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From the PREFACE to “A COLLECTION of THEOLOGICAL TRACTS"
By Dr. WATSON, BISHOP OF L LAND AF F. is a very wonderful thing, that a being affections consists our happiness as reasonabl such as man, placed on a little globe of beings. If there is one condition in this lik arth, in a little corner of the wiverse ; cut happier than another, it is, surely, that of him off from all communication with the other who founds all his hopes of futurity on the systems which are dispersed through the im- promises of the Gospel ; who carefully en. mensity of space ; imprisoned, as it were, on deavours to conform his actions to its pre the spot where he happens to be born; almost cepts; Jooking upon the great God Almighty utterly ignorant of the variety of spiritual as his Protector here, his Rewarder here existencies; and circumscribed in his know. after, and his everlasting Preseryer. This is ledge of material things, hy their remoteness, a frame of mind so perfective of our nature magnitude, or minuteness ; a stranger to the that if Christianity, from a belief of which very nature of the pebbles on which he only it can be derived, were as certainly (reads; unacquainted, or but very obscurely false as it is certainly true, one could not help informed by his natural faculties of his con- wishing that it were universally received in dition after death; it is wonderful that a the world. Unbelievers attempt to make being such as this, should reluctantly receive, profelytes to infidelity, by preiling on the or fastidiously reject the instruction of the minds of the unlearned in scripture know Eternal God ! Or, if this be saying too much, ledge, the authorities of Boling broke, Vola that he should hastily, and negligently, and taire, Helvetius, Hume, and other Deiftical triumphantly conclude, that the Supreme writers. It is proper that young men should Being never had condescended to instruct the be furnished with a ready answer to argurace of man. It might properly have been ments in favour of infidelity, wbich are taken expected, that a rational being, so circum, from the high literary character of those who Itanced, would have feduloully inquired into profess it : let them remember then that a subject of such vast importance ; that lie Bacon, Boyle, Newton, Grotius, Locke, would not have suffered himself to be divert. Euler,—that Addison, Hartley, Haller, Wett, ed from the investigation, by the pursuits of Jenyns,--that Lords Nottingham, King, BarWealth, or honour, or any temporal concern; rington, Lyttelton, with an hundred other unuch less by notions taken up without atten. Jaymen, who were surely as eminent for their Lion, arguments admitted without examina- literary attainments in every kind of science as nation, or prejudices imbibed in early youth, either Bolingbroke or Voltaire, were pro. from the profane ridicule, or impious jettings, felfed believers of Christianity. I am quite of sensual and immoral men. It is from the aware that the truth of Christianity cannot be influence of such prejudices that I would established by authorities; but neither can its guard the rifing part of the generation com. falsehood be so established. Arguments ad mitted to our care, by recommending a serious verecundiam have little weigh¢ with those perusal of the tracts which are here presen. who know how to use any other ; but they ted to them. Let them not refuse to follow have weight with the lazy and the ignorant this advice, because it is given hy a church- on both sides of the question. But though I man. He can have no possible interest in have here suggested to young men a ready giving it, except what may result from the answer tp such of their profligate acquaintconsciousness of endeavouring to discharge his ance as may wish to work upon their prejse duty, and the hope of being serviceable to dices in favour of infidelity; yet I hope they them in this world and the next. They need will not content themselves with being prenot question his veracity, when he speaks of judiced even in favour of Christianity. They Religion as being serviceable to them in this will find, in this Collection, fuch solid argiWorld; for it is a trite objection, and grounded ments in support of its fruthi as cannot fail on a misapprehension of the desigu of Chris- to confirm them, on the most rational grounds, Lianity, which would represent it an intoler. in the belief of the Gospel dispensation. abic yoke, so opposite to the propenfities, as They may wonder, perhaps, if religion be to be ulcerly destructive of the felicity of the so useful a thing as is here represented, that human mind. It is, in truth, quite the re. their parents should se!dom or never have Perse. There is not a single precept in the conversed with them on the subject. If this Gospel, without excepting either that which should be the fact, I can only fay, that it is a ordains the forgiveness of injuries, or that neglect of all others the must to be regretted, which commands every one ''to poslefslis vel- And indeed our mode of education, as to refel in sanctification and honour," which is not ligious knowledge, is very defective. The calculated to promote our happiness. Chrií- child is instructed in its catechism before it is Fanity regulates, but does not extinguish our able to comprehend its meaning; and that is alicctions, and in the due regulation of our usually all the domeitic instruction which is
ever receives. But whatever be the negligence **** The freedom of enquiry which of pareats in teaching their children Christiania has subsisted in this country, during the pre15, or how forcibly foever the maxims and sent century, has eventually been of great sercustoms of the world may conspire in con- vice to the cause of Christianity. It must be firming men in infidelity; it is the duty of those, acknowledged, that the works of our deistical w whom the education of youth is intrusted, writers have made some few converts to inDX to despair. Their diligence will have its fidelity at home ; and that they have furnished use; it will prevent a bad matter from becoming the Esprits Forts of France, and the Frey Geifworse ; and if this “foolishness of preaching,” ters of Germany with every material objection into which I have been betrayed on this oc- to our religions, which they have of late years calaon, has but the effect of making even one displayed with much affectation of originality ; young man of fortune examine into the truth but at the same time we must needs allow, of the Christian religion, who would not that these works have stimulated some dilotherwise have done it, I shall not repent tinguished characters among the laity, and kbe having been "instant out of season." many among the clergy, to exert their calents Discite, 0 miseri, et causas cognoscite in removing such difficulties in the Christian
system, as would otherwise be likely to perQuid fumus, et quidnam victuri gignimur : plex the unlearned, to Thipwreck the faith ordo
of the unstable, and to induce a reluctant Duis datus ;
scepticism into the minds of the most serious quem te Deus elle Julit.
and best-intentioned. Some difficulties still
remain; and it would be a miracle greater These were questions which even the Hea
than any we are inttructed to believe, if there kien moralists thought it a shame for a man remained none; if a being with but five never to have considered. How much more
scanty inlets of knowledge, separated but censurable are those among ourselves who yesterday from his mother Earth, and to-day walte their days in folly or vice, without ever
finking again into her bofom, could fathom redietting upon the providential dispensation · the depths of the wisdom and knowledge of under which they live; without having any “ Him, which is, which was, and which is fublimer piety, any purer morality, any better
to come--the Lord God Almighty, to whom hopes of futurity than the Heathens had.
he glory and dominion for ever and ever." · For the EUROPEAN MAGAZINE. ORIGINAL LETTER from THOMAS COOKE, TRANSLATOR of HES10D, &c. to
Mr. BAKER. IVE me leave to affure you that I am which he possesfed many years, and sold for
much ashamed of giving you so much fix hundred pounds, about the year 1720. trouble as I have done of lale; but I fall The late Earl of Pembroke was continually henceforward, now the Parliament sits, free sending him presents for nine or ten years qua from expence when I take the like free- past. He sent him, about eight years ago, dom. In an English work which I am now thirty guineas at one time by Sir Andrew publishing, I have frequent occasion to use Fountaine, since which time he has sent him Gabriel Faernus's name ; and I am at a loss several times in a year, five and two guineas to know what name to call him by in En- at a time by me. About two years ago he ght, Faern is no Italian termination, and if received an hundred pounds by the hands of his came was Famese, I thould think the Latin Mr. Morrice, just as he came from visiting would have heen Farnesius. If you will be his father-in-law Dr. Atterbury in France. so good as to inform me what name you Mr. Morrice fayed he was ordered not to tell would call him by in English, I Thall be from whom it came, nor did Mr. Dennis much obliged to you.
ever know; though he has sayed he believed Till I had the favour of your last, I was from Dr. Atterbury ; " but that's uncertain ; under a mistake about Mr. Dennis's age and the circumstances i suppose made him guess college. The Papers fayed he was in great him," and 'tis not certain that Dr. Atterbury wat before he died ; if so, poor gentleman, did not send it. Sir Robert Walpole to my * *s partly owing to his own extravagance, knowledge has allowed him not less than for what I now tell you, you may depend twenty pounds a-year for several years till he 06, on your own existence. After having died, on no other confideration but his age spent his own fortune, which was left him and infirmities, and his having made a figure by his uncle, who was an Alderman of Lon- in the republic of letters. A few weeks bee don, whether bis father's or mother's bro- fore he died he had a benefit given him by ther I cannot tell, the late Duke of Marlbo- one of our Theatres , by whicn he got Tough gave him a King's waiter's place above a hundred pounds. These are facts * At the Haymarket ; on which occasion Mr. Pope wrote a prologue, which was spo• by Mr. Cibbor junior. See Pope's Works, vol. VI.
which we !"
which I relate with certainty : besides all Johannes Dennis, Francisci filius ephippi. which he got a great deal by his writings. arii, Londini natus, literisq; Gram. inftitutus Your commands will reach me at Mr.
fub Magiftro Ellys, deinde apud Smith's, a peruke-maker, in Red-lion court, Harrowe sub Magistro Horne per qmnFleet street, London, which will be receiv- quennium, admillus est Jan. 13, 1675, ed with great respect by, Sir,
Penf. Min, in Comm, Scholar. an. natus Your obliged and most humble servant, 13, sub tutela Magiftri Ellys.
THOMAS COOKE. Joh. Dennis, Coll, Caii, Art. Bac. 1679. London, Jan, 24, 1734.
Regr. To the Reverend Mr. Baker,
Joh. Dennis died an. 1733-4, buried at of St. John's College,
St. Martin's church, London, Jan. 19, Cambridge.
CHARACTERS, ANECDOTES, and OBSERVATIONS, by the face
Dr. SAMUEL JOHNSON.
Continued from Page 20.)
duodecimo might be made out of the two in
fotio. 'HE best book thxt ever was written up
Pulteney was as paltry a fellow as could be. He was a Whig who pretended to be
honest, and you know it is ridiculous for a BURNET.
Whig to pretend to be honeft. He cando! The first part of Burner's History is one
hold it out. He called Mr. Pitt a meteor : of the most entertaining books in the English Sir Robert Walpole a fixed star. language ; it is quite dramatick, while he went about every where, law every where,
TURKISH SPY. and hcard every where. By the first part, I The Turkish Spy coll nothing but what mean so far as it appears that Burnet bimself every body might have known at that time ; was actually engaged in what he has told ; and what was good in ic did not pay you for and this may be easily distinguished.
the trouble of reading to find it.
GOLDSMITH'S TRAVELLER. Gay's line in the Beggar's Opera, . As We talked of Goldsmith's Traveller, of men should serve a cucumber, &c.' has no whichi Dr. Johnson fpoke highly; and white waggish meaning with reference to men I was helping him on with his great coat, he flinging away cucumbers as too cooling, repeated from it the character of the English which some have thought ; for it has been a
nation, which he did with such energy, that common saying of physicians in England, the tear started into his eye. that a cucumber should be well Riced, and
DUKE OF ARCYLE. dressed with pepper and vinegar, and then thrown out as good for nothing.
He maintained that Archibald Duke of
Argyle was a narrow man
DR. BEATTIE. fidered as a book of authoritv ; but it is ill On communicating to Dr. Johnfon the written. The matter is diffuled into tou ma. news that Dr. Beattie had got a penfion of ny words; there is no animation, no com- two hundred pounds a year, he sat up in his pieftion, no vigour. Two good volumes in bed, clapped his hands, and cried, “U brave
* This nobleman, when Earl of Itay, began a speech in the House of Peers with, “ My Lords, I am a Preibycorian, &c.”
me!* a peculiar exclimation of his when he in 1667, was till very well toned. She rjoices.
fung along with it. Dr. Johnson seemed
pleased with the music, though he owns he H.ME.
peither likes it, nor has hardly any percepOnce in a coffee-house at Oxford, he called tion of it. Ac Mr. Macpherson's in Slate, he to old Mr. Sheridan, “ How came you, Sir, told us, that “ He knew a drum from a trumto give Home a gold medal íor writing that pet, and a bagpipe from a guittar, which was foolish play?" and defied Mr. Sheridan to about the extent of his knowledge of music.” shew ten good lines in it. He did not infilt To-night he said, that, “ If he had learnt they thould be together ; but that there were music, he should have been afraid he would Bat ten good lines in the whole play. He have done nothing else than play. It was a now perlilted in this. I endeavoured to de- method of employing the mind, without the tened that pathetic and beautiful tragedy, and labour of thinking at all, and with some aprepeated the following passage :
plause from a man's felf.""
Sincerity, We had the music of the bagpipe every Thos frit of virtues ! let no mortal leave day at Armidale, Dunvegan, and Col. Dr. Thy onward path, altho' the earth should Johnson appeared fond of it, and used oftea gape,
to stand for fome time with his ear close to And from the gulph of hell destruction cry, the great drone. To take diffimulation's winding way. Jolajone “ That will not do, Sir. Nothing
Mr. HARRIS. is good but what is consistent with truth or
At Lord Monboddo's, after the converfa. probability, which this is not. Juvenal, in
tion upon the decrease of learning in England, deed, gives us a ouble picture of inflexible his Lordship mentioned Hermes by Mr. Harvirtue :
ris of Salisbury, as the work of a living auEito bonus miles, tutor bonus, arbiter idem thor for whom he had a great respect. Dr. Integer ; ambiguæ fi quando citabere testis, Johnson said nothing at the time ; but when lacertzque rei, Phalaris licet imperet, ut fis
we were in our poft-chaise, told me, he Falsus, et admoto dictet perjuria tauro, thought Harris a coxcomb." This he faid Sunmum crede nefas aninum præferre pu- of him, not as a man, but as an author ; and dori,
I give his opinions of men and books, faithfulEt propter vitam vivendi perdere caufas.
ly, whether they agree with my own or not. He repeated the lines with great force and I do adinit, that there always appeared to me dgn uy; then added, " And, after this, something of affectation in Mr. Harris's mancomes Johnny Home, with his earth gaping
ner of writing ; something of a habit of clo. . and bus deftruction crying :-Pooh !"
thing plain thoughts in analytick and categori
cal formality. But all his writings are imbued Music.
with learning ; and all breathe chat philanMifs M'Lean gave us several tunes on a
thropy and amiable disposition which diftin. pimet, which, though made so long ago as guished him as a man to
OBSERVATIONS ON SE A. BATHING,
BY DE BUCHAN.
No part of the practice of medicine is of bericof practical obfervations to regulate the the attention of the physician, as many lives and important medicines. are lot, and numbers ruin their healths, by Without a proper discrimination with recokl bathing, and an imprudent use of the gard to the disease and the constitution of the mineral waters. On some future occasion I pacient, the most powerful medicine is more may probably resame this subject, as I know likely to do harm than good. Every one 004 any work that sontains a sufficient num. knows that the same physician who, by cold
"This Gentleman, thonigh devoted to the study of grammar and diale&ticks, was notfío Solarbed in it as to be without a sense of pleasantry, or to be offended at his favourite topicks being treated lightly. I one day met him in the street, as I was hastening to the House of Lards
, and cold him, I was sorry I could not stop, being rather too late to attend an appeal of the Duke of Hamilton against Douglas. " I thought (Taid he) their contest had been over lang ago.” I answered, “ The concert concerning Douglas's filiation was over long ago ; but the contest now is, who thall have the estate." Then affuming the air of « an anciens tage Philosopher,” I proceeded thus : “ Were I to predicate concerning him, 1 should say, the formerly was, What is he? The conteit now is, What has he?"-'s Right
bathing, cured Auguftus, by an imprudent be more essentially answered by the applica: use of the fame medicine killed his heir. tion of salt water. This ought not only to This induced the Roman senate to make laws be preferred on account of its fuperior gravifor regulating the baths, and preventing the ty, but likewise for its greater power of Itinumerous evils which arose from an impru- mulating the skin, which promotes the perdent and promiscuous use of those elegant spiration, and prevents the patient from and fathionable pieces of luxury. But as no catching cold. such laws exist in this country, every one does . It is neceffary, however, to observe, that that subieb is right in bis own cyes, and of cold bathing is more likely to prevent, than course many must do wrong.
to remove obstructions of the glandular or People are apt to imagine that the simple lymphatic system. Indeed, when these have element of water can do no hurt, and that arrived at a certain pitch, they are not to be they may plunge into it at any time with im- removed by any means. In this case the punity. In this, however, they are much cold bath will only aggravate the symptoms, mistaken. I have known pallies and apo- and hurry the unhappy patient into an untimeplexies occasioned by going into the cold bath, ly grave. It is therefore of the utmost imporfevers excited by staying too long in it, and cance, previous to the patient's entering upon other maladies so much aggravated by its con- the use of the cold bath, to determine whetinued use, that they could never be wholly theror not be labours under any obstinate oberadicated. Nur are examples wanting, ei. ftructions of the lungs, or other viscera ; aud ther in ancient or modern times, of the bane- where this is the case, cold bathing ought ful consequences which have arisen alio from strictly to be prohibited. A nervous asthma, an injudicious application of the warm bath ; or an atrophy, may be mistaken for a pulbut as warm batlıs are not so common in this monary consumption ; yet, in the two for. country, and are seldom used but under the mer, the cold bath proves often beneficial, direction of a physician, I shall not enlarge though I never knew it so in the latter. loon that part of the subject.
deed, all the shthifical patients I ever faw, Immersion in cold water is a custom which who had tried the cold bath, were evidently Jays claim to the most remote antiquity : the worse for it. indeed it must have been coëval with man In what is called a plethoric state, or too himself. The neceflity of water for the pur- great a fulness of the body, it is likewise poses of cleanliness, and the pleasure arising dangerous to use the cold bath, without due from its application to the body in hot coun- preparation. In this case there is great dantries, muft very early have recommended it to ger of burtting a blood-vellel, or occafioning the human species. Even the example of other an inflammation of the brain, or some of the animals was sufficient to give the hint. By vifcera. This precaution is the more neceíinstinct many of them are led to apply cold fary to citizens, as most of them live full, water in this manner; and fome, when de and are of a gross habit. Yet, what is very prived of ies use, have been known to lan- remarkable, these people resort in crowds guith, and even to die. But whether the every reason to the sea-side, and plunge into practice of cold bathing arose from neceility, the water withcut the least consideration. reatoning, or imitation, is an inquiry of no No doubt they often escape with impunity, importance ; vur business is to point out the but does that give a sanction to the practice ? acivantages which may be derived from it, Perions of this description ought by no means and to guard people against an improper use to bathie, unless the body has been previously of it.
prepued by bleeding, purging, and a spare The cold bath recommends itself in a va- dier, riety of cares; and is peculiarly beneficial to Another class of patients who stand peo the inhabitants of populous cities, who in. culiarly in need of the bracing qualities of dulge in idleness, and lead fedentary lives. cold water, is the nervous. This includes 2 In persons of this description the action of great number of the male, and almost all the the solids is always too weak, wluch induces female inhabitants of great cities. Yet even a languid circulation, a crude indigested mass those persons ought to be cautious in using of humours, and obstructions in the capillary the cold bath. Nervous people have often velsels and glandular system. Cold water, weak hou els, and may, as well as others, be from its gravity as well as its tonic power, subject to congestions and obstructions of the is well calculated either to obviate or remove visiera ; and in this case they will not be able these symptoms. It accelerates the motion to bear the effects of the cold water. For of the blood, promotes the different secre- them, therefore, and indeed for all delicate tions, and gives permanent vigour to the so- people, the best plan would be to accustom lids. But all these important purposes will hemselves to is by the must pleasing and geo