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are not examined on ship-board, but are carri- Many never learn to speak properly at all. ed straight to the warehouse, where they are In writing Dutch, they use instead of a pea Tealed by the Japanese.

their common pencil, and their own paper, The interpreters are all natives ; they but they write from left to riglat, generally in speak Dutch in different degrees of purity. very beautiful Italian letters. The government permits no foreigner to learn The interpreters are very inquisitive after their language, left they should by means of European books, and generally provide this acquire the knowledge of the manufac. themselves with some from the Dutch mer. tares of the country ; but 40 or 50 inter- chants. They per use the.n with care, and repreters are provided to serve the Dutch in member what they learn. They besides entheir trade, or on any other occasion. These deatour to get instruction from the Europeans, interpreters are divnied into three classes. for which purpose they aik numberless ques. The eldest, who speak helt, are called upper- tions, particularly respecting medicine, phiinterpreters, the second under, and the third focs, and natural bistory. Mott of them ap. pupils. Formerly the Dutch taught the sa- ply to medicine, and are the only physicians of panese Dutch ; it was in particular the doc- their nation who pra&lise in the European tor's businels ; but they now learn of the manner, and with European medicines, which other interpreters. Some of the senior inter- they procure from the Dutch pbysicians. Hence preters speak Dutch pretty intelligibly ; but they are able to acquire money, and to make as th-ir language in plorases and constrution themselves respected. They sometimes take differs fo widely from the European, one has pupils. often occasion to hear strange expressions.

ESSAY on the RISE and PROGRESS of CHEMISTRY.

[From Dr. WATSON'S " CHEMICAL Essays."]

[ Concluded from Page 326.] TI

ME beginning of the sixteenth century pate had more knowledge than all their

was remarkable for a great revolution writers, the buckles of his thoes more produced in the European practice of physic, learning than Galen or Avicenna, and his by means of chemistry Then it was that bearn more experience than all their Unsere Paracelsus, following the steps of Boisile V.. fities. He revived the extravagant doctrine lentine, and growing famous for curing the of Raymond Lully, concerning an univerial venereal diseate, the leprosy, and other viru- medicine, and untimely sunk into buis grave lent disorders, principally by the means at the age of forty-teven, whiltt he bouted of mercurial and antimonial preparations, hiníelf to be in poileflion of secrets able to wolly rejected the Galenical pharmacy, and prolong the present period of human liic to Substituted in its stead the chemical. He that of the Autedilarians. had a professor's chair given him by the ma.. Bus in whatever estination the merit of gistracy of Bas!, was the first who read Paracelsus as a chemist may be hell, certam public lectures in medicine and chemistry, it is, that his fame excited the envy of fame, and subjected animal and vegetable, as well the emulation of vtbers, and the industry of as mineral, substances to an examination by all. Thole who attacked, and those who fire.

defended his principles, equally promited It seldom happens that a man of but com- the knowledge of chemistry; which from mon abilities, and in the most retired scenes his time, by attracting the notice of plastie of life, observes such a strict uniformity of cians, began ever y where to be fyftemati. conduct, as not to afford prejudice and par. cally treated, and more generally tiertiality Lufíicient materiais for drawing bis 1tood. character in different colours ; but such a Sjon after the death of Paracelsus, mida great and irregular genius as P.sracelsus, happened in the year 1541, the arts of could not fail of becoming alike the subject mining and fuxing metais, which had beta of the extremes of panegyric and satire. practised in most countries from the earlet He has accordingly been esteemed by some, times, but had never been explained by any a second Eiculapilis; others have thought writers in a scientific manner, received great that he was pofletiei of more impudence illuitration from the works of Georgius than merit, and that his reput:tion was Agricola, a Germa: physician. The Greeks more owing to the brutal (11agu arity of his and Romans had leít no treatises worth conduct, than to the cures he performed. mentioning upon the subject; and though a He treated the physicians of his time with vouk or iwo liad appeared in the German the most sortish vanity and illiberal intolence; language, and one in the loalian, relative to selling chem, that the very down of his tale, metallurgy, before Agricola rablished his

twelve books De Re Metallica, yet he is was the author of many improvements in justly esteemed the firit author of reputation the manner of working mines, and of Buxa in that branch of chemistry.

ing metals; in particular he first introduced Lazarus Erckern (alliy-master general of into Cornwall the method of Auxing tin by the empire of Germany) followed Agricola means of the fame of pit coal, instead of in the same pursuit. His works were first wood or charcoal. published at Prague in 1574, and an English Lemery's very accurate course of practical tranflation of them by Sir John Perrus came chemistry appeared in 1675. Glauber's out at London in 1683. The works of works had been publithed ac different times, Agricola and Erckern are fill highly esteem. from 1651 to 1661, when his tract, in. el, though several others have been publish- tituled Philosophical Furnaces, came out at pd, chiefly in Germany, upon the same Amsterdam, Kunckel died in Sweden in subject fince their time. Amongst these we 1702; he had practiled chemistry for above may reckon Shindler's Art of a laying Ores filty years, under the auspices of the Elector and Metals; the works of Henckell, of of Saxony, and of Charles XI. of Swedena Sclutler, of Cramer, of Leliman, and of He wrote his chemical observations in the Gellert. Germany, indeed, has for a long German language, but had them translated time been the great school of metallurgy for into Latin in the year 1677; the cranslation the rest of Europe ; and we, in this country, is dedicated by its author to our Royal owe the present flourishing condition of vur Society. They were afterwards trandated mines, especially of our copper nines, as into English in 1704.

Having had the well as of our brals manui.ctory, to the superintendency of several glats-houses, he wise policy of Queen Elizabeth, in granting had a fine opportunity of making a great great privileges to Daniel Hough'etter, Curit. Variety of experiments in that way: and I fopher Schutz, and other Germaus ubom the have been informed by our enamellers, and had invited into England, in order to instruct makers of artificial gems, that they can deher subjects in the art of metallurgy.

pend more upon the procelles and observaIt was not, however, till towards the tions of Kinckel, than of any other autlor middle of the last century, that general che- upon the same subject. The chemical labours milliy began to be cultivated in a liberal and of these and many other eminent men, too philosophical manner. So early as the year numerous to mention, were greatly for1645, several ingenious perfons in London, warded by the establishment of several focie. in cider to divert their thoughts from the lies, for the encouragement of natural pluilohorrors of the civil war which bod then fophy, which took place in various parts of broken oul, had formed themselves into a Europe about that period. fociety, and held weekly meetings, in which The Philofophical Transactions at London, they treated of, what was then called, the the liftoire de l'Academie Royale des

or experimental philosophy. There Sciences at Paris, the S..gi d'Esperienze di meetings were continued in Londen till the Acad. del Cimento at Florence, the Journal establithment of the Royal Society in 1662 ; des Scavans in Holland, the Ephemerides and before that time, by the removal of some Academia Naturæ Curioforum, in Germany, of the original members to Oxford, similar the Acts of the Ac. demy of Copenhagen, meetings were held there, and those studies and the Acta Eruditorum at Leypfic ; all bringlit into repute in that Univerl.ty. Mr. these wirks began to be publithed within Boyle, who had entered upon bis chemical the space of twenty years from 1665, when Bodies about the year 1647, was a princie our Royal Society fornt set the example, by pal person in the Oxford mectings. He pub- publishing the Philofophical Tundacions. lished at that place his Sceptical Chemist in To these may be adcu, the works of thie 1661, and by his various writir.gs and expe- Academies of Berlin, Petersburgh, Stockriments greatly contributed to the introducing bolm, Upsal, Bovonia, Bourdeaux, Monite into England, a taste for rational chemistry. pelier, Gottingen, and of several others which

Next to Boyle, or perhaps before him as have been established within the course of a chemift, ftands his cotemporary the unfor.

the present century.

Near a

thoufard runale Beecher, wwwse Physica Subtirranea, volumes have been pubished by these learnest julliy intituled opus fine pari, was first pub- societies within less than 120 years.

Tie lifhed in 1669. After having futtered vari- number of facts which are therein reluce ous persecutions in Germany, he came over respecting chemiftry, and every other branch into England, and died at London in 1682, of natural philosophy, is exceedingly great ; at the age of 57. He resided some time he. but the subject is null greater, and must for fore his death in Cornwall, which he calls ever mock the efforts of the human race to foe mineral school, owning that from a ceach- exbauft it. We!I did Lord Bacon compare Sr, he was there become a learuer. He natural philosophy to a pyramid! Its hafis is

indeed

new

indeed the history of nature, of which we which not only require an uninterrupted alknow a little, and conjecture much; but its tention of mind, but are attended with the top is, without doubt, hid high among the wearisomeness of bodily labour. I is not clouds; it is "ibe work which God workert enough to employ operators in this business ; from ibe beginning to the end," infinite and in- a man must blacken his own hands with fcrutable.

charcoal, he must sweat over the furnace, By the light which has been incidentally and inhale many a noxious vapour, before thrown upon various parts of chemistry from he can become a chemist. On the other those vaft undertakings of public societies, as hand, the artists themselves are generally well as from the more express labours of illiterate, timid, and bigotted to particular Stahl, Neumano, Hoffman, Juncker, Geoffry, modes of carrying on their respective operaBoerhaave, and many others equally worthy tions. Being wlacquainted with the learned, of commendation ; by the theoretic conclusions or modern, languages, they seldom know and systematic divisions which have been in any thing of the new discoveries, or of the troduced into it; from the didactic manner methods of working practised in other counin which the students of this are have been tries. Deterred by the too frequent, bat instructed in every medical school ; chemistry much to he laniented examples of those who, has quite changed its appearance. It is no in benefiting the public by projects and ex. longer considered merely in a medical view, periments, have ruined themselves, they are nor restricted to some fruitless efforts upon unwilling to incur the least expence in metals; it no longer attempts to impose making trials, which are uncertain with reupon the credulity of the ignorant, nor affects spect to profit. From this apprehenfion, # to astonish the simplicity of the vugar by well as from the mysterious muner in which its wonders, but is content with explaining most arts, before the invention of printing, shem upon the principles of sound philosophy. and many fill con:inue to be taughe, they It has shaken off the opprobrium which had acquire a certain opiniãorete, which effe&ually been thrown upon it, from the unintelligible finders them from making improvements, jargon of the alchemists, by revealing all its by departing from the ancient traditionary secrets in a language as clear and as common precepts of their art.

It cannot be queitianas the nature of its subject and operations ed, that the arts of dyeing, painting, brewing, will admit.

diftilling, tanning, of making glass, enamels, Confidered as a branch of physics, che porcelane, artificial stone, common salt, fall mistry is but yet in its infancy: bouever, ammoniac, salt-petre, potash, lugar, and a the mutual emulation and unwearied endea. great variety of others, have received much vours of fu many eminent men as are in every improvement from chemical inquiry, and are part of Europe engaged in its cultivation, capable of receiving much more. will in a little time renver it equal to any Metallurgy in particular, though ope of part of natural philosophy, in the clearness the most ancient branches of chemittis, and folidity of its principles. In the utility affords matter enough for new viscoscries. refulling to the public from its conclusions, There are a great many combinations of with respect to the practice of medicir.e, of metals which have never been made ; many agriculture, arts and manufactures of every of which, however, might be made, ad kind, it is, even in its present Mate, in. in such a variety of proportions, as, very ferior to none.

probably, would furniih us with metallic The uses of chemistry, not only in the mixtures morc serviceable than any in vie. medical, but in every economical art, are fuo. The method of extracting the greatest extentive to be enumerated, and too notorious possible quantity of metal from a given to want illustration ; it may just be observed, quantity of the same kind of ore, has, pero that a variety of manufactures, by a proper diaps, in no one instance been ascertained application of chemical principles, mig!it, with sufficient precision. There are many probably, be wrought at a less expence, and {ents of iron and copper ores which cannot be execuied in a better manner than they are at converted into malleable metals without present. But to this improvement there are much labour, and a great expence of fuel ; impediments on every hand, which cannot it is very probable, that by a weil-conducted casily be overcome. Those who by their series of experiments, more compendious fituations in life are removed from any de- ways of working these minerals might be sign or defre of augmenting their fortunes found out. In our own times, three new by making discoveries in the chemical arts, metallic substances have been discoverede, will bardly be induced to diminish them by and their properties abundantly atcertained engaging in expensive experimental inquiries, by experiment; and it may reasonably be + Platina, Regulus of Cobalt, Niekel.

Gonjectured

conjectured, that fulure experience will yet which are universally thrown away, may, anigment their number. Till Marggraaf perhaps, be nothing but different kinds of thewed the manner of doing it, no metallic spar, and defticute of all metallic matter : Tubstance could be extracted from calamine, Yet it may not be improper to remark, that and all Europe was supplied with zinc * the external appearance of the yellowish either from India or from Germany. A cawk is wholly similar to that of calcined manufactory of this metallic substance has not black-jack. That it is much of the fame many years ago been established in our own weight as black.jack, may appear from the country, and the copper works near Bristol annexed table : have supplied Birmingham with zinc extracted from calamine. Black-jack was not

Weight of a cubic foot of

White cawk 4047 long, since employed in Wales for mending

Yellow cawk 4112 the roads ; its value is not yet generally

Kebble known in Derbyshire ; but it is now well

4319 aveirdup. oz.

Black.jack understand by some individuals to answer the

4093

Water purpose of calamine for the making of brass. +

1000) Mons. Von Swab in 1738 was, I believe, In a word, the improvement of metallurgy, the first person who distilled zinc from black. and the other mechanic arts dependent on jack; and a work which he erected, pro- chemiftry, might best be made by the public bably gave the hint to the etablishers of our establithient of an Academy, the labours of English manufactory: indeed, I have been which should be destined to that particular well informed, that they purchased the secret purpose. The utility of such establishments from him when he was in England. The has been experienced in Saxony and other various kinds of black-lead, from which places; and as mines and manufactures are to neither tin nor iron can at present be pro. the full as important to us, as to any other cured to advantage; the mundicks, some European state, one may hope, that the cobalt ores, cawk, kebble, and other mineral conttituting a Chemical Academy may, in fubstances, which are now thought to be use- times of peace and tranquility, become an lels, may some time or other, perhaps, be object not unworthy the attention of the applied to good purposc. Cawk and kebble, King or the Legislature of the British nawhich are found in great quantities in mining tion. countries, especially in Derbyshire, and

ELOGY ON THE COUNTRY LIFE.

By M, MERCIER. IT

, is only the powerful and secret charm of on himself, enjoy himself, fet a true value on

the country, which has a confiant and his time and existence, fill up days that would universal influence over the heart of man : the he (pent elsewhere with foolish prodigality. increase of luxury vainly attempts to usurp Dinburdened of the troublesome weight of this power ; toillome preparatives, brilliant, business, removed from the constraint and foyet dull, imperfect in their cousequences, licituie of societies, he is no longer troubled they leave a void behind them, a something with the inward disquietude which preys on to be withed for, after the combined endea- ambition, pursuing that phantom fortune in vours of artists. The country, plain, but the potrid air of cities; he experiences the magnificent, has more inexhaustible attrac- serenity, the tranquil, solid repose, the offtions; its smiling features are reproduced as spring of free nature. It is by this he finds we view them ; its advantages multiplying affluence in ease, wisdom in moderation, the according to the knowledge we acquire of blellings of time in his occupation, and, in a them; and the mind, whore expectations word, enjoyment without subsequent repenwere not satisfied with the pomp of courts, tance. the bustle of entertainments and artificial de- Unhappy is the man who, corrupted by corations, deliciously repose: in the beautiful the hurry of cities, thinks the country dull and folitary retreats of nature.

and silent! Certainly the feeds of good are It is there man can filently contemplate (mothered in bis breast. The country speaks

Zinc is a metallic substance, of the colour of lead ; when united with copper, it conAtitutes brass, pinchbeck, and other nietallic mixtures resembling gold.

+ The cobalt ores in Helle, which at present produce a net profit of about 14000l. a-year, were formerly used for the same purpose as black-jack was lately in Wales---Baron's Travels by Ralpe, Pre. xxvi. See Mr. Woulfe's ingenious Experiments in Philos. Tran?. 1779, p. 15.

elo.

eloquently to the sound mind

;
it

appears the Hifiory of ebe Commerce of both the Indien animated to the feeling heart ; it preferves and all those grand compofitions which do peace of mind, and even restores it when dil. honour to the present age, seem to be proturbed; it diffipates mean and baughty pas. duced under the happy influence of hamlets, fions, the torments of men in the bufile of life, and the waving shade of foretts. and calms the violent convulsions concupis- Could cities furnith, in their narrow bounds, cence inspires. The country is the parent those ravishing scenes which are lo bountiof virtuous sentiments ; and independent of ful to the poet's pen, and more fo to philofothe natural advantages it procures, such as pher's meditations, when the ruddy clouds wholesome food, tranquillity, pure air, wbich melt and embrace the lofty circular heads of restore or improve health, it has many re- the tallest trees ; when the sparkling raysdis. markable moral advantages ; the more play, by their prodigious refrangibility, all the Thameful vices avoid of themselves that asy- dazzling pomp of the fun ; when the light, lum where the woods, the grally verdure, increasing its ardent fire, swiftly transforms the fields, the blooming hedges, seem form- one landscape into another, by the arden: vi. ed for simple taste and peaceful virtue. gour of its tints; when meadows, in those

The country! the poets have sung it, the rapid moments, are metamorphosed even to painters have transmitted it on canvas, philo- the proprietor's eye, who ftands astonithe, fophers have extolled it! More happy the and scarcely recognises the place the foft mild man who, enamoured with its attractions, ray of dawn enlightened ; so forcibly is the contemplates it, knows how to enjoy its va- magic of those striking lively colours, such a rious treasures, and preserve his morals pure, magnificent and no less admirable diversity respiring the balsamic fragrant air, and every does it imprint on the same objects ! morning treading thie odoriferous plants.

And at night, when the tranquil lake re. Who has not felt the neceility of visiting flects the silver face of the moon and brilliant the country, at least on the return of fine Itars; when the light clouds that surround it weather, when the tender green turf, the ear- pas like moving images, on the clear furJy melody of birds, the active rays of the sun face of the waters beneath the contemplator's haften vegetation, and call upon the most in- feet; when he hears the lengthened cry of different being to admire the hidden hand that the night bird ;-when he sees the smooth but spreads the tufted grass, unfolds the Moots, trembling lake reproduce the fresh landscape furnishes the trees with buss impatient to be around him ; where could he meet such comopened, and which will soon adorn the leaves plete repose, such soft tranquillity? where with fruit and flowers?

can he so well feel the voluptuous sentiment Enchanting picture ! 0 spectacle, more of an indefinite reverie interesting than all which art can offer! How In the morning, when the atmosphere is pleasing it is to gather the first bouquet of vi- clear, when the silver clouds are scattered olets by the side of a serpentine rivulet, gent- over the horizon, like woolly fleeces, he fees ly watering the moffy ground; and to have the labourer already in the field preiling the the foot moistened with the fresh and spark- plough share, breaking the clod, and marking ling dew at the dawn of a fine day in spring, out the deep and straight furrow from and the series of fine days that are to come to whence the golden harvest is to rise ; be perpetuate the innocent pleasures of man! smiles with joy at the seeds of fertility con

I is in the country that writers acquire fided to the maternal bosom of the earth. more elevated and sublime ideas, become Tell the blind insensate, that this husband. more energetic and moving; it is there that man, by daily renewing his labour, gains the generous works are compofed, that is to fay, noblest conquests over nature, and cootr. thore relative to the plan of public happiness. butes more than any other to the splendour, In the country our thoughts are necesia!ly led prosperity, vigour, and life of the state, by to the largest portion of the human race; producing the principal objets of neceflity ! they are visible, they are present before our and yet he is depreiled by idle and insolent eyes, bending under the yoke, and labouring arrogance; his laburious hands, that steer the at the first works of ncceflity, those primitive plough and wield the nourishing (pade, are works, which ever awaken and recal fimple debased and banilhed to the very lowest class ideas, productive of great ones; whilft in ci- of society. Were it not for those callous ties the arts, perhaps too refined in our time, hands, dearth, poverty, famine, and formw, pursue the vicecies of form, to attract and would devour the great in their sumptuous please, for a moment, the forrowful eye of palaces. But fuch is the incredible injustice, the wealthy.

such the absurdity of man, that to be useful In populous cities they write voluptuous to him is to be unworthy in his sgiat. romances, light elegant verses, and comics Manual labour, the first exercise of maa, in an atfected (tile ; but the Natural lliflory, the sacred employment of the ancient putri

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