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feem to call for affistance from the Gods, more agreeable to the mind, if a multitude though despair at the same instant over- of persons were collected together in the whelms him at the right of bis own fate, fame picture, and were made to contribute and that of his unfortunate fons, half smo- to one and the same action ; and upon that thered and devoured by the monsters, who idea he formed the plan of the epic poem. crush them all three. The exprelliou of that Many years after him, Æschylus, the first group is admirable: but the sculptors have who gave some order and some propriety to distinguished a principal cbject in it: for, the drama, took from the epic poem. the although the sons are equally well executed, plan of tragedy, which he made to be, the and the one to the left in particular claims representation of an event unfolded in all its our sympathy, by the horrid state of pain in circumttances. That great Poet likewise which he is represented, (one of the serpents understood that this representation would beginning to tear open his fide) yet the father far more please the mind, if all the scenes of attracts the chief notice. He is that princi- it were connected by some principal action, pal part of the whole, to which all others which would help the memory to retain are referred ; and it is by that judicious sub- them easily. ordination and reference, that the artists He carried, moreover, this idea ftill far. have found means to impress the spectator ther, and to the unity of aflion joined those with all the sentiments they nieant to con- of time and place. Sophocles and Euripides, vey, and which, without labour to the mind, but especially the former, followed him give it all the pleasure such a representation pretty strictly, and Ariflosle drew his rules is able to produce.

from their practice. Swayed by the authoThe pleasure we receive from a good rity of great names, and, perhaps, led away painting, is also chiefly owing to this subor- too far by this principle, that there is a pleadination of parts, and reference of them to Sure inherent in whatever enables the mind the principal object. Painters call it compo- to get a clear and distinct perception of the fition; and those masters bave obtained ihe object presented to it, the French critics defirst rank among them, who have been moft fended, and the French dramatic poets wrote attentive to it. It was Rapbael's and Rubens' after, these rules. In England, the amazing forte ; and being the happy refult of great 'genius of Shakej peare, probably unacquainted genius, combined with a well cultivated tafte, with Aristotle and his preceps, having early, is always sure of causing the moft agreeable and in general happily, soared above all reSensations to the mind that contemplates the Atraints, gave, perhaps, a bias to the taste of effects of it.

the nation ; or a sanction, at least, to future In poetry, but particularly in epic and dramatic authors, for not attending fcrupulonfly dramatic performances, the observation or tothvítrict unities. There, however, were alio neglect of this rulu becomes, likewise, the defended by the Engligh critics, and, in theo. teft of the pleasure they afford to a person of ry, admitted by the best poets : but the talte. The different actors tbat appear in the practice did not correspond; and there is narration, or on the scene, muft all concur not a theatre at present in Europe, in wbich in their different stations to fet off the main these rules are less observed. object, and keep the attention fixed upon it; I do not mean this as an absolute re. or else, the mind, dittracted with a multipli- proach. Convinced, as I am, that the city of objects, that seem to lay an equal pleatures of the heat are much fuperior to claim to its notice, and perhaps to its feelings, those of the mind, I think, that rules inveolgrows weary, disgusted, and indifferent to ed to give cate and pleature rothe latter, may them all. Unity of atin, in painting and in otton be iacrificed to a multitude of interelipoetry, is another consequence of the atten- ing events and situations, that raise Itrong tion of artists to the principle I meant to il. einotions in the former, and Strike it forciluftrate. For nothing can be more satisfac- bly. But, at the same time, illution being tory to the mind, than to take in, as it were, the charm of theatrical representations, care with a glance, a multitude of facts connected ought to be taken not to dettroy it, nor die together, by their mutual relation to fome mwith the concern and lympathy of the great and important action. Onc may intro. fpectators,by too great a deviation from prubaduce, indeed, in a poem, several publes or bilicy. If, on the itage, an old man were to play plots, and collect in it, as it were in a gallery the part of a young one ; is, the icene heingia of pictures, a series of

It is uut a palace, the sceneries were to present trees Ovid, S:arius, A lojin, Shukilpeare in his lif- and landscapes to our view ; it the drctics did torical plays, and several otrs, have done. not correipond, in fome degree, to the digBut, many centuries before the oldest of them, nity of the perions representeu; all these dife the great genius of Homer had conceived, cordances would otfend us. that it would be presenting a spectacle sur The ani applicable to the deviation from the three unities. If, in a drama, the connected with the principal action, or


elle principal actions are multiplied, if in the they become great blemishes. Milion, in this space of a few hours many centuries are respect, as indeed in many others, has 'the made to elapfe, if the spectator is transport. advantage over Homer and Virgil

. His epied in an instani from one part of the world sode of the battle of angels, and the creation to another, all these absurdities become so of the world, is more intimately connected many warnings against the falsity of the spec. with his {ubject, than the description of tacle ; and a voice seems to issue out of them, Aibilles' shield, or even the descent of Æneas which bids us not to give sincere tears to into hell. Far from breaking the unity of feigned misfortunes.

action, it rather strengthens it, by making Such are the arguments of the critics who us acquainted with the cause of what we have follow the rules of Aristotle. Lord Kaims, on read, and of what is to follow. It is therethe other side, proves, from the different nature fore productive of great mental enjoyment, of the Grecian and the modern drama, that as there is no relation that pleases the mind the unities of time and place are by no more, than that of cause and effect. means lo neceflary with us, as they were This great rule, of the unity of action, is with the ancients.

an insuperable objection to tragi-comedy; The interruption of the representation, on and inattention to it shocks perfons of taste in our theatre, bet ween the different acts, gives some of our best plays. In the Provoked Hujthe miod a facility of supposing any length of bard, for initance, all the scenes relating to the time, or change of place ; and it becomes family of the Wrong beads, however laughable, Du more difficult for the spectator at the and characteristic in themselves, are certain. beginning of an act to imagine a new place, ly to be accounted blemishes, because they or a different time, than it was at first, to stop the tide of sentiment raised by the inte. inagine himself at Albens, or in a period of resting scenes between a sensible, loving, time two thousand years back.

and justly incensed husband, and a giddy, exBut the same freedom cannot be taken travagant, though good-natured wife. with the unity of action. The pleasure This dissertation on the unities will also which the mind, as we observed above, re- be looked upon, I fear, as an excrescence to ceives from a chain of facts connected toge- this paper, alieaay too long ; but I indulged ther, and tending to one common end, ren. myself in it with the thought that it might, ders this unity effential, alike in epic and probably, give room to some interesting condramatic compositions. Every thing, how- versation-the avowed purpose of the ellys ever beautiful in itself, that breaks this chain, presented to this Society-and in that light, I or interrupts this relation, looks like an ex- beg, and I hope for your indulgence. creicence, and becomes uapleasant. An epic From what has been read, it will appear, poem with two principal actions, like a that regularity and contrasi, proportion and play with two main plots, would soon confuse congruiry, uniformity, variety, and fimplicity, and tire the reader and the spectator ; and so far in the objects presented to the mind, give it do the rules of Aristotle agree with nature. an exercise, which is attended with neither An episode and an under-piot may be allowed trouble nor fatigue, and wich is therefore for the sake of variety ; but they must be agreeable.

MEMOIRS of the LIFE and WRITINGS of the late celebrated L. EULER.

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matics, Member of the Imperial Aca. himself, with success, to the mathematics, demy of Petersburg, ancient Director of the under the celebrated James Bernoulli; and, Royal Academy of Berlin, and Fellow of the though he designed his fun tor the minifiry, Rusyal Society of London, as also Correspond. lie initiated him into this science, among the eut Member of the Royal Academy of Sci- other instructions of his early education. Endes at Paris, was born at Basil, April 15th, When young EULER was sent to the Uni. 1707, of reputable parents. The years of versity of Baril, he ittended regularly the bis infancy were palled in a rural retrect, differen! Professors. As his memory was prowhere the examples of pious and virtuous digious, he performed his academical talks parents contributed, no doubt, to form in him with uncommon rapidity, and all the time thar amable fimplicity of character, and un- he gained by this was consecrated to geomecommon purity of sentiments and manners, try, which foon became his favourite study. Hlucha were manifested during the whole The early program is he made in this science, course of his life.

only added new ardour to his application ; Though the studies of bis father were and thus be obtained a distingu shed place in chiefly directed toward branches of know'- the attention and esteein of Profesior Join ledge that had a more immediate relation to Bernoulli, who was, at that time, one of the



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first mathematicians in Europe. EULER be- M. EULER's merit would have given him came his favourite pupil. He was struck an easy admision to honourable preferment, with a kind of astonithiment at the alpiring .either in the magistracy or university of his genius and rapid progress of the young ma- native city, if both civil and academical hothematician: and as his own occupations nours had not been there diftributed by lot. would not admit of his giving the ardent pu. The lot being against him in a certain propil so much of his time as EULER desired, motion, he left his country, set out for Pehe appointed one day in the week for re- tersburgh, and was made joint professor with moving the difficulties which his disciple had his countrymen, Messrs. Hermann and Damet with in perusing the works of the inost niel Bernoulli, in the university of that profound mathematicians.

city. In 1723, M. EULER took his degree as At his first setting ont in his new career, he Master of Arts, and delivered on that occa

enriched the academical collection with many fion a Latin discourse, in which he drew a

Memoirs, which excited a noble emulation comparison between the philosophy of New- between him and M. D. Bernoulli; and this Bon and the Cartehan system, which was re.

emulation always continued, without either deceived with the greatest applause. He after

generating into a selfish jealousy, or producing wards, at his father's desire, applied himself

the least alteration in their friendship. It to the trudy of theology, and the Oriental was at this time that he carried to new delanguages. Though these studies were fo. grees of perfection the integral calculus, inreign to his predominant propenfily, his suc.

vented the calculation of sinulles, reduced cess was confiderable, even in this line : how- analytical operations to a greater fimplicity, ever, with his father's consent, he returned

and thus was enabled to throw new light on to geometry, as his principal object, He all the parts of mathematical science, continued to avail himself of the counsels and In 1730, he was promoted to the Proferiwstructions of M. Bernoulli ; he contracted forship of Natural Piilofophy; and in 1733 an intimate friendship with his two sons, he succeeded his friend D. Bernoulli in the Nicbolas and Daniel, and it was in conte. mathematical chair. In 1735, a problem quence of these connections, that he became was proposed by the Academy, which reafterwards the principal ornament of the quired expedition, and for the folution of Academy of Petersburg.

which several eminent mathematicians had

demanded the space of some months. The The project of erecting this Academy had problem was solved by Euler in three days, been formed by Peter the Great; it was exe

to the great astonishinent of the Academy; cuced by Catherine 1. : and the two young

but the violent and laborious efforts it curt Bernoullis, being invited to Petersburg in

him threw him into a fever, which endan. 1725, promited Euler, who was vefirous of gered his life, and deprived him of the use of fo!!owing them, that they would use their ut. most endi avours to procure for him an advan

The Academy of Sciences at Paris, which, tageous fettlement in that city. In the mean time, by their advice, he applied himself moir Concerning ibi nature and properties of

in 1738, had adjudged the prize to luis mewith andour to the study of potiology, to which he made a happy application of his fire, propoled, for the year 1740, the ini?

portant subject of the sea-tides, a problem mithematical knowluge; and he attended

whose folution required the most arducus the medical leclures of the mott eminent

calculations, and comprehended the theory Profeffors of Baril.

of the folar system. Eur Ex's discourie un This study, horrever, did not wholly en- this question was adjudged a master-piece of gro's bis time: it did not even relax the analysis and geometry; and it was more ho. activity of his voit and comprehentive mind nourable for him to share the academical in the cultis.'tin of other branches of natu- prize with such illustrious competitors 129 ral (vienuo. for while he was keenly en- Colin Maclaurin and Dariel Bernoulli, than to uteti in pobifolgt tretearches, le composed have carried it away from rivals of less maga Dition on th: nidiure and propoza:ion of nitude. Rarely, if ever, did such a brilliant forand, and an answer to a prize queition, con. competition adorn the annals of the Acalem.; Cernus the me, sing of gips, to which the and no subjcct, perhaps, proposed by that Academy of Scimmits üdrudged the anellit, or learned body was ever treated with luch a.f-conscuk, in the year 1727.

From this curacy of investigation and force of genius, falser encourts, and other circumstances, ic as that which here displayed the philosophical a pells, litt frises had early embarked in powers of these three extraordinary men. the curioso ed important turdy of navigation, In the year 1741, M. EULER was in1:1. he at:erward's enriched with so many vited to Berlin, to augment the lustre of the

academy, that was there rising into fame,


his right eye.

رابة 16 - روتانا :


mer the auspicious protection of the present and 1772, were designed to obtain from the King of Prullia ; for wliom the Muses and labours of astronomers a more perfeli Tbeory of the Sciences have a wreath, which the Moon. M. EULER, affitted by his eldeít will bloom unfaded to the latest ages. He son, was a competitor for these prizes, and enriched the lit volume of the Miscellanics obtained them both. In this last memoir, (Maanges; of Berlin with five memoirs, he reserved for farther confideration, several which make an eminent, perhaps the prin- inequalities of the Moon's mution, which he cipal, figure in that collection. These were could not determine in his first theory, on followed, with an attonishing rapidity, by a account of the complicated calculations in great number of important researches, which which the method he then employed had enare scattered through the Memoirs of the gaged him. He had the courage afterward Pruffian Academy ; of which a volume has to review his whole theory, with the aflitbeen regularly published every year, since its ance of his son, and Messrs. Krafft and Lexell, ettabichment in 1744.

and to pursue his researches, until he had The labours of EULER will appear more constructed the new tables, which appeared, especially altonishing, when it is considered, together with the great work, in 1772. the while he was enriching the Academy of Inttead of confining himself, as before, to Berlin with a prodigious number of memoirs, the fruitless integration of three differential on the deepest parts of mathematical science, equations of the second degree, which are wrtaining always some new points of view, furnished by mathematical principles, he reoften iubime truths, and sometimes discove. duced them to the three ordinates, which ries of great importance ; he did not discon- determine the place of the Moon; he divi. Luile his philosophical contributions to the ded into classes all the inequalities of that Acak my of Petersburgh, which granted him planet, as far as they depend either on the a pensana in 1742, and whose Memoirs dif- elongation of the Sun and Moon, or upon the play the marvellous fecundity of EULER's excentricity, or the parallax, or the incligenius.

nation of the lunar orbit. All these means It was with much difficulty that this great of investigation, employed with such art and man oblained, jo 1766, per million from the dexterity as could only be expected from King of Pruilia to return to Petersburgh, an analytical genius of the first order, were where be desired to pass the rest of his days. allended with the greatest success; and it is Soon after his return, which was gracioully impoflible to observe, without admisation, rewarded hy the munificence of Catherine 11. and a kind of astonishment, such immense he was seized with a violent disorder, which calculations on the one hand, and on the term nated in the total loss of his right. A other, the ingenious methods employed by LIU4, formed in his left eye, wbich had this great man to abridge chem, and to faci. been effentially damaged by a too ardent ap- litate their application to the real motion of picaiion to study, deprived him entirely of the Moon. — But this admiration will become the use of that organ.

It was in this viltrer- astonishment, when we considerat ubat Ing situation, that he dictated to his servant, period, and in what circumstances all this a taver's apprentice, and was absolutely de- was effectuated hy M. EULER. It was when Foid of mathematical knowledge, his Ele- he was totally blind, and consequently obliged PL 25 of Alzebra; which by their intrinsical to arrange all his computations by the fole merit, in point of perspicuity and method, powers of his memory and his genius. 16 and the unhappy circumstances in which they was when he was embarrassed in his domer. Here composed, have equally excited applause tic circumstances, by a dreadful fire, that bad al atonishment. This work, though purely consumed great part of his substance, and elementary, discovers the palpable characters forced him to quit a ruined boute, of which its of an inventive genius; and it is here every corner was known to him by habit, alivie that we meet with a compleat theory which, in some measure, fupplied the place 0119 Analysis of Dispbantus..

of light. It was in these circumstances that About this time M. EULER was honoured EULER composed a work, which, alone, was by the Academy of Sciences at Paris with the fufficient to render his name piace of one of the foreign members of that The heroic patience and tranquility of muod Parned body; and, after this, the Academi- which he displayed here needs o description : cal prize was adjudged to three of his me- and he derived them not only from the love m'urs, Concerning the Inequalities in the Motions of science, but from the power of religion. of the Planets. The two prize queftions His pbilosophy was too genuine and sublime poputted by the same Academy for 1770 to stop its analysis at mechanical causes; it

M. J. A. EULER, a son worthy of his illustrious father, has also enriched the academical Mercuirs of Petersburgh with many learned memoirs.



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led him to that divine philosophy of religion, volous part of mankind, in our times, thall which eunobles human nature, and can alone be buried in oblivion. form a habit of lue magnanimity aud pa- Euler's knowledge was more universal tience in suffering.

than could be well expected in one, who had Some time after this, the famous W’entzeli, pursued with such unremitting ardour, maby cuching the cataract, restored Mr. Eu.

thematics and aftronomy as his favourite Ler's sight; but the fatisf.ction and joy that studies. He had made a very considerable this successful operation produced, were of progress in medical, botanical, and chemical short duration. Some instances of negligence, science. What was still more extraordinary, on the part of his surgeons, and his own im- he was an excellent scholar, and poflefled patience to use an organ, whose cure was not what is generally called erudition, in a very compleatly finished, deprived him of his fight high degree. He had read, with attention and a second time; and this relapse was accom- talte, the most eminent writers of ancient panied with tormenting pain. He, however, Rome : he was perfectly acquainted with with the allistance of his fons, and of Mefirs. mathematical literature, and ihe ancient his. Kraffo and Lexii, continued bis labours; lory of that science, The civil and literary neither the loss of his fight, nor the inirmitics history of ail ages and ali nations was familiar of an advanced age, could damp tlc ardour to him; and foreigners, who were only acof h's genius. He had engaged to furnith quainted with his works, were aston.shed to the Academy of Petersburgh with as many find in the convertation of a man, whose memoirs as would be fusilvient to compleat long life seemed solely occupied in mathemaits 47s for twenty years after his death. In tical and plıyfical researches and discoveries, the space of seven years, he transmitted to the such an extensive acquaintance with the most Academy, by Mr. Goliwin, above je venty me- interesting branches of literature. In this moirs, and above two hundred more, which respect, no doubt, he was much indebted to were revised and completed by the Author of a very uncommon memory, which seemed this Paper. Such of these memoirs as were to retain every idea that was conveyed to it, of ancient date were separated from the rest, either from reading or from meditation. He and form a collection that was published could repeat the Æneid of Virgil, from the in the year 1783, under the title of s'na- beginning to the end, without hesitation, and lyrical Workes. There is not one of these indicate the first and last line of every page of pieces, which does not contain fome new the edition he used. discovery, or some ingenious view, that Several attacks of a vertigo, in the beginmay lead to the successful investigation of ing of September 1783, which did not pretru:hs yet unknown. They contain the hap- vent his calculating the motions of the aero. pielt integrations, the most refined and sub- statical globes, were, nevertheless, the fore. Jime avalytical procefles, deep researches runners of his mild and happy passage from concerning the nature and properties of num. this scene to a better. While he was amusing bers, an ingenious demonftration of several himself at tea, with one of his grand-children, theorems of Fermai, the solution of many he was struck with an apoplexy, which tera oficult problems relative to the equilibritim minated his illustrious carecr, at the age and motion of folid, flexible, and claftic bo- of 76. dies, and explicaricus of several seeming pa- His conftitution was uncommonly strong rodoses.--No part of the theory of the and vigorous: buis health was good, and the motion of the celeftial bodies, of their mutual

evening of his long life was calm and serene, 3:1101, and their anomalies, however abftract sweetened by the fame that follows genius, and a fficult, was overlooked, or left unin. the public eiieem and s'espect that are never piovei, ly M. EULER. There is not oule with-lield from exemplary virtue, and levebranch of mathematical scieoce that has not ral domestic comforts which he was capable t en bevifited by Iris labours: No geometric of feeling, and therefore deserved to enjoy. cian ever before embraced to many objects at His temper was even, nild, and cheerful; the lame time: none, perhaps, crer equalled to which were adeled, a certain roughness, him, either in the number of luis publications, mixed with fimplicity and good humour, and or in the multicude and variety of bis disco- a happy and plealant knack of telling a story, veries. His na re will live as long as the which rendered his conversation agrecable. sciences fubuit: It will go down to the latest The great activity of his mind was neceffarily ages with the immortal nanies of DESCAR- connected with a proportion of vivacity and TES, GALILEI, NEW TUN, LEIBNITZ, and quickness, wbich rendered bin susceptible other illustrious men, whole genius and vir- of warmil and irritation. Hsanger, huwtues hare enrohled humanity: it will fhine ever, was never any thing more than a tranwith an uafading luttre, when many names, fitory flash; and he knew ne such thing as w ich bave been rallied to fame by the bi. permanent ill-will toward any human being.


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