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ordained by the Almighty himself ; labour, ty of arrogant disdain, the crime of opulence ; the only power on earth that can vivify and they have all unanimously exclaimei, Immor. put idle matter in motion, is looked upon as sul boncur 10 sacred agriculture! They have al. a disgraceful employment in our degenerate ways revered it in their writings; the plough days; while the unjust financier, the cruel has been a hallowed object with themsoldier, the indolent citizen, dares to take They have celebrated princes that handled it precedency over the man who, by giving with pomp and folemnity on certain annual the first motion to the fap, has more just ob- festivals. Virgil, even in the court of Aufervations in his head, and more hospitable gustus, has described the harrow, the mattock, virtues in his heart, than those who view the spade, the rake, the plough which lays him with disdain ; a disdain which can only the earth equally on both sides; and all the here be repaid with contempt; for that kind writers whom I file munificent, have preferof disdain ought to be considered with the red the implements of rustic fimplicity to all greatest justice, as the last stage of human the ornaments of luxury and favour, that the frenzy. The husbandman, who affects only corruption of morals and the arts could offer. an equality, does not go to the door of a Those judicious interpreters of the public courtier to beg an employment, nor expose voice will be held in greater csteenı as the himself to the insulting ridicule of a clerk in world becomes more enlightened ; they had office, the insidious dispenser of favours he the courage to celebrate, with all their powers, has purchased by the meanest acts; he the labours of agriculture ; they have knows the earth will supply his wants, and restored dignity to the grey-headed man, who he is attached to her all-nourishing bosom. during fixty years procured raiment and fub. -Alas! what will the vain and haughty be- fiftence to his equals, and, as an additional beings, who, decorated with the livery of luxu- nefit, has given his country his own children ry, and are its perpetual flaves, set up in op- for hardy and tractable soldiers Must not position ! Do they dare think themselves fu- this countryman appear to be, in the view of perior to him? What, alas! will they set up ? a philosopher, after so many sacrifices, la · Too well we learn from experience, idleness, bours and fatigues, the real Atlas, supporting fice, and crimes.
the whole weight of the globe on his truly Philosophical writers have never been guil- laborious shoulders?
Qurd for turpe, quid utile, quid dulce, quid non. fermons preached before the Hon. Societies of the Inner and Middle Temple, by the late Wile
Jiam Stafford Done, D.D. Prebendary of Lincoln, and Archdeacon of Bedford. Published by the Rev. R. Shepherd, B. D. F. R. S, Archdeacon of Bedford. 8vo. 6s. Flexney. 1786.
THE Rev. Editor, after paying a compli. ence before whom they were preached ;
ment to the taste of the age, which, he men of learning, who are in the constant says, readily listens to lessons of virtue and in- habit of pursuing arguments, of detecting falle. struction ; and bestowing that tribute of praise hood, and investigating truth. They are which they so eminently deserve on the Sere chiefly argumentative ; and if the arguments mons published by Dr. Blair, Mr. White, sometimes appear too abstracted, even when and the Bishop of Chester," which through most abftrule they discover in the author a the understanding make their way to the full possession of his subject. They are al. heart, the road that disco:rses from the ways ingenious; and, if not always new, his pulpit should take;" gives the following chae method of producing them makes them pecuracter of the present work:
liarly bis own.” To this opinion we heartily “ The nature of the discourses now offered subscribe, and sincerely recommend them to through a series of reasoning that does equal He next considers the objection urged honour to his head and heart. To such as against the divine justice, for permitting the delight in the flowery, declamatory compofi- prosperity of the wicked; and that againg God's tions which are too much the fashion of the holiness, from sin not being prevented, but day, and which tend more to display the ora. admitted in the world. In answer to the fore torical powers of the preacher, than to edify mer, he proves an unequal distribution of what or improve the hearer, these discourses will we call prosperity, to be necessary in a state not in all probability prove acceptable ; of trial like to the present world; and that but to the man of sense who has judgment if every thing were adjusted and apportioned sufficient to prefer the substance to a shadow, bere with visible exactness and inftant effect, found reasoning to empty verbosity, the peru. there would be no occasion for a future judg, sal of this volume will afford not only enter- ment. In reply to the latter, he observes, tainment but instruction.
che public ic happily adapted to the audi
all who are capable of followinche author contri inand carvin Provider
“ if God must not allow, as objects present It contains eighteen Sermons on various themselves, a bad choice, (and fin is nothing subjects. In the first of these, the author else) he must not allow any choice; he must considers the attributes of righteousness and suspend the usual powers of acting, which holiness. “ The Lord is righteous in all his would be a perpetual violation of the order ways, and holy in all his works.” Mankind, of Nature. If he must incline to good, and he observes, may be sensible of the moral ob- good only, he must cliain up the will and ligations of justice, yet not always perceive over-rule the mind; which may be goveroment, the reasons on which they binge ; or, perceiv- but not moral government, as it destroys the ing them, be unwilling to be determined by very capacity of virtue and vice." Having them. Human justice is liable to much ob. ettablished these attributes, he draws the fols struction from want of evidence, the obscuri. lowing conclufion, ty of facts, the dubiousness of circumstances, “If then God be holy, if God be just, what and inconsistency of testimony; or, where evi- ever is, whatever adverse event occurs, muit dence is complete, the intricacy of a case, the be (in some view of it) right, must have in specious appearance of probability on each nature adequate and fit causes. The reasons fide, may render its merits impervious. Even of Providence in these allotments may be la. where matters are clearest, worldly consider- tent, may be intricate ; but can never be ine. ations too often pervert the judgment, preju. quitable, never inexpedient : he who is im: dices of hatred or favour, friendship or rela- partial cannot be cruel ; he who is rectitude won, partiality to some interest or valued pur- itself, cannot act inju iously." pofe, the solicitations of superiors or the fal- In the second discourse, the preacher takes cination of bribery, may blind the eyes of occasion to enquire into the cornmon excepmen of understanding, and make them accep- tion expressed by infidelity or disconter:, ters of persons in their judicial administrations. against that soothing and interesting article But the all-wise, the independent, the Al- of religious faith, the superintendence of Promighty One must be inaccessible to such finir- vidence; and thews, that they are suppofi. ter influences. Perfeatly knowing the rule tions without truth, or inferences without of equity, and necessarily judging of things as reason. In the third he pursues the subject, they really are ; able to execute what is right and enquires from what reasonings on the na. and fit according to that knjwledge, without ture of God and ourselves it is satisfactorily any poflible temptation to deviate from it ; in- deducible that “ the Lord is our keeper." capable of being milled, moved by any bias, These arguments are founded on the attributes or awed by any power ; such a Being must of God, a spiritual sovereign, wire, power. evidently always act without iniquity, with ful, and good. Without design or directoa, out partiality, without prejudice, without re. what is wisdom? Locked up from exertion, spect of persons, consequently " righteously if every thing be done without interference, in all his ways.”
what is power? Without a distribution of The Ductor's arguments to prove that “the rewards and punishments, what is justice! Lord must be boly in aļl his works” are equal. These attributes have a reference, therefore, la ly clear, close, and conclusive,
objects; their efsence consists in action, their “ He who has will with reason must be a perfection in exercise. To suppose the conmoral agent: he who has reason in the high- trary would be to reduce the Creator below est and most perfect degree must be in the his creatures to a mere pageant. This reahighest and m
perfect degree a moral soning is ftrongly corroborated by the eviagent: he who is above every temptation to dence arising from the suation of man. be bad, mut be uniformly good : in other Born in a state of debility and helplelinets, words, he who hath an infinite understanding what would become of him, were it not for with an unbiassed will, must always perceive the yearnings of parental instinct, which canthe best footives, and act conformably ; that not be accounted for without the guidance of is, muft be " holy in all his works "
fame protection, (however invisible the work. the husbandman commits his grain to the ings of it) is extended in his nonage, and is ground, the physician prescribes his drug, or equally necessary in his adult state.
the artist constructs his machine, anticipating “ Man,” says our author,“ is, from varie respectively, with happy confidence, the ac. ous causes, susceptible, in various degrees, of complishment of his purpose from the fame pleasure and pain : can it be supposed that revolutions of the heavenly bodies, the fare there is no provision, no regimen, for the ad- viciffitudes of seasons, the same action of mejustment of these? By the incitements of the chanical and physical powers. But take away one, ne performs many a necessary function, and from the objects of the universe this unity of engages in many an important pursuit ; by character ; let them appear or act with the impressions of the other he presages fickle or lawless mutability ; agriculture, meand evades many a calamity. Can it be sup- dicine, pilotry, mechanism, all calculation, posed that all this is exclusive of regulation ?" the whole process of induction, the whole
In addition to the arguments advanced to force of analogy, the whole directory of exseobviate the pretences urged against the doc. 'rience, is precluded and cancelled : the purtrine of a superintending Providence, and to suit of knowledge becomes vain toil, the apestablish the truth of it, the Doctor has in the plication of it desperate diffidence; observafourth Sermon examined the complaint, that tion is without use, reflection without deci“this is an evil among allthings that are done fion, provision for self-preservation without under the sun, that there is one event unto security, and folicitude without end or remeall;" from which inferences have been drawn dy. in disparagement of this important tenet.
“If such be the conceivable consequences of After observing that there may be a resem- the projected alteration in the natural world, blance of circumstances without a coincidence its inconveniences would not be less in the of consequences; that what is visible of con- moral. Substitute in the regimen of the moditions or incidents is but a precarious index ral world particular laws for general, that is, of pleasure and pain ; and that pleasure or success and disappointment, recompence and pain are ftill more indeterminate of benefit or punishment, adjusted to actions and agents, disadvantage ; he asks, Is it not then falsely or with accurate and immediate discriminations, very questionably suggested against Providence what would obviously result? In the first peas an evil, or indeed as a fact, except in a ve. riod of life, before the formation of moral ry lax sense, " that there is one event unto character, under the common lot of original all ?" But that he may not be thought, by thus equality, either an utter suspension of every argiung, to evade rather than encounter the influencing principle, or distinctions without difficulty, he enters into a more direct discur. diversity, preferences without recommendafion of it; which we shall lay before our rea. tions, and sufferings without demerit : in ders in his own words, to enable them to subsequent periods, a bar to the formation of form their own opinion of the author's style moral character, that would operate univerand mode of reasoning.
sally. For under the dominion of Justice so “Permit me to suppose (no unreasonable awfully present, with arm perceivably ex. postulate) that humanity is a system, for some tended for instant retribution, who would wise reason, of fupreme design, and necessary dare to reject her allurement, or brave her in the constitution of Nature. What does infliction ? Would not the consequence be the objection demand ? An abolition of ge- one determined course of conduct? Would neral laws in this system ; for there must be not duty be so irresiftibly connected with in general laws promiscuous events. But gain, as to leave no room for the indulgence froni the proposed innovation, what mischiefs of inclination, the growth of desert, and the would follow > In the first place, the destruc. display of disposition ; for the proof of fincecion of order, with which vanishes at once rity by resolution, of benevolence by disinteevery idea of economy and beauty in creation ; restedness, of faith by contentment; in short, its parts no longer simple and congruous ; it: for many exercises of virtue particularly ex. movements no longer regular ; its beings no alting and perfecting man, particularly venelonger determinate in agency, or specific in rating and pleasing God? character. In the next place, an utter ex- “ It is now perhaps perceived, that geneclusion of certainty, with which vanish all the ral laws, from which arise indiscriminate acquisitions of science, all the principles of events, in the administration of the world, art, all the comforts of life. Of causes and carry with them a large and satisfactory coneffects we know little, except their connexi. fideration of benefit ; and that therefore the on ; and while this connexion continues sta objection which demands the reversal of ble, whilft objects exhibit in general, with ob. them, demands an impropriety. Let us next Servable conftancy on similar trials, similar see (ftill retaining the supposition, for the appearances, the mariner pursues his course, truth of which we kave the pledge of Infinite
Wisdom, that there ought to be in the plan connexion operate with farther extension in of nature such a being as man) whether it equalizing events. In the combination of a does not demand likewise an impossibility. family the heart is variously touched, and
“ s. Man may be viewed individually or powerfully moved by attachments. It fhoots aggregately. As an individual, he may be out, if I may fo speak, numerous filamen's, considered as a creature; consequently sube which falten with growing force from famaject to the government of his Creator, cou. liarity to furrounding objects, and whatever sequently accountable; endowed with powers affects these, communicates immediately with and desires which imply a destination for fu- sensible vibration to the center. In other turity, consequently a probationer for the words, a great portion of human pleasures or allotments of it, In this light then, without pains is derivative, and acts by participation. an occasional separation, in his preparatory What then would be che case, were reípesstate, between virtue and happiness, vice and tive differences and judicial diftinctions to misery, how is he to be disciplined and tried ? mark events? The wicked could nor conWithout imperfection, without difficulties to ceivably be blended with the good in intimate combat, croises to bear, and temptations to union, without deriving from their profperity refiát, how are his capacities to be opened, some joy, some service, or some relief; the his principles explored, his exertions and im- good could not, if posselling affc&tion or consprovements ascertained ?
passion, be perpetual witnefses to the vista. “ Individually likewise, on trial for a tions and exemplary chastisements of funess, future destination, he is and must be a free under their own rool, or in cheir own lineare, agent ; required to act with rectitude and without grief, perhaps without injury too, with reason, directed by rules, and folicited by the loss of their utility. It would be im. by motives, but unconstrained in his choice, poflible, in Mort, to punish all the wicked, and upobstructed in his endeavours. Under with absolute harmlesiness to all the good; this dispensation of moral freedom, it is not or to reward all the good without communipoffible to conceive but that there must be cating, in some degree, to some of the wick. irregular and traversing efforts, mixt means ed a share of their felicity : but if so, the of pursuit, and mixt results of attainment, scheme of completely separating lots, with. with every consequence of every passion or out a complete separation of perfons, defeats appetice excesively or misappliedly indulged; itself; and it remains to infer, that from the that licentiousness will sometimes rival inno. influence both of propagation in descent, and cence, diffimulation supplant merit, and of conjunction by kindred, one event unto fraud circumvent honesty, in the acquisition all is often inevitable. of pleasure, honour, or profit; in other “ The social sphere of man next widens words, that the bad will he found inter- from the circumference of a family to that of mingled and interfering with the good, in a neighbourhood. Here he is licked aad the events of worldly gratification.
leagued in several dependencies of fituation, “ But the survey of man merely as an in- employment, and interest. He breathes a dividual, is curtailed, is unnatural. Let us ra. common air with his affociates, he eats of f. ther consider him in his social capacity ; and milar food, he pursues joint objects with them the impossibility that his fate should be other- in callings, travels, enterprizes : fhall, theni, wise than indiscriminate, will more evidently that wbich is noxious to some, prove at the appear.
same time falutary to others ? Shall wiirds " Here he first offers as a member of a be at once favourable and adverse to the same family, in a connexion of descent which voyagers ? Shall famine and plenty, defeat fashions and fixes, independent of personal and conqueft, danger and safety, be found character, his constitution, estimation, and attendants on the same parties at the same tortune. His parents are healthy or dir. instant ? -- Absurd !-Without an incest tempered, virtuous or diffolute, provident or accumulation of interfering miracles; withnegligent, affluent or necessitous. Is it poso out a perpetual and inconceivable inversion fible, without a constant and universal pro. of natural causes and effects-Impoflibie digy of confusion, to stop the course of these It follows, therefore, that in the occurrences inAnences ? to prevent innocence from suf- of our prefcat relatwe and complex state, fering, by the comprehension of an unfortu. we cannot be divided and sorted hy any prenate relation, transferred malady or incon. cise canon of worth, but must partake a gevenience, the affliction or humiliation of pe- neral fate of advantage or detriment, enjoja nury, the resumption of unjustly acquired ment or distreís. property, the faint of luxury, the act of in- " But let us turn to the lant, the highest discretion, the languor of infirmity, or the view of man in his civil capacity, as connected blot of infamy?
with government. Here, again, discrimina. “ The transmiffive casualties of domesticion still becomes impoffible. For he is, in the
first place, subject to the common fate of disputably a considerable influence (an influfociety, muft encounter its dangers, and thare ence without the dissolution of civil society its calamities; and in the next place, subject unavoidable), in determining promiscuously to its laws. These, however administered, in- one event unto all." tentionally place him on a ground of equality ; Having thus amply examined the assimilaliable to the same contingencies of treatment tion of mankind in the mingled disposal of with his fellow-citizens : their office, as their present events, which had furnished the use, is to direct universally, to redress impartial. sceptic with a seemingly plausible objection, ly, and punish irrespectively. A grand object the author thinks himself warrantable in conof their operation is property ; of which they cluding, that the supposed ill effcts of it fix the title, and controul, as well as guard, are exaggerated, and that any alteration on the devolution ; inducing in each concern an every idea of man, whether separate or colimportant effect for present consideration, lective, is neither feasible nor expedient, The title of property does not, cannot reside, He hence takes occasion to recommend not under the adjustment of human laws, in vir- only strict circumspection in our own colle lue or merit; but in inheritance, gift, pur- duct, but a tender reserve in judging of others, chase, or other honest mode of acquiring it : not making either example our rule of action, bence a plain consequence; that the indir. or good or bad fortune our test of character. creet and the profligate may obtain, with. After so copious an extract, our limits will out exception, that affluence which they not permit us to analyse the remaining di!Squander or misemploy ; that the alienation courses; we can only in general observe, that of it may, at the same time, intercept from they are wri:ten in the same nervous and the innocent many enjoyments which they forcible styie; the principles on which the lose with regret; and oppress them with several arguments hinge are clearly laid down, many conflicts which they do not deserve to and the inferences from them drawn in a suffer.
concise and masterly manner. Truth, like “ Another similar consequence sometimes beauty, needs not the ornaments of dress to occurs from legal restraint on the devolution set it off. The author, convinced of this, bas of property ; by which a young expectant not decorated his subject with the powers of is suddenly, perhaps, in his advances to dig- oratory, but trusted to its intrinsic worth for nity and fortune, which he has birth to its success. Should the fastidious critic ob. claim, and accomplishments to illustrate, ject that these Discourses contain little novel. stopped, and depreif:d to beggary; not for his ty, let him remember, that on subjects which own crime, but for that of his parent: a pro• have been so often, fo fully, and so ably ceeding which compassion condemos as vin- handled, little more remains to be done, dictive severity, but which political prudence than to place old thoughts in a new and defends, as expedient for terror, for effectual striking point of view; and as far as so doing punishment, and for general safety. Whe. is intitled to praiie, our author's claim is in. ther expedient, however, or not, it hath in- disputable.
The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides, with Samuel Johnson, L. L. D. By James
Boswell, Esq. 8vo. 6s. Dilly.
unamiable light in which Mr. Boswell down the front of his perriuig, (which Mr. has placed Dr. Johnson's behaviour to a learned B. had before taken care, fuo more, to inform and venerable clergyman of seventy-seven. us was black) and talking what a great " It was curious, says Mr. B. to see him and man Leibnitz was.
To give an idea of the Dr. Johnson together. Neither of them scene would require a page with two columns, heard very distinctly; fo each of them talked but it ought rather to be represented by two in his own way, and at the same time.” good players." __Surely, Mr. Bosweil, your After giving some instances of the Doctor's glec has overrun your picty! Whit, a difpuie waspis contradiction, such as the Doctor on Dr. Clarke's leaning to the Arian system, would have resented in any other man; for, and Thurting one's eyes against the icriptures, strange to tell, the good Doctor's penchant to to be represented by two good players! Do contradict, even led him to nibble with oribo- be confiftent, Mr. Burwell; this
may Very doxy itself ;-Mr. Boswell (and he certainly well in your convivial hours, with your cheswas merry when he wrote it) gives the fol. fical companion, (as you call lum) Jack Wilkis; lowing ludicrous picture of the disputants : but it seems rather inconsistent with your “During the time that Dr. Johnson was thus kneeling with Dr. Juincon at your bedfiles, going on, the old Minister was Atanding with at your evening prayers.--" Here again,