« PreviousContinue »
next in order to lay it up for their winter's these substances act, is not, perhaps, eafily ftock.
explained; but as the use of them would, These facts lead to the confideration of the doubtless, cause an accumulation of fimilar question, whether falted meat be prejudicial parts in the body, and as we find all animals on account of the quantity of salc it contains; destined to endure the severe cold of the or merely hecause the falc fails to preserve arctic climates, are copioufly furnished with the juices of the flesh in such a state as to af- fat, we may conclude, that it poffefses some ford proper nutriment? The latter, I believe, peculiar efficacy in defending from the imis the more prevalent opinion ; yet, I con- pressions of cold. fels, I cannot but think, that sea-falt itself, With respect to the warm rein-deer's blood, when taken in large quantities, must prove which the Rufian failors seem to have thought unfriendly to the body. The septic quality fv falutary, and the use of which is confirmof all proportions of fale mixed with animal ed in one of the quotations ; if it has any matters and small proportions only can be particular effect in preventing the scuivy, bereceived into the juices of a living animal) has yond that of the juices extracted from recent been proved by the well-known experiments animal fleth by cookery or digestion, it must e Sir Julin Pringle. but besides this ic may probably reside in some inafsimilated parti. pove burtful, by the acrimonious and cor- cles, derived from the vegetable food of the rotre property with which it may impreg- animal, and still retaining confiderably of a Die de fluids. 1 is universally allowed, vegetable nature. It is well known that the out much falc and salted meats are very chyle does not immediately lose its peculiar preulicial in the disorders vulgarly called properties, and mix undistinguishably with erotic amongst us ; which, though in ma- the blood ; and that the milk, that fecretion Dy respects different from the genuine sea. the most speedily and abundantly separated furry, yet resemble t! is disease in many from the blood, pofselles many properties in lending symptoms, as laifitude, livid blotches, common with vegetable substances. As to ipungy gums, and disposition to hæmorrhage. their other preservative, the swallowing of And some of the symptoms of the sea-scurvy raw frozen meat, I am at a lois to account seem to indicate a fuline, and not a simple pü for any salutary effects it may have, except pid acrimony; such as that of the disjoining as an aliment rendered eary of digestion, by of bones formerly broken ; in which case, the the power of frost in making substances tendlous matter of the callus is probably redis. der. Esived by the saline principle contained in To proceed to the next important article, the animal Auids. On the other hand, it that of drink. It appears, that in all the unfeenis to be a fact, that several of the nor- successful instances, vinous and spirituous lie thern nations, whole Jiet is extremely putrid, qnors were used, and probably in considerable (1) before hinted with respect to the people quantities. Thus, in one of the Dutch jourof Kamtschatka) are able to preserve them- nals, notice is taken, that an allowance of felves from the scurvy; therefore putrid ali- brandy began to be served to each man as Benis alone will not necessarily induce it. foon as the middle of September. Writers
On the whole, on an attentive considera. on the scurvy seem almost unanimously to contin of the facts which have been recited, hder a portion of these liquors as an useful fome of which are upon a pretty extensive addition to the diet of persons exposed to the tale, I cannot but adop: the opinion, that causes of this disease ; and due deference Ebe sfe of jea-fult is a very principal cause of ought certainly to be paid to their knowledge ste jarvy; and that a total abstinenc from it, and experience : but, convinced as I am, is some of tbe mof important means to preventing that art never made so fatal a present to manAs difcale.
kind as the invention of distilling spirituous A confiderable article of the diet of the liquors, and that they are seldom or never a egte soglidhmen, thongh necessity alone necessary, but almost always a pernicious arEuld have brought them to use it, was pro- ticle in the diet of men in health, I cannot bably of confiderable service in preventing the but look with peculiar satisfaction on the doplers to which their situation rendered confirmation this opinion receives by the them liable. This was the wbuld's frillers, events in these narratives. whici, though deprived of great part of their Indeed, from reasoning alone, we might oil, must fill contain no small share of it. naturally be led to the fame conclufion. A All voyagers agree, that the Samoides, Ef- great degree of cold renders the fibres rigid ; quimaux, Greenlanders, and other inhabi- and by repelling the blood and nervous tants of the polar regions, make great use of principle from the surface of the body, inthe fat and oil of fish and marine animals in creases the vital energy of the internal organs. their diet, and indeed can scarcely subfift Hence, the heart contracts more forcibly, Without them. In what precise manner
and the stomach has its warmth and muscu.
lar action augmented. In these circumstan- notwitbftanding their weak and fickly Itace, ces, stimulants and astringents seem by no they had nearly completed, before they found means indicated; but rather substances of an the work unnecellary. The three Ruffians opposite nature. We have acquired by asso- on Eaft Spitzbergen who survived, are exciation the idea 'of opposing aktual cold by prestly said to have used much exercise by matters potentially or metapborically hot ; but way of preservative ; as also, according to this is in great measure a fallacious notion, Counsellor Muller, do those who winter in On the contrary, it is found that the effects of Nova Zembla. A difficulty, however, here excessive heat are best resisted by warm and accurs; which is, that we know it to be the acrid substances, such as the spicy and aromatic custom of the inhabitants of the very nor. vegetables which the hot climates most abun- thern regions, to spend their long winter night dantly produce, and which are so much uted almost entirely under ground ; seeming, in in the diet of the inhabitants. And if it be that respect, io imitate the animals of the admitted as a general law of nature, that country, which lie torpid in their holes and every country yields the products best adapt- dens during the winter. From the journal ed to the health and sultenance of its inhabic of the eight Englishmen, too, I should judge, tunts, we should conclude, that aromatic ve- that they were inactive during the greatest getables and fermented liquors are peculiar- part of the time that the sun was invisible. ly appropriated to the warmer climates ; But it is to be remarked, that in these inwhile bland, oily animal matters are rather stances, what I consider as the most powerdesigned for the use of the frigid regions, ful cause of the scurvy, the use of salted proSpirits, as antiseptics, may, indeed, seem to visions, did not exist ; and therefore less be indicated u here there is a neceflity of li powerful prefervatives would be necefTary. ving upon corrupted putrescent felh ; but Further, the English crow had a very scanty they cannot act in tisis way without, at the allowance of provision of any kind; which jame time, rendering the food harder and would, doubtless, take off from the neceility more indigeftible, and, consequentiy, lefsen- of much exercise. Thus, the animals which ing the quantity of nutriment to be derived Neep out the winter, take in no nutriment from it. The temporary glow and elevation whatsoerer, and therefore are not injured by caused by spirituous liquors are, I imagine, absolute rest. very fallacious tokens of their good eflects; Exercise is probably serviceable, both by as they are always succeeded by a greater re- promoting the discharge of effete and cors verse, and tend rather to consume and ex- rupted particles by excretion, and by auge hauft, than to feed and invigorate, the genu- menting the animal heat. As far as cold ine principle of vital energy. Another ex- in itself can be supposed a cause of disease, tremely pernicious eftect of these liquors, is, its effects will be most directly opposed by the indolence and fupidity they occasion, increasing the internal or external heat. rendering men inattentive to their own pre- And this leads to the confideration of the fur, servation, and unwilling to use those exer- ther means for guarding against and tempertions, which are so peculiarly necessary in ing the intense severity of the wintry air in situations like those described in the foregoing there climates. narratives. And this leads me to the confi- It appears from the journals of the unforderation of a third important head, that of tunate sufferers in these attempts, that they exercise.
endured great miseries from the cold ; their The utility of regular and vigorous exer. fuel soon proving insufficient for their con: cise to men exposed to the causes inducing sumption, and their daily increasing weakness Icurvy, is abundantly confirmed by experi- preventing them from searching for more, or ence. Captain Cook seems to attribute his keeping their fires properly iupplied. On remarkable succeis in preserving the health the other hand, the English and Rullians bad of his crew, more to great attention to this not only made their huis very ful u ntial, point, than to any other circumstance. but had secured plentiful supplies of fuel. This opinion is greatly corroborated by And the nations who constantly inhabit the the relations before mentioned. Captain arctic regions, are represented as living in an Monck's crew', wintering with their fhins actually waim atmosphere in their subterin safety before them, and well surn ih- raneous dwellings, and guarded by impeneed (wi h all kinds of sei-stores, could have trable coverings when they venture abroad. little occasion for labour. The iwo compa- The animals, too, which retire during the nies of Dutchmeu seem to have done little winter, are alu a s found in close caverns or during their melancholy abode, but drink deep burrows, rolled up, and frequently brandy, and smoke tobacco over their fires. beaped together in numbers, so as to preOn the other hand, Captain James's men serve a confiderable degree of warmth. Of were very fufficiently employed in the labo, the several methods of procuring heat, there rious talk of building tlicis pinnase, which can be little doubt, that warm clothing, and the mutual contact of animal bodies, must be These are the most material observations the most friendly, as being moft equable, tht have occurred to me, on reflecting upou and not inviting such an influx of colui air, the remarkable histories and facts before re. as is caused by the burning of an artificial lated. I would fitter myself that they fore. And the advantage of subterraneous might aslift in the framing of such rules and bodgings is proved by the well-known fait of precautions, as would render the success of the unchanging temperature of the air at any future attempts of the like kind less certain depths beneath the surface.
Extract from An ESSAY on the PLEASURE which the MIND receives from the
EXERCISE of its FACULTIES, and that of TASTE in PARTICULAR. BY CHARLES DE POLIER, Esq. Read Feb. 27, 1782.
[From the Same.] THE agreeable sensations we receive from inculcate, however forcibly express-d, da
the productions of the fine arts, are, in not easily recur to the memory: and I dare a great measure, owing to the order and say, that for one person who remembers a symmetry, which enable the mind to take passage from Miloon, Young, or Ak-nidi, in, without labour, all the different parts of there are twenty who will quote some froin them. It is by this, that rbyme becomes agree. Pope, Dryder, or Prior. able in poetry. Some have contended, indeed, This controversy has long been decided in me this return of the same sounds, invented France, where, notwithstanding the strenuous in the Gothic ages, ought to be classed among efforts of one of its greatest poees (Monsieur the Acrostics, Anagrams, and such other de la Motte) rhyme has kept in poetry the favolous productions, whose only merit lies dominion which the nature of the French in their difficulty. Tbey instance the Greeks language incontestably gave it. and ibe Romans, whose poetry, far more In Englard, where a Shakespeare and a harmonious than ours, charms the lense, Milton have written, the matter seeins yet and delights the ear, without the help of to be sub judice. It would ill beconie me, Thyme. But they do not seem to have at- as a young man, and a foreigner, to be the tended sufficiently to the use of poetry, and judge ; but I may be indulged in supporting the nature of the ancient languages. Verses what I have alledged here in favour of rhyme, are made to be sung, or to be rehearsed. by the opinion of the best critic now living From the mouth of the actor, the musician, in this nation, Dr. Johnson ; who, admiring or the reader, whoever he may be, they are the powers of Milton, and the amazing ligsupposed to pass into the minds of a whole nity given to his sentiments, by a verliticapeople; and their composition is the more tion which he otherwise rather duapproves, perfect, the more readily they present them, adds, " He that thinks himlelf capable of felves to the memory.
astonishing, may write blank verse: but The Greek and Latin tongues, by means thofe that hope only to plcare, mult conof their long and short fyllables, and the va
descend to rhyme." prous measures into which they may be re. Another general objection has been brought duced, form a kind of chauni, melody or noted against rhyme. “How comes it, says Moncir, which the memory can easily lay hold sieur de la Motte, that this monotony, which of ; and therefore, the return of the same you affirm to be, by its nature, so agreeabic lounds becoming useless, would cause nothing in poetry, is almost constantly so unpleasant þat a disagreeable repetition,
in a filter art, in music?" To this might be Our modern languages have not the same answered, that the chief object of the music advantage, or possess it, at least, in a much cian being to delight by the founds, he can. less degree. The blank verse if the English, not fucceed better than by varying them German, and Italian, except in very few judiciousy: whereas a Poet is not falisfied fhining exceptions, seems to be verse only to with charming the ears of his audience ; he besys, or depends at least so much on the wishes to impress on their memory a series filfulness of the reader, as not to obtain the of ideas, of sentiments, of exprellions; and effect above-mentioned, with by far the there are none of his verses which he would greatest part of those who read them. Poems not be glad to engrave, with indelible chawhere it is used, are not popular : the ideas racters, on the hearts of all mankind. He avails they convey, the sentiments they mean to himself, therefore, of the rhyme which
* Dr. Johnson's Life of Miloon.
modern languages offer him, as the most in order to set off the beauty of a Venus, a favourable help towards the attaining of his Grace, or an Apollo, used to place them in a purpose.
niche formed in the statue of a Fawn, or a But to returu to our subject, from which Satyr; and Virgil, in order to paint more I must beg pardon for having wandered so strongly the agitation of Dids's heart, places far. Imitation, which is the principle of the scene of her agonies in the niglii, when all the fine arts, is another species of fyin- Alorpheus spread his peaceful influence over meiry, whether it acts by means of colour, all the rest of mankind. of sounds, of gestures, or of words. The There are, besides symmetry, certain ree objects it presents, casily take bold of our lations or proportions, which the mind easily imagination, by the comparion we make conceives, and which therefore becomie of them with objects already known to us. agreeable. Thus, in architecture, for in.
Arißotle and his followers have maintain- ftance, the height of the porticos, in regu. al, that the pleasure produced in the mind, Iar buildings, is double the breadth : the by tbe representation of any object, was height of the entablature, is a fourth, and orring to its acquiring, by that means, a that of the pedestal, a third of the height of new degree of knowledge. This opinion the column. All eminent architects, among seems wrong, because it allow's no difference the different proportions adapted to their debetween a just and an unfair representa- fign, have always made choice of those ticn; nor any gradation of pleasure, from wbich the mind could comprehend without the different degrees of execution. The any difficulty. The same may be observed mind every way m.skes a new acquisition of in music. Of all concords, the unison and koowledge, and mult, therefore, receive the a'iave should be the most agreeable, hearrecable fensations alike, front ilie Pliud of cause they excite more vibrations in the fibres wer, and the Tibaid of Statius; the pic of the ear : but the pleasure we receive from fures of Raphael, ard those of a sign-painter ; this enchanting art, depends more on the the music of landed, and the uncouh notes mind, than on the organ adapted to convey of an Irith piper.
it. The fifrb is the most agreeable of all Other philofophers have asserted, that the concords, because it presents to the mind a representation of an object pleases, only by its proportion, the finding out of which gives za cresting the pasions. And so far it is it a degree of exercise, that causes no weari. Bovis, lidt the foul cannot be moved, or ness, consequently no disgust. strongly affected, without it. But does not Some compositions there are in music, even the least interesting object make a flight which please only profound musicians, and zinpreilion of pleasure, at leatt on the sur- Itrike, perhaps, the rest of the hearers as face of the fou', if it is well represented, ha: 15 and discordant. May not this be owand if an exact fymmary is to be seen be- ing to the very five taste of the former, by (xveen the picture and the original ? Every which they are enabled, in the midst of boiy must have felt it; and it proceeds from seeming diffonances, to find out relations, this principal law is the nature of our sen- which do not affect ears less exercised than sations--that any object becomes agreeable, theirs : whose parts are io formed, and so disposed, The analogy which we find in all the as to preleve the mind with an easy, clear, works of nature, allows us to conjecture, and diftinct idea of the whole.
that the same law which determines the What is called Contrast in painting, poeagreeablenefs of sounds, has also an influence try, and eloquence, is another fort of sym. upon other objects, of our senses. Some comerry', which, by bringing con:rary cbjects lours, for instance, set together, give an pear to each other, sets off the featuris of agreeable sensation to the eye, and more sa the one, by the comparison we make of than if they appeared fingle.
The same them with the features of the other. This principle may, perhaps, be extended ta relacion has been taken from nature, in (meils, and to favours, with some restricwhole works it feldom frils of having a tions, however ; for, though it may be gepleasing effect. It is from it, that the views nerally asserted, that those which are faluiin Switzerland, and in other mountainous brious are agreeable, yet it must be owned, countries, are so particularly agreeable, that their agreeableness does not always seema The diffimilitude of the objects which the to depend on their falubrity. eye enibraces, renders them all more strik- But it is not just proportion and symmee ing, and helps the mind to get a clearer idea trical relation alone that renders the works of the whole. Thus, when skilfully ap- of the fine arts agreeable. They are chiefly plied to the productions of art, contrast is made so, by one principal object, or comgenerally altended with great success. We mon end, to which ail their different parts accordingly riad, Ilint the ancient sculptors, are adapted, and which enables the mind the
more easily to comprehend, and to retain human powers, which Michael Angelo, himthem.
felf a wonder of modern times, used to call Wisuom; in morality, has been defined
à miracle of art, This description I thall, The having one good purpose in view, and for the most part, take from a French book, wing the best means to attain that purpose. which deserves to be better known in this So beauty, in the imitative arts, might be country, from whence so many annually go faid to confift in the choice of a good object, to visit the classical ground of Italy, and so and in making every thing tend to the ex- many in vain, from the want of proper preffion of it, as to one common end. Cer- guides : I mean, Le Description bistorique et tain it is, that this correspondence of the critique de l'Italie
, par Monf. Abbé Richard, parts with the whole, is to be considered as 6 vol. 12mo. Paris 1769. In English, Az the first and principal cause of agreeable historical and critical Description of Italy. fensations. It is alone sufficient to give By Abbé Richard, 6 vols, 12mo. beauty to the most fimple objects; and, if The group of Laocoon was found in tlie other embellifhments are wanted, it becomes Tbermes, or Barbs of Titus, about the year the standard of their propriety, and the rule 1506, under the pontificate of Julius II. by which we can determine, whether they
who iminediately bought it from the pollellor are real beauties, or only thining blemishes. of the field, where it had been dug out, But to give the mind an easier and more The figures are higher than nature, and of agreeable perception of the object, art has so beautiful white marble, that the light of Aill gone farther. Among all these parts, it alone charms the eye. The workman which are made to refer to one common
fhip is exquisite, of such a noble style, and erd, a principal one is chosen, to which all such a correctness of execution, as bespeak others are subordinate, and which becomes it a work of the best Grecian age. It is aut hke a center of re-union for them. Archi- the Laocoon described by Virgil, as rending lecture can illustrate this. Unacquainted the sky with his thrieks, struggling hard for with the real beauties of their art, the Go- his life, and inaring, like a bull flying froin thic architects never failed to place, on both the altar where he has been wounded. fides of the body of their buildings, such enormous wings, or rather malles of stone,
“ Clamores fimul horridos ad fidera tollit, a almost totally eclipsed it, and kept the Quales musitus, fugit cùm faucius aras bght divided and undetermined. Bromantı,
VIRO, Æneid. II. Palladio, and after them most of the modern
“ His roaring fills the flitting air around. architects, caught, perhaps, by Vitruvius, Thus, when an ox receives a glancing woun', but certainly more acquainted than their pre. He breaks his bands, the fatal altar flies, decetiors with what would strike the eyes And with loud bellowings breaks the yieldagreeably, have placed, in the middle of
DRYDEN. theis buildings, a principal part, which, eminent above the relt, gives the right a It is not that man, execrated by a whole fixed point, from which it can glance over people for hiving discharged a pear against all the reit, and so enable the mind to get, the borse confecrated to Minerva, and whom at once, a clear and distinct idea of the the vengeance of the Gods puriues : whole,
All sculptors, in those works where the " Scelus expendisle merentem eye might be divided by the number of Laocoonta ferunt, lacrum, qui cufpide robur
Vinc. ibid. figures, such as groups, entaglios, ballo-re- Læserit." livsi, shew great attention to this rule, and
-" The general cry always chare a principal object, to fix the Proclaims Labcoon jullly doond to die, fight of the beholders. The three Rbodian
Whore hand the will of Pallas had witbltood, artists, whose joint work, according to the
And dai's to violate the sacred wood ;" elder Pliny, * has produced the famous group
DRYDEN. of Lascon, which now stands in the Belvi. dere at Rome, seem to have had that principle it is a wretched parent, who feels his strongly in view, in the disposition of their strength exhausted, and is ready to fink une figures. The Society, I trust, will forgive der the accumulated weight of exquisite pain me, if, by way of illustration, I here join a and deep-felt affliction. His mouth dialf description of that celebrated monument of opened, and his eyes lifted up to heaven,
* « Sicut in Laocoonte, qui est in Titi domo, opus omn b is, et picturæ et sta uariæ artis, moleferendum, ex uno lapide, cum et liberos, draconum mirabiles nexus, de Confilii leacencia fecere, fummi Artifices, Agriander, Polidorus, et Athenedorus, Rhodii.".
Pluna. Hitt. Nat. Lib. XXXVI. cap. s,