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Jupiter; (it might perhaps, we think, be of a Hercules ;) if to these be added the Harpocrates, found also in the bed of Thames, near the New London Bridge, and the colossal head of Hadrian, in the possession of Mr. Newman, from the same locality, our conjecture will be found fully borne out, that the bed of the river was probably rich in the idols of the inhabitants of the Roman Londinium. We concur with Mr. Smith and Sir Richard Westmacott in the opinion that these images are of the Augustan age of Roman, or rather of Græco-Roman art. Whether they owe their mutilated condition to the Iconoclasts, who on the establishment of Christianity cleared the heathen temples of their idols(for in the reformation, even to a right faith, as has been seen by much later examples, unfortunately works of art are little respected,) or to the ravages of the Icenian Britons, when they sacked the Augustan colony under Boadicea, admits, perhaps, of doubt. Christianity did not become the accepted religion of the land until the fourth century, and these were probably Lares, or household gods, of a much earlier period; be this as it may, Mr. Smith has done great justice to these exquisite specimens of art, in the essay which accompanies the engravings, after drawings from the pencil of Corbould, and this proof of his zeal is, we doubt not, an earnest of further valuable communications.
An account of a large quantity of Coins of Edward I. and II. discovered in 1836, at Wyke, near Leeds, in Yorkshire, forming a sequel to Mr. Hawkins's account of those of the same reigns, found at Tutbury. By Messrs. Francis Sharp and D. H. Haigh, of Leeds.
These coins were discovered by a person planting a tree at the end of his house at Wyke, in the parish of Harewood, eight miles from Leeds.
The property at Wyke belonged to the Abbat of Kirkstall, and this is another instance of the deposition of treasure within the hallowed precincts of the church. There, in times of civil commotion and warfare, it was secured for the owners. The legends of these coins, places of their mintage,
&c. are detailed with numismatic accuracy. Some Scotch and Irish coins were mingled with the hoard.
"The reason of the concealment was undoubtedly the unsettled state of Yorkshire during the reigns of the first three Edwards. In that of Edward II. the Scotch made repeated inroads into the county, even spending the winter of 1322 at Morley, ten miles south of Wyke, after which they penetrated still further south. When Edward Baliol was driven from Scotland in 1333, he took refuge at the castle of Harewood, (distant not more than two or three miles from Wyke), where his arms, together with those of Aldborough, the governor, who received him, yet remain over the entrance. During the latter part of this, and the beginning of the following reign, the county continued in a very turbulent state on account of the Scottish wars. The treasure might either have been secreted by its owner, to prevent its falling into the hands of some party of marauders; or he may have been enrolled amongst the troops, and have been slain in the war."
Remarks on the manner of the death of King Richard the Second, by P. W. Dillon, Esq. of Paris.
It is our opinion that the popular and accepted version of the most remarkable passages of history is generally not far from the correct one; for, whatever attempts may have been made to suppress the truth, or to mislead the public opinion, at the precise period of action, yet before the close of the generation, and ere all the actors and mortal scene, the chances are "that witnesses have passed off from this the truth will out," and a public sentiment not very distant from it will prevail, correct in the main, as to the motives and conduct of individuals, if not in every particular fact. It is a bold task, in any case, to attempt to overthrow, or rather to supplant historical traditions by mere hypotheses. The attempts at white-washing Richard the Third have been about as successful as those for getting up an apotheosis of Napoleon Bonaparte. Mr. Dillon declares himself a decided partizan of the old, but now almost exploded assertion, that Richard was assassinated in his prison by Sir Piers Exton. On this point, however, he cannot decisively controvert the opinion of Mr. Amyot,
that Richard died of voluntary abstinence, or that of Mr. Webb, that he lost his life by compulsory starvation. Mr. Tytler's version that he escaped and survived as a dependent on the bounty of the Scottish Court, is much more easily refuted; for Mr. Dillon shews that at the very period when the reports of Richard being alive were strongest, an inquiry was set on foot by the King of France, with the view to ascertain the fact, and this inquiry, although conducted by one who knew Richard well, and who believed himself in the reports, ended in disappointment.
The person entrusted with this mission was John Creton, valet de chambre of Charles the Sixth, King of France, who, in an epistle written to the Duke of Burgundy, about the year 1402, distinctly and emphatically declares not only that Richard was dead, but that his blood was shed in a violent and cruel manner.
Après, mon très redoubté Seigneur, veuillez que vengeance ou punicion soit faicte du noble sang du bon Catholique, le Roi Richart, lequel a ésté espandu tant villamment, tant traitreusement que certes c'est molt misericordeuse et piteuse chose à oyr la fin de ses jours, lesquels par la vray et loyal amour qu'il avoit pardeça ons ésté finis avant que son age deust estre accompli."-(And then, my most redoubtable lord, please to avenge and punish the death of that good Catholic, King Richard, whose noble blood has been shed in so villanous and traitorous a manner, that it is a lamentable and piteous thing to hear the end of his days; which for the true and loyal affection he bore this kingdom were shortened before his natural term had expired.)
The opinion that Richard died of starvation was not unknown, Mr. Dillon says, in France, although no one partook of it. A MS. in the Royal Library of France has the following passage:-"Pour couvrir la trayson de ceulx d'Angleterre leur opinion est quil ne mourut point par la manière devant dicte (i. e. par la main d'Exton,) mais mourut aultrement," &c.
Mr. Dillon appends to his interesting essay, a copy of an original letter, addressed by the gallant Creton to Richard the Second, when he thought he had been preserved from extermination by his enemies; of the Ordon
nance of Charles the Sixth, for payment of two hundred francs to him receipt which he gave, dated 7 Aug, on account of his journey, and of the 1410, for one hundred francs, in part payment of the above sum, in which he speaks of Richard as defunctpour savoir et enquerir la verité de feu le Roy Richart d'Angleterre.'
The communications of Mr. Dillon are valuable additions to the curious papers already contributed by Messrs. Amyot and Webb, to the Archæologia, on the same topic.
The Life of Sir Peter Carew, of Mohun Ottery, in the county of Devon; communicated by Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart. F.R.S. &c.
A curious contemporary record from the pen of the Devonian antiquary John Vowell, alias Hooker, of a scion of the ancient family and house of Carew, who were Barons of Pembroke in Wales, and of Mohun Ottery in Devon,-the roaming propensities of this youth are accounted for in the quaint but expressive summary of his character, "that he was more desyrouse of libertie than of learninge, was desyrouse of the one and carelesse of the other, and do the schole master what he coulde, he in no wise could frame the younge Peter to smell to a bocke or licke of any schollinge." The consequence of this aversion for study was that his father entrusted him in quality of page to a gentleman who was about to travel on the Continent. There, like Chaucer's knight,
"In Lettow had he ridden and in Luce,
He was as a captain of horse among the followers of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, in the expedition of Henry VIII. into French Flanders; subsequently appointed to the command of a “tall ship,” and in that expedition to the coast of France in which the gallant vessel the Mary Rose was lost, much in the same way as the Royal George in times connected with our own, by the ship heeling and the water making entrance through her ports. Sir Peter, on his return, attracting the notice and favour of the King, remained in attendance on the court,
became "wrapt in Cupid's bonds and stryken with Cupid's dart, for he had been and was a suitor to a lady in the court, being the widow of a baron deceased." Before the marriage took place the King died, and the chivalrous Sir Peter distinguished himself by tilting against all comers at the coronation of Edward VI, and there "this Ulisses in honor of his Penelope wore her sleve upon his headpece and acquitted himself very honourably." This may afford a hint of much authority for the gallant combatants at St. John's Wood and Eglintoun Castle. One, Mr. Cooke, had the hardihood to champion Sir Peter to the "outrance, "and so then eche one encounteringe the other he overthrew the said Cooke both horse and man." The widow could now no longer resist, and in company with her as his wife he rode into Lincolnshire where her livings lay, and thence to Devon, where he just arrived in time to oppose the rising of the common people in favour of the old papal forms which had so recently been displaced by the light of the Reformation. On the accession of Mary Sir Peter Carew became suspected of favouring the treasonable efforts of Wyatt; he was proclaimed a traitor, and measures were taken for his apprehension; he, however, took shipping, landed in France, and proceeded overland to Venice. His wife became a suitor to the Queen to allow his return to England, in which, not making the desired progress, she applied to King Philip, who was then in the Low Countries; he granted her request, but by the device of Lord Paget, Sir Peter was seized on his return home and carried prisoner to the Tower of London. No charge being substantiated against him, he obtained his enlargement on paying a certain fine on the plea of a sum due to the Crown by his ancestor Sir Edmund Carew.
Sir Peter returned to his native county, and being now at leisure, bethought himself of such lands as he was persuaded he ought to have, by inheritance from the Carews, we suppose of Pembroke, in the realm of Ireland. Of these the evidences or title-deeds were unfortunately however written in the old court hand of centuries gone by. Well did now the truant Peter feel the consequences of
his unwillingness to "smell to a book" and rejecting his " 'scholynge;" however, to his great consolation the writer of the memoir under notice, becoming then for the first time known to him,
as a man greatly given to seek and search old records and auncient writings, and very skilful in reading of them." Sir Peter sought him out, and the decipherer "did forthwith shew and impart two or three old writings of evidence concerning the said his lands, of which one was very old and had been trodden under the feet, and by that means the letters were almost worn out- What a treat this discovery to a genuine antiquary like Hooker! "-nevertheless this man did read them and declare the effect of them to him." The result was Sir Peter Carew laid his claim before Queen Elizabeth in Council, obtained her letters to the Lord Deputy of Ireland, authorizing the investigation thereof, and repaired to Dublin, where as he rode through the streets on his horse, caparisoned and furnished with a foot cloth, an old lady sitting at her door, thus exclaimed :
"You have heard that it is an old saying that a dead man should rise again, and lo said she, pointing her hand to Sir Peter, yonder he is; for his ancestors were great lords, and had great possessions in this realm, but having not been heard of 200 or 300 years it was thought they had been all dead, and none left one lyve to claim the same, but now this man is risen as it were from death, and awaketh and mindeth to stir them in their nests which thought to lie all at their rest."
The prosecution of his suit for the barony of Odrone, and against Sir Christopher Chyvers for the lordship of Maston, his military exploits in the rebellion called "the Butler's wars," the principal instigator of which was Sir Edmund Butler, third son of James Earl of Ormond, are most amusingly and minutely detailed. He however was arrested in his successful course of recovery of his ancestral claims by a mortal disease, an imposthume of the bladder, at the town of Ross, where, on the 27th of November, 1575, he expired.
The memoir concludes with a particular account of St. Peter's lineage, being of the ancient line of Carew by his father, and by his mother of the noble house of Courtenay, of his personal endowments, his patronage of
the preachers of the gospel on the dawn of the Reformation, his justice, fortitude, and pious resignation on his death-bed; so that this heedless and ungoverned youth became by the experience of manhood an example for his fellows.
The romantic memoirs of Sir Peter Carew form a highly acceptable contribution to British biography, and rare are the instances of such minute and familiar details being handed down to us through a lapse of three centuries. (To be continued.)
Pudens and Claudia of St. Paul. On the introduction of the Christian Faith to these Islands through Claudia, a British Lady, supposed daughter of Caractacus. By the Rev. W. L. Bowles, Canon Residentiary of Sarum, &c.
A MOST ingenious and satisfactory piece of critical and classical reasoning, applied to a passage of Scripture, the outline of which we shall sketch for our readers.-At the time of Paul's first examination before Nero, Caractacus, the King of these Barbarians, was in Rome; and Claudia, there are reasons to believe, was his daughter, so named from Claudius, his conqueror; but, in the second Epistle of St. Paul to Timothy, Claudia is joined with Pudens. "Eubulus greeteth thee, and Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia." Now, though, as Mr. Bowles observes, it is a questionable fact that St. Paul set foot on British shores; yet it is remarkable that the detention in Rome of the British hostages, was coincident with St. Paul's residence there as a prisoner, and that the British captives, with their King Caractacus, should be released from captivity, A.D. 56, in the very year that St. Paul was set at liberty, after his first examination.
The next step in the argument leads it successfully on. Claudia, a British lady, supposed daughter of Caractacus, afterwards married to Pudens, remained in Rome. It will be obvious that she, who witnessed at Rome the Apostle's faith and constancy, and who was afterwards converted to that faith, should have been anxious for her distant friends in her father-land. This
is a reasonable and legitimate argument; but it may be asked, how do we know that Claudia was a British lady, and wife to Pudens? Mr. Bowles answers- -"by a remarkable circumstance. Martial was at Rome about the same time, and lived there about thirty-five years. In one of his epigrams after Claudia's marriage, he says:
'Claudia cæruleis cum sit Rufina Bri
Edita, cur Latiæ pectora plebis habet?
We shall now quote Mr. Bowles's own words:
"In the year 60 of the christian æra, St. Paul says, in his Epistle to the Romans, Salute Rufus !' But six years afterwards, in the second Epistle to Timothy, he says—' Eubulus greeteth thee, and Pudens, and Linus and_Claudia. Now a celebrated citizen of Rome, at this time called Rufus, was afterwards married to a British lady, called from the custom of having the names from high Romans, Claudia from Claudius, and this Rufus, distinguished for wisdom and virtue, received, it is said, on account of his modesty and virtues, and gentleness, the name of Pudens; by this name probably distinguished as a Christian convert, first called Rufus,' as in the Epistle to the Romans, Chosen of the Lord.' Let any thinking man weigh this singular circumstance. Without the remotest design, Rufus is mentioned by St. Paul in the Epistle to the Romans, and in the Epistle to Timothy, Pudens is joined in the same sentence with Claudia; and that Claudia was married to Rufus, called afterwards Pudens, and that she was a Briton, is clear from the lines of Martial; and thus one line of a contemporary poet proves accidentally two things, both remarkable-that Claudia was a British lady married to Rufus, and therefore called Claudia Rufina, and that this Rufus was afterwards called Pudens."
Mr. Bowles then quotes Martial's epigram upon Claudia's marriage with Pudens.
"Claudia, Rufe meo nubit peregrina Pudenti."
Thus Claudia was married at Rome, in the lifetime of St. Paul, before the second examination of the Apostle.
"It is known, (says Mr. Bowles), from unperishing history, that as soon as Clau dius heard that speech which will never
die, spoken by the stern British chief in his chains, these chains the magnanimous emperor ordered to be cast at his feet. And who can think, but at that interesting moment, when the stern British chief who had defied for nine years the disciplined legions of the invader stood before the throne of the Conqueror, that Claudius, so exalted by his magnanimity and clemency, or Agrippina, might have taken pity, struck perhaps by the child's innocence and beauty in such a scene, and Claudius might then have adopted her, and given that name which a holy historian and more eloquent than Tacitus has made immortal; and how much must the interest increase, if we think that through her, like another Una, not fictitious, the rage of the lion, from whose mouth Paul was delivered,' became calm at the voice of innocence, and a British-born virgin."
We are aware that we have given Mr. Bowles's argument in an abridged and rather imperfect form; and we therefore more strongly recommend our readers to turn to the original treatise, which is written with accuracy of argument, and elegance of style, and is a very interesting piece of classical criticism, brought to illustrate an historical fact mentioned in the scriptures; and so we bid our reverend friend the author farewell:
-" on whose honoured brow The poet's bays and critic's ivy grow."
Catalogi Veteres Librorum Ecclesia Cathedralis Dunelm.-Catalogues of the Library of Durham Cathedral, at various periods, from the Conquest to the Dissolution, &c. 8vo. (Published by the Surtees Society.)
WE have now had frequent occasion to remark with how much judgment the publications of the Surtees Society are selected, and how successfully they have been made to combine general interest, together with that degree of local connection which the laws and character of the society prescribed. In this respect, the present volume is nothing inferior to its predecessors: and we look forward with more than common interest to the two works for the present year, the Anglo-Saxon Ritual and Jordan Fantosme, which are promised in September. There are few more valuable documents for
the illustration of the Literary History of the middle-ages, than the original catalogues of the ancient monastic libraries, of which several still remain, scattered here and there among the books or muniments which belonged to the monasteries in which those libraries were preserved. These catalogues not only furnish us with names of authors and works which were not previously known; but, taken as a whole, they give us a general view of the course of reading and study pursued by our early forefathers, which first who did much towards showing we could obtain nowhere else. the utility of such documents in this latter point of view, was Warton, in his History of English Poetry; and public attention has since been more effectually called to them by Mr. Hunnastic Libraries. We hope that this ter, in his Tract on the English Mopublication of the Surtees Society will works; and we are especially glad to be the precursor of other similar hear that Mr. Halliwell has the intention of publishing the detailed and valuable catalogue of the Library of old Monastery of Sion.
The volume to which it is our object to call the attention of our readers at present, contains several such catalogues of the old Library of Durham Cathedral made at different periods. The first is a very early catalogue of is hardly so old as the age here given this collection; although we think it to it, viz. the earlier part of the twelfth century. The bulk of the volume consists, however, of two extensive catalogues made at much later dates, though still dates at which such productions are exceedingly rare, viz. 1391 and 1416. The rest of the book consists of lists of books sent on different occasions by the Durham monks to Oxford, &c. with a few miscellaneous documents relating to the Durham library, and some account of such of these books as are still preserved. We may observe that the whole is preceded by a long introduction, in which the editor (Beriah Botfield, Esq. F.R.S. and F.S.A.) has collected much miscellaneous information on the subject of ancient books and libraries.
Many questions are raised by these catalogues which we would willingly