out the formation in their respective dominions. Se remedies of the corruptions of idolatry, crea- ven is a number of perfection, and accoriture worship, and other fuperftitions which ing to the great Interpreter + whom I fo. prevail in the church of Rome, as well as low, it denotes the seven states of Europe those which the reformed church labours un. who established the Reformation by law:der, viz. unbelief, heresy, and relaxed mo. 1. The Germanic Body, in which, by the rals, together with the means of advancing treaty of Smalcald, the Protestant princes the promised purity and felicity of the chrif. formed a distinct republic.—2. The Swris cian church. In this discourse the author has Cantons, 1531.–3. Sweden, 1533.- 4. Deco attempted to explain the prophecy in the maik and Norway.-5. England and Iretenth chapter of the Revelation of St. John : land, 1547 --6. Scotland, 1559.—7. The bow far he has succeeded, our readers Thall Netherlands, 1577. These governments rejudge for themselves.

-ceived and established the Reformation wit. “ The system of the seven trumpets," says in sixty years after Luther's first preaching the Doctor, “ under which we now live, against indulgencies. All other countne includes the military revolutions of paganism, where the Reformation made fome progrets, and the ecelenaftical fortunes of antichrift in but without being established by juthority, the east and weft. The chief events are the are described by other symbols. But the irruptions of the Barbarians, and the fall of foregoing seven uttered raç ixular withs the western errpire ; the incursions of the their own authoritative voices, to settle true Saracens ; the deiti uction of the Greek em- religion by law, each in their own dompire ; and the reformation of the church in nions. the fixteenth century.

And wben the seven tbunders bad uttered “ The REFORMATION accomplished by their voices, I was about to write.. The po, Luther is figured hy a mighey angel descending ture and action of the prophet is fymbolical of from Heaven, or divinely commillioned: the raised expectation of good meu, tili closbed with a cloud, the symbol of the divine when the Reformation was ettablished in the protection : with a rainbow on bis beadprincipal kingdoms and states of Europe, tins making offers of reconciliation to the cor- fall of antichrist would foon follow, and introsrupted church: bis force was as it were the sun, duce the glorious union of truth and peace cu diffusing the light of the gospel : and his feet earth. But a voice from beater commands him *s pillars of fire, intimating that his followers to seal up those things which tbe fevra obardas Should sufier persecution, yet be preserved bave ullered, and write tbem not; to intimate, from the rage of their enemies. He is Ityled that the first reformers would be mistaken in a miz hey angel, nou so much on account of their zeal, and disappoir.ced in their expecta. He und untei spirit of Luther, as of the great tion; that the new reform would not fond be resolution effecied by his means. He was in followed by the fall of popery, and the con h's hand a little open book, the original gospel : version of unbelief; but that, by the divine opin, as containing novew Revelation : little, permiflion, the free course and progress. as applying only such parts and doctrines of the reformed religion should be checked by the scripures, as refuted the prevailing fu- the power of temporal princes not in the perftitions. He fet his righe foot upon the fia, number of the seven thunders. Such was

* Lancaster Sym. Dict. p. 123. † Mi. Daubuz, p. 469.


Charles V. young, aspiring, selfifh, and aim- coeval with the eastern and western antiing by the influence of the papal system to chrift; are wilnefles to the declining state of make himself absolute in Germany. Such antichristianism; and are so connected witte was his son, Philip II. a tyrannical bigot, who the protestant reformation, as to be deeply made it his principal object to establish popery interested both in its present imperfections, and the inquisition throughout his valt Jomi- and in its gradual advancement, which is to nions. In Poland and the hereditary countries occupy the long period till the mystery of God of the House of Austria, the supreme powers Jhall be finijhed in the perfection of his church. by persecution and ill policy prevented the Although the counsel of God will not be deestablishment of the Reformation. France feated, either by the indolence or malignity was the theatre of the most violent opposition of man; yet it is evident from reason, as to it, during the inglorious reigns of Henry 11. well as the terms of this prophecy, that this Francis II. and Charles IX. and Louis XIV. half improving state is to be effected by the instru. unpeopled his kingdom by his great armies, mentality of men, in a course of measures and by the expulfion of his best subjects the and events not generally supernatural, though Protestants :-So that, according to this pro- never excluding the divine direction and su. phecy, the happy state of the church was not perintendence. That therefore it is not only then to be effected by the civil power, but by the high privilege, but the indispensible duty fome other means in some future time. of all who enjoy the bleilings of the reformed

" The angel in the vision, lifting up bisrig be religion, to promote its progress and advanceband, swears by him thai livetb for ever ment in these and succeeding times." and ever, wbo created beaven, and ibe earth, and in the remaining part of this discourse, ibe jea, (by the very formulary protesting the Doctor, after Thewing that the true fee against the demon-worship of the apostate licity of the church of Christ consists in hoc church) that the time for the pure and happy liness and peace, instead of those chimerical ftate of the reformed church should not be ideas of complete felicity which originally as yet, oto X Foros oux isa. Etı. But that in

arose from a too literal interpretation of the the days of ebe voice of the seventh angel, wben prophecies, mentions the following circumbe shall begin to sound *, the myttery of God stances as favourable to the advancement of should be finished t, Mould be brought to its christianity : víz, the decline of popery, and PERFECTION. The mystery of Gou is bis 'the improvement of civilization. The power counsel or secret design, of which Christ of the popes, he says, is everyday diminishing: is the counsellor and executor ; a counsel from being heads of the christian world, they which begins in the present conversion are become suppliants to princ:s of their own and happiness of man on earth, will ter- communion.”

He confiders the present minate in diffusing that felicity over all the peaceable (tate of the world in many respects world, and compleat is in a state of immor. auspicious to the great ends and objects of tality.

christianity ; the civilization and conversion • It is evident, continues our author, of rude and barbarous nations ; the bringing from the scope and series of the Apocalyptic back che relaxed and corrupt manners and visions, that the seven trumpets include all principles of the protestant reformation to the that period of history denoted by the seventh purity and fimplicity of the gospel, and in seal I, which commencing with Conftantine's consequence of both, diminishing the influence establiminent of christianity, extends to the of popery, and augmenting the general hapo great fabbatism, when she kingdoms of this piness of mankind; and then proceeds to world thall become ohe kingdoms of our Lord point out the most likely means to produce and of bis Cbrifft. As the events of the first to desirable an end. Among these agriculo five trumpets are all past, and the events of ture holds a distinguished pre-eminence. the seventh trumpet are all future; the “ Agriculture," says Dr. Apthorp, “ is reformed church, commencing with the second perhaps the only art which government must epuch || of the sixth trumpet, is cu.exten- patronize, if they would have their people ded to its whole duration. This ara conti- emerge from barbarism. In the rude but nues from Luther to the church's lalt conflict fertile regions of the uncultivated earth, fowith antichrift, the prelude to her perfect cieties for promoting agriculture, with reftate on earth. We of the present age, ac

wards and immunities to the most skilful and Tually living under the sixth trumpet, are

successtud labourers, would much forward Or rather, “ when he Mall have founded, " ótav pirrin calisir. + Teeoon. Lectio Velesiana, TENEO Anoetas, consummabitur. Vulgatean

C, viii. v. 1.-6. + C. xi. v. 15. ll The first epoch of the sixth (rumpet is the Turkish empire, 1453.


the national industry, civilization, plenty and in the world: I do not mean the popish vopulowness. Mankind are by nature in christianity, which is either a profligate bydolent and voluptuous, and would be funk pucrisy, or a gloomy superstition, would in laziness and sensuality, did not the diffi. exterminate the passions hy a liow and dreadculty of subsistence call forth their virtues ful suicide. 'I exclude from my ideas of the and their exertions. The natural mean of gospel, that antinomian fanaticism which makes civilization is industry, united with instruc- religion to consist in inexplicable theories; jon, which is the industry of the mind. much less has tlie libertiniím of the vulgar Thus agriculture and the gospel are the protestants, and the customs of the present age, two great instruments of Divine Providence any pretentions to the name and honours to check the voluptuousness, and exercise true christianity. By this august name, ! the virtues of man."

mean that religion which is described 2nd We shall conclude our remarks on these exemplified in the New Testament; a reiexcellent discourses, in which the author has gion of personal, domestic, and public vir laboured to successfully to establish the truth cue; in which the parlions are not extirpated of the christian religion on the solid grounds of but governed ; in which God is adored thro' reason, deduced from the most forcible pro- Jesus Christ, with love, admiration, fer, phetic evidence, with his beautifully express and gratitude; by which society is continually five character of the christian religion. improved and meliorated; while the indivi.

“ When I consider christianity,' says dual is daily renewed and prepared, both by he, “ as an inftirute of happiness, I do the blessings and adversities of the presen! not mean chriftianity as it is now practised life, for the endless felicity of the future."


Letters concerning the Northern Coast of the County of Antrim. By the Rev. William Hamilton, A. M. Fellow of Trinity College Dublin. 8vo. 45. Robinsons. 1786.

(Concluded from Page 261). MR. Hamilton thuks the description he

Basaltes ro parts lias given of the external character of Contains Siliceous earth

Soparts the Giant's Causew.jy pillars, will serve abun.

Algillacevus do.

IS dantiy to discriminate the columnar balaltes

Calc.revus do.

8 from any other foril of a diferent species, at

Magnesia present known. But as it does not always


25 appear in its prismatical form, he proceeds to enumerate the properties by which it may be distinguished when disposed in more rude and irregular malles.

After giving this analysis of the hafaltes, " The basaltes is a black, ponderous, Mr. Hamilton proceeds to explain rott close-grained stone; which does not effer. remarkable properties from the known veice in any of the niincral acids.

elements of which it is composed. Thus from “ Its fpecific gravity is to that of water the metallic state of its iron element te intas nearly as 2.90. to 1.00 and to that of the à priori that the columns of the Giant's Causefinet marble as 2.90 to 2.70.

vay are natural magnets, whore lower extreo “ Though its texture be compact, it is not mity is their north pole; and after offering absolutely homogenevus ; for if ground to a fome reasonable conjectures concerning the smooth surface, its bright jet-black polith is regular form and arrangement of the p11975, disfigured by several (mall pores.

mentions fome of the principal ranations " It strikes fire imperfectly with a steel, in point of magnitude, articulation, arrauge..

* When expofed to a moderate beat it as. ment and texture of the different species ni fumes a reddish colour, and loses about one- basaltes. He next enumerates the fortib fiftieth part of its weight,

generally attendant on it, confifting of exten“ In a more intente heat it readily melts, 'five layers of red ochre ; veins of iron ore; and is, as the chymists express it, fulible atites, generally of a greenish soapy appearance;

zeolyte,of a bright and purest white colaci, • Wiib the assintance of an alkali Aux it different weights from a grain to a pound, 26may be vitrified, and forms an opaque glass of fecting a crystallization, in which the fibres rao a black or bluish colour.

diate from one center; pepperion fone, afiz “ Its principal component parts are iron ble matrix of indurated clay and iron, studded in a metallic state combined with siliceous with morsels of zeolyte and other substance; and argillaceous earths.”

and lastly pumice-stone. From the experiments of Sir Torbern Berg- In the next letter the autlier conficets the man it appears, that

arguments adduced in favour of the volange



per se.

theory. The formation of these pillars of been started. It is said that this theory bafiltes has been attributed, Mr. Hamilton rafhly attributes some of the most regular and thitiks with great appearance of probability, beautiful phenomena to the most tumultuary to the agency of subterranean fire. The ar- and irregular causes, ascribing exquisite arGuments in favour of this opinion are derived rangements, which almost emulate the la. fiom the nature and properties of the stone boured works of design, to the blind fury of itself, which is supposed to be nothing else a volcano. than lava; and its varieties owing to acci- To this it is answered, that though during dental circumstances attending its course, the eruption every thing be in a state of cua or the manner of its cooling.-In support of mult and disorder, yet when the fury of the this it is affirmed that it agrees accurately fames, which have been Itruggling for a parwith the lava in its elementary principles, fage, has abated, every thing returns to its in its grain, and the species of foreign bodies natural rest, and these various melted subit includes.

stances subside and cool with a degree of The iron of the basaltes is found in a regularity capable of producing all the beauty metallic state capable of acting on the mag- and symmetry of the Giant's Causeway. netic needle, which is also true of the iron «A second objection," says our author, in the compact lava.

“ arises from hence, that the currents of The basaltes is fusible per se, the common lava which have ifsued from Ætna and Ve. property of lava and most volcanic suh. suvius within the memory of man, have stances.

never been known to exhibit this regularity The basaltes is a foreign substance super- of arrangement. It is therefore said that ex. induced, or the original limestone of the coun- perience abundantly proves the fallacy of the try in a state of softness capable of allowing volcanic hypothesis. the fints to penetrate considerably within its “ In reply to this we are told, that it is lower surface. The lava is a similar extra. not in the erupted torrents of these volcanos neous mass overspreading the adjacent foil, we are to look for the phenomena of cryand found in like manner, with flints and stallization, but in the interior parts of the other hard metals in its substance. From mountains themselves, and under the surface their agreeing thus already in a number of of the earth, where the metallic particles of circumstances, it is reasonably presumed that the Java have not been dephlogisticated by they are one and the same species of substance, the accels of fresh air, and where perfect

This opinion is strongly confirmed by the rest and the most gradual diminution of tem. evidence derived from the nature and proper. perature have permitted the parts of the ty of the attendant foffils.

melted mass to exert their proper laws of Those extensive beds of red ochre accom. arrangement, so as to assume the form of panying the basaltes, are supposed to be an columnar lava : that we must wait until iron ore reduced to this state of a calx by heat; those volcanic mountains which at present a phænomenon which is observed to take burn with fu much fury, shall have compleatplace more or less in the present living vul- ed the period of their existence; until the imcanoes, and is therefore a presumptive argu- mense vaults which now lie within their ment of the action of fire in the neighbour- bowels, no longer able to support the incum. hond of basaltes.

bent weight, thall fall in and disclose to view Crystals of schorl, which appear in great the wonders of the subterranean world; and plenty among many kinds of our basaltes, then we may expect to behold all the varieties are likewise found in great abundance among of crystallization, such as must needs take the Italian lavas, in circumstances so exactly place in thefe vast laboratories of nature ; corresponding, as to afford a probable argu- then we may hope to see banks and causement in the present instance.

ways of baralles, and all the bold and unPumice-stone, wbich obviously bears the common beauties which the abrupt promoncharacter of a cinder in its exterior appear- tories of Antrim now exhibit." ance, is found on the shore of the island of After stating and replying to several other Raghery, and may be considered as an un- objections advanced again this theory, Mr. equivocal teit of the action of fire.

Hamilton remarks, that in reasonings conTo these external arguments others are cerning natural phenomena the standard of added from the exterior character of the truth is extremely vague and uncertain ; that countries containing the basaltes, and from climate bears a more powerful influence than the confideration of those elements which can be well imagined ; so that an opinion may be esteemed the food of volcanos being universally adopted by the inhabitants of one lound in its neighbourhood.

country, shall be universally reprobated by Against these specious arguments in defence those of a neighbouring kingdom, of the volcanic theory, many objections have “ Thus the Neapolitans, accustomed from EUROP. Mac.

Z 2


their infancy to the wild scenes of horror and ments and dangerous conclusions derived from desolation which abound in a foil ravaged by such deceitful sources, tending to multiply false volcanic fire, and to see as it were a new opinions and lubverting the true principles of world suddenly raised on the ruins of their religion and morality; the author in his last let. comtry; have their warm imaginations ter attacks with great spirit and sound reasonfilled with the gigantic idea of this powerful ing those sceptics who, building their opinions principle, wbich to them appears adequate on things they do not rightly understand, ra. to produce every thing that is great and stu• ther than truths which come clearly within pendous in nature. How different the sen- their comprehensions, unavoidably run into sations and opinions which prevail in the na. gross mistakes ; who rejecting all considera. tive of our temperate island! He beholds na- tion of final causes, and despising those fimture pursue her calm and steady course with ple and obvious analogies which lead to useful an uniformity almost uninterrupted : he truths, have chosen rather to pursue others, views the same objects unchanged for a long which neither they nor the rest of mankind series of years; the same rivers to water his are in any respect suited to investigate ; who, grounds, the same mountains supply food for blind to the most striking proofs in the forhis flocks; the same varied line of coast con- mation of the world, and infinite goodness tinues thro' many fuccellive ages to bound in its moral government, set their faces his country, and to let the waves of the ocean against both natural and revealed religioa. at defiance ; hence he naturally proceeds to “ If this be wisdom,” says Mr. Hamilton, extend his ideas of regularity and stability

" if there be the vaunted fruits of freedom over the whole world, and stands utterly un, of thought, we have good cause to rejoice influenced by those arguments of change in that we are not free; that we still retain our the earth, which to the inhabitants of a warm dependance on a wise and bountiful Provi. climate appear absolutely decisive.”

dence ; and have not yet fallen into that uniAfter observing, that the prevailing opie versal anarchy of opinion, where each indi. nions even of philosophers are too often vidual labours to enthrone and to adore every founded on general analogies ; that it re- wild phantom of his own wandering imagi. quires a vigorous mind and clear understand- nation,' just as folly or caprice may chance to ing to avoid being milled by the specious argu- direct his choice." Bozzy and Piozzi; or, the British Biographers, a Town Eclogue. By Peter Pindar, Esq.

4to. 25. 61. Kear Dey, 1786. THE indefatigable Peter, ever on the watch

And that 'cwould be a long time first, if ever, for some subject on which to exercise His art could form a fellow balf so riever: his happy talent for satile,, has in there Venus, of all the little Loves the dam, eclogues amply avenged Dr. Johnson on his With all the Graces, lobb'd for brorber San." biographers, hy displaying the most remark.

After describing the John'o-mania, as he able avecılotes in a truly ridiculous light. “On calls it, which has raged through all the realm, the death of Dr. Johnson,” the author cells he introduces the Hero and Heroine of the us in the argument, " a number of people, piece before the tribunab of Sir Jolun Haw. ambitious of being distinguished from the kins, whom he gives a ruh ex pajani. Mate part of their species, set about relating and printing stories and bons mots of the cele.

“ Like' school-boys, lo ! before a (wo-arm'd

chair braica moralitt. Amongst the most scalous, though not the most enlightened, appeared That held the knigbl, wife judging, stood the Mr Bowell and Madame Piozzi the Hero and

pair; Heroine of our eclogues. To prove their bio

Or like two ponies on the sporting ground, graphical abilities, they appeal to Sir Jobs Prepar'd to gallop when the drum should Hlawkins for his decision on their respective The couple rang'd—for vi&ry both as keen,

found; merits, by quotations from their printed anecdotes of the doctor.” The eclogue begins with

As for a tott'ring bishoprick a dean; a humourous burlesque description of the sup- Or patriot Burke for giving glorious bastings posed feelings of the heathen deities, occa

To that intolerable fellow Hastings. fioned by the death of the doctor :

“ Alternately, in anecdotes, go on ; -when the doctor died,

“ But firf, begin you, madam,''cricu Sir Joho:

The thankful dame low curthed to the chair, Apollo whimper'd, and the Muses cried : Miner va sighing for her fav’rite for,

And thus, for vict'ry panting, read the fair." Pronounc'd with lengthen'd face the world

MADAME Piozzi. undone:

Sam Johnson was of Michael Johnson born, Yowe wip'd his eyes so red, and told his wife, Whose laop of books did Litokfiold town adorns He ne'er made fobnson's equal in his life ;


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