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omitted ; i.e. the Psalms, Lessons, Epistle, and Gospel, because both those days have proper Psalms, Lessons, Epistles, and Gospels of their own. And that only the portions of Scripture appointed for this day are to be omitted upon this occasion, is plain, because if this day happens to be Monday or Tuesday in Whitsun-week, or Trinity-Sunday, (which have no proper Psalms,) then the proper Psalms here appointed for this day, instead of those of ordinary course, shall be also used. And because none of the days mentioned in the rubric have any peculiar hymn instead of the Venite Exultemus, therefore the rubric orders, that, what festival soever shall happen to fall upon this solemn day of thanksgiving, the following hymn, appointed instead of Venite Ēxultemus, shall be constantly used. The only question then remaining is, whether the Litany ought to be used if this day happens to be Ascension-day, or Monday or Tuesday in Whitsunweek, (for upon Whit-Sunday and Trinity-Sunday it is used of course.) And to this, I think, the answer is plain, viz. That the Litany does not interfere with any part of the service appointed for any of those days; and therefore it should be read (as it is enjoined by this office) for the greater solemnity of this day. Besides, whatever festival happens to fall upon this day, the collects of this office are to be added to the office of such festival in their proper places: now one of the collects or prayers of this office is to be
said in the end of the Litany, after the collect, We humbly beseech thee, O Father, &c. Unless therefore the Litany be read, and that collect used, one of the collects of this office cannot be added in its proper place. But one would think there should be no room for any doubt in this matter, when it is said so expressly in the rubric, that the Litany shall always this day be used to imply, undoubtedly, that though it happen upon a day on which otherwise the Litany is not to be used, yet it shall be added on purpose on this occasion. SECT. II.- Of the Sentences, Hymns, Psalms, Lessons, Epistle,
and Gospel. I. For the sen es are appointed one of the
ordinary sentences at morning service, (being Daniel's confession of his people's transgression, and of God's mercy notwithstanding, ?) and an additional one out of the
2 Daniel ix, 9, 10.
The Psalms. Psalm cxxiv.
Book of Lamentations, ascribing our preservation wholly to the mercy and compassion of God. II. The following hymn, which was new drawn
The hymn. up in king James II.'s reign, in the room of another that had been used before, is sufficiently plain and applicable to the day, without any comment.
III. The proper Psalms, till king James's reign, were the xxth, xxist, lxxxvth, and cxviiith. But now they are the cxxivth, cxxvith, cxxixth, and cxviiith. The first of these hath been already spoken to in the office for the Fifth of November. It may very properly be repeated here; since the papists and sectaries, like Samson's foxes, though they look contrary ways, do yet both join in carrying fire to destroy us: their end is the same, though the method be different.
§. 2. The cxxvith Psalm celebrates the deli. verance of the Israelites out of their captivity, which was so sudden and unexpected, that they who saw it thought themselves in a dream, and could scarce be persuaded that the thing was real : which may exactly be applied to the strange and miraculous turn of affairs at the happy Restoration, which was so surprising, that those who saw it were in such an ecstasy of joy and wonder, that they were almost afraid that their senses deceived them.
g. 3. The cxxixth Psalm is a reflection upon the endeavours of our enemies to destroy us, and an acknowledgment of God's continual help in delivering us; and concludes with a curse denounced upon the enemies of the Church.
§. 4. The cxviiith Psalm was composed originally for David's coronation after God had brought him from his exile through many troubles, and had settled him safely on his throne in peace. It is set last, because it peculiarly relates to the last scene of the Restoration, the crowning of king Charles II.
IV. The first Lesson* is almost an exact parallel to our own case, describing how, after Absa- The first Lesson. lom's death, (whereby the rebellion was happily ended, the people unanimously resolved to bring back their lawful king David, and sent an honourable message to him in his exile, to invite him home; and how also upon this he returned, not
s Chap. vi. 22.
4 2 Samuel xix. 9.
only without any opposition, but by the general consent, and to the great satisfaction of all his subjects; his people contending which part of them should shew themselves most for. ward and joyful upon so happy an occasion.
§. 2. But if any new practices make it necessary to reflect upon that faction and sedition which began the rebellion, Numbers xvi. was added by king James, to be used instead of the former, where the example of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram sets out the greatness of their sin, and the severity of their punishment, who delight in opposing their lawful governors.
§. 3. The second Lesson, which is now the The second
Epistle of Saint Jude, (but which was Romans
xiii. till king James's reign,) foretells the coming of false teachers in the last days, and describes their hypocrisy in pretending to sanctity, while their lives are notoriously evil; remarking particularly their railing at those in authority, and prophesying falsely for a reward, and containing at the same time a prophecy of their fall: and as the character of these was exactly answered by some in those sad times; so also was their prophecy soon after fulfilled to their ruin and destruction, to warn others to beware of such pretenders.
VI. The Epistle (except the two first verses) The Epistle and is the same with that for January 30, command
ing us to be subject to the king as supreme. But, lest we should doubt who our king is, the Gospel gives us a token to know him by, viz. he whose image and superscription our tribute-money bears. For coining of money is as certain a mark of sovereignty, as the making of laws, or the power of the sword. Wherever therefore that mark is found, there tribute and the rights of sovereignty are due. For this reason our Saviour, to answer the question proposed to him, (viz. whether it was lawful to pay tribute to Cæsar or not?) does not examine into Cæsar's right, nor how he came by his sovereign power; but all the foundation he thinks necessary to proceed upon, is this of Cæsar's image and superscription, i. e. the current coin of the country. For this was a proof that Cæsar, at that time, was actually possessed of the supreme power in Judea, and that even the Jews, who used his money, acknowledged as much: an answer so plain, that the Pharisees were ashamed of the question they had proposed, and went away without making a reply. For they
5 1 Peter ii. 11-18.
no more dared to deny that Cæsar was king, than they thought that Jesus dared either to own or deny the lawfulness of paying tribute to him. But one necessarily infers the other. For
since peace (saith the historian®) cannot be secured without forces, nor forces raised without pay, nor pay had without taxes or tribute ;” it follows that tribute must necessarily be paid to the person actually governing, so long as he governs, in consideration of the safety and protection we enjoy by him, whosoever he be that is possessed of the government.
I know how injurious this doctrine hath been represented to rightful princes in distress from usurping powers. But I never yet saw it proved, that Providence is confined always to maintain the same family on the throne; or that, when an. other is raised up in the room of it, we are not obliged to embrace or submit to such a change in the government, according as it is ordained for a blessing or a scourge. However, to waive that argument at present, it is sufficient to say here, that, supposing subjects to act upon the principles that are here laid down, no rightful prince will ever be dispossessed. And sure it will be hard to charge those consequences upon the explanation of any Scripture, which can never happen till men have acted in direct opposition to the text so explained.
OF THE ORM OF PRAYER DRAWN UP FOR THE FIRST OF AUGUST; AND NOW TO BE USED
ON THE TWENTIETH OF JUNE.
THE INTRODUCTION. As the godly Christian emperors in ancient times, so it appears that our most religious princes since the Reformation, have always caused the days of their inaugurations to be publicly celebrated by all their subjects with prayers and thanksgivings to Almighty God. And to the end that this day might be duly celebrated, we find that particular forms of prayer have been appointed by authority, at least ever since the reign of king Charles I. for that day on purpose. It is true, after the death of that prince, this pious custom received a long and doleful interruption, upon occasion of his murder, which changed the day, on which king Charles the Second succeeded to the crown, into a day of sorrow and fasting. And indeed a great part of the duty of that day, and the devotions proper to it, were performed in the service for the twenty-ninth of May. However, upon king James II.'s accession, the former laudable and religious practice was immediately revived; a form of prayer and thanksgiving having been composed by the bishops for this purpose, in many things agreeing with this we now use. But in the reign of king William, the Inauguration festival was again disused: and it must be owned there was so much the less occasion for it during his reign, as there were large additions made to the form of thanksgiving appointed for the Fifth of November, to commemorate his arrival, which hap. pened on that day. However, when our late glorious and pious queen Anne succeeded to the throne, there was fresh occasion to revive the festival. And therefore the day was again ordered to be observed, and a form of prayer with thanksgiving drawn up, part of it being taken from king James's office, and part of it being composed entirely new; and is, altogether, the same (except the first Lesson) with the present office, which comes now in order to be explained. Of the Sentences, Hymn, Psalms, Lessons, Epistle, and Gospel.
6 Nec quies gentium sine armis, nec arma sine stipendiis, nec stipendia sine tributis haberi possunt. Tacitus apud Grotium in Matt. xxii. 20. i See Can. 2, 1640, in Bishop Sparrow's Collection, page 349, and king James II.'s Order for the Service on the sixth of February.
I. The rubrics are the same as in the foregoing
offices; and so the Sentences are the first that need to be considered : and of these it is sufficient to say, that the first is a proper introduction to the duties we are now going to perform, and that the other is one of the ordinary sentences at morning service, and inserted here, in order to prepare us for the following confession.
II. The Hymn is an abridgment of a much The Hymn.
longer one that was appointed in the office drawn up for king James II. However this, as it stands, is as proper to the occasion, containing suitable petitions and praises for the king.
See Can. 21640, in Bishop Sparrow's Collection, page 349, and king James II.'s
Order for the Service on the sixth of February. 5 1 John i. 8, 9.
41 Tim. ii. 1-3.