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Wherefore I love that you may see
Upon my head such hairs to be.
God grant to those that white hairs have,
No worse them take than I have meant ;
That after they be laid in grave,
Their souls may joy their lives well spent;
God grant, likewise, that you may see
Upon my head such hairs to be.


26. Caxton, d. 1491. (Manual, p. 57.)

INTRODUCTION TO THE MORTE D'ARTHUR. After that I had accomplysshed and brought the chyldren of Israhel in to fynysshed dyuers hystoryes as wel of the londe of byheste. The second Dauyd contemplacyon as of other hystoryal and kyng of Jherusalem, & the thyrd Judas worldly actes of grete conquerours & Machabeus of these thre the byble reprynces. And also certeyn bookes of hercethal theyr noble hystoryes & ensaumples and doctryne. Many noble actes. And sythe the sayd Incarnacyon and dyuers gentylmen of thys royame haue ben thre nobie crysten men stalled of Englond camen and demaunded me and admytted thorugh the vnyuersa! many and oftymes, wherfore that I world in to the nombre of the ix beste haue not do made & enprynte the noble & worthy, of whome was fyrst the noble hystorye of the saynt greal, and of the Arthur whose noble actes I purpose to moost renomed crysten Kyng. Fyrst wryte in thys present book here foland chyef of the thre best crysten and owyng

The second was Charlemayn worthy, kyng Arthur, whyche ought or Charles the grete, of whome thysmoost to be remembred emonge vs torye is had in many places bothe in englysshe men tofore al other crysten frensshe and englysshe, and the thyrd kynges. For it is notoyrly knowen and last was Godefray of boloyn, of thorugh the vnyuersal world, that there whose actes & life I made a book into been is worthy & the best that euer thexcellent prynce and kyng of noble were. That is to wete thre paynyms, memorye kyng Edward the fourth, the thre Jewes and thre crysten men. As sayd noble Jentylmen instantly requyred for the paynyms they were tofore the me temprynte thystorye of the sayd Incarnacyon of Cryst, whiche were noble kyng and conquerour king Arthur, named, the fyrst Hector of Troye, of and of his knyghtes wyth thystorye of whome thystorye is comen bothe in the saynt greal, and of the deth and balade and in prose. The second Alys- endyng of the sayd Arthur. Affermyng aunder the grete, & the thyrd Julyus that I ouzt rather tenprynet his actés Cezar Emperour of Rome of whome and noble feates, than of godefroye of thystoryes ben wel kno and had. And boloyne, or any of the other eyght, conas for the thre Jewes whyche also were syderyng that he was man born tofore thyncarnacyon of our lord of wythin this royame and kyng and Emwhome the fyrst was Duc Josue whyche perour of the same.


27. Lord Berners's Froissurt. (Manual, p. 60.) Anon after the dethe of the pope vsage, such one as shuld be good and Gregory, the cardynalles drew them profytable for holy churche, the rointo the conclaue, in the palays of saynt mayns assembled thē togyder in a great Peter. Anone after, as they were en. nombre, and came into the bowrage of tred to chose a pope, acordyng to their | saynt Peter : they were to the nombre

of xxx. thousand what one and other, nat. The cardynalles than seynge thēin the entent to do yuell, if the mater selfe in the daunger of the romayns, went nat accordynge to their appetytes. and in great parell of their lyues, agreed And they came oftentymes before the among themselfe, more for to please conclaue, and sayd, Harke, ye sir car- the people than for any deuocyon ; dynalles, delyuer you atones, and make howbeit, by good electyon they chase a pope ; ye tary to longe; if ye make a an holy man, a cardynall of the roromayne, we woll nat chaung him ; but mayne nacion, whome pope Vrbayne the yf ye make any other, the romayne : fyfte had made cardynall, and he was people and counsayles woll nat take called before, the cardynall of saynt hym for pope, and ye putte yourselfe all Peter. This electyon pleased greatly in aduenture to be slayne. The cardy- ye romayns, and so this good man had nals, who were as than in the danger all the ryghtes that belonged to the of the romayns, and herde well those papalite; howebeit he lyued nat but wordes, they were nat at their ease, thre dayes after, and I shall shewe you nor assured of their lyues, and why. The romayns, who desyred a apeased them of their yre as well as pope of their owne nacion, were so ioythey myght with fayre wordes; but full of this newe pope, yt they toke somoche rose the felony of the romayns, hym, who was a hundred yere of age, yt suche as were next to ye conclaue, and sette hym on a whyte mule, and so to thentent to make the cardynalles ledde him vp and doune through ye afrayde, and to cause them to codiscende cytie of Rome, exaltyng him, and shewthe rather to their opinyons, brake yng howe they had vāquesshed the carvp the dore of the conclaue, whereas dynals, seyng they had a pope romayn the cardynalles were.

Than the car- accordyng to their owne ententes, in so dynalles went surely to haue been moche that the good holy man was so slayne, and so fledde away to sane sore traueyled that he fell syck, and so their lyues, some one waye and some dyed the thyrde daye, and was buryed another; but the romayns were nat so in the churche of saynt Peter, and there content, but toke them and put them he lyethe.—Reprint of 1812, vol. i. pp. togyder agayn, whether they wolde or 510, 511.

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28. Tyndale, d. 1536. (Manual, p. 59.)


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When Jesus was come downe from the also my selfe am a man vndre power, mountayne, moch people folowed him. and have sowdeeres vndre me, and y And lo, there cam a lepre, and worsheped saye to one, go, and he goeth : and to him saynge, Master, if thou wylt, thou anothre, come, and he cometh : and to canst make me clene. He putt forthe my servaunt, do this, and he doeth it. his hond and touched him saynge: I When Jesus herde these saynges : he will, be clene, and immediatly his leprosy marveyled, and said to them that folowed was clensed. And Jesus said vnto him. him : Verely y say vnto you, I have not Se thou tell no man, but go and shewe founde so great fayth : no, not in Israell. thysilf to the preste and offer the gyfte, I say therfore vnto you, that many shall that Moses commaunded to be offred, in come from the eest and weest, and shall witnes to them. When Jesus was entred rest with Abraham, Ysaac and Jacob, in to Capernaum, there cam vnto him a in the kyngdom of heven : And the certayne Centurion, besechyng him And children of the kingdom shalbe cast out saynge: Master, my servaunt lyeth sicke in to the vtmoost dercknes, there att home off the palsye, and is grevously wepinge and gnassbing of tethe. Then payned. And Jesus sayd vnto him. I Jesus said ynto the Centurion, go thy will come and cure him. The Centurion waye, and as thou hast believed so be it answered and saide : Syr l am not worthy vnto the. And his servaunt was healed that thou shuldest com vnder the rofe of that same houre. And Jesus went into my housse, but speake the worde only Peters housse, and saw his wyves mother and my servaunt shalbe healed. For y lyinge sicke of a fevre, And he thouched

her hande, and the fevre leeft her; and i buked the wyndes and the see, and there she arose, and ministred vnto them. folowed a greate calme. And men mar. When the even was come they brought veyled and said : what man is this, that vnto him many that were possessed with bothe wyndes and see obey him ? And devylles, And he cast out the spirites when he was come to the other syde, in with a word, and healed all that were to the countre off the gergesens, there sicke, To fulfill that whiche was spoken met him two possessed of devylls, which by Esay the prophet sainge : He toke cam out off the graves, and were out oft on him oure infirmytes, and bare oure measure fearce, so that no man myght sicknesses. When Jesus saw moche go by that waye. And lo they cryed people about him, he commaunded to out saynge: 0 Jesu the sonne off God, go over the water. And there cam a what have we to do with the ? art thou scribe and said vnto him : master, I come hyther to torment vs before the woll folowe the whythersumever thou tyme (be come]? There was a good waye goest. And Jesus said vnto him : the off from them a greate heerd of swyne foxes have holes, and the byrddes of fedinge. Then the devyls besought him the aier have nestes, but the sonne of saynge : if thou cast vs out, suffre vs man hath not whereon to leye his to go oure waye into the heerd of swyne. heede : Anothre that was one of hys dis- And he said ynto them: go youre ciples seyd vnto him : master suffre me wayes : Then went they out, and defyrst to, go and burye my father. But parted into the heerd of swyne. And Jesus said vnto him : folowe me, and lo, all the heerd of swyne was caryed let the deed burie their deed. And he with violence hedlinge into the see, entred in to a shyppe, and his disciples and perisshed in the water. Then the folowed him, And lo there arose a greate heerdmen fleed, and went there ways storme in the see, in so moche, that the into the cite, and tolde every thinge, and shippe was hyd with waves, and he was what had fortuned into them that were aslepe. And his disciples cam vnto him, possessed of the devyls. And lo, all and awoke him, sayinge : master, save the cite cam out, and met Jesus. And us, we perishe. And he said vnto them: when they sawe him they besought him, why are ye fearfull, o ye endewed with to depart out off there costes. lytell faithe? Then he arose, and re

(Manual, p. 60.)

29. Hugh Latimer, d. 1555.

(From his Sermons.) I can not go to my buke for pore especially moued me at thys time to folkes come vnto me, desirynge me that speake. I wyll speake yt theyr matters maye be Thys it is syr : A gentylwoman came heard. I trouble my Lord of Canter- to me and tolde me, that a greate man burye, & beynge at hys house nowe and kepeth certaine landes of hyrs from hyr then I walke in the garden lokyng in and wilbe hyr tenaunte in the spite of my boke, as I canne do but little good hyr tethe. And that in a whole twelue at it. But some thynge I muste nedes moneth she coulde not gette but one do to satisfye thys place.

daye for the hearynge of hyr matter, I am no soner in the garden and haue and the same daye when the matter red a whyle, but by and by commeth there shoulde be hearde, the greate manne some or other knocking at the gate. broughte on hys syde a greate syghte

Anone cometh my man and sayth : of Lawyers for hys counsayle, the genSyr, there is one at the gate woulde tilwoman had but one mă of lawe : and speake wyth you. When I come there, the great man shakes him so, so that he then is it some or other that desireth cā (not) tell what to do, so that when me that I wyll speake that hys matter the matter came to the poynte, the might be heard, & that he hath layne Judge was a meane to the gentylwoman thys longe at great costes and charges, that she wold let the great mã haue a and can not once baue hys matter come quietnes in hyr Lande.

I beseche your to the hearing, but amõg all other, one grace that ye wyll loke to these matters.

30. Sir Thomas More, 1480-1535. (Manual, p. 58.)

DESCRIPTION OF RICHARD III. Richarde, the thirde sonne of Rich- fain to pil and spoyle in other places, arde, Duke of York, was in witte and and get him stedfast hatred.

Hee was courage egall with his two brothers, in close and secrete, a dissimuler, bodye and prowesse farre vnder them lowlye of counteynaunce, arrogant of bothe, little of stature, ill fetured of heart, outwardly coumpinable where he limmes, croke backed, his left shoulder inwardely hated, not letting to kisse much higher than his right, hard fa- whome hee thoughte to kyll : dispitious uoured of visage, and such as is in and cruell, not for euill will alway, but states called warlye, in other menne after for ambicion, and either for the otherwise, he was malicious, wrathfull, suretie or encrease of his estate. Frende enuious, and from afore his birth, euer and foo was muche what indifferent, frowarde. . . . None euill captaine was where his aduantage grew, he spared hee in the warre, as to whiche his no mans deathe, whose life withstoode disposicion was more metely then for

He slewe with his owne peace. Sundrye victories hadde hee, handes king Henry the sixt, being and sommetime ouerthrowes, but neuer prisoner in the Tower, as menne conin defaulte as for his owne parsone, stantly saye, and that without comeither of hardinesse or polytike order, maundement or knoweledge of the king, free was hee called of dyspence, and whiche wouide vndoubtedly yf he had sommewhat aboue hys power liberall, entended that thinge, haue appointed with large giftes hee get him vnsted- that boocherly office, to some other then faste frendeshippe, for whiche hee was his owne borne brother.

his purpose.

31. Roger Ascham, 1515-1568. (Manual, p. 61.)

(From the School Master.) And one example, whether love or you unto it : seinge, not many women, feare doth worke more in a child, for but verie fewe men have atteined therevertue and learning, I will gladlie re- unto? I will tell you, quoth she, and port: which maie be hard with some tell you a troth, which perchance ye pleasure, and folowed with more profit. will mervell at. One of the greatest Before I went into Germanie, I came to benefites, that ever God gave me, is, Brodegate in Lecetershire, to take my that he sent me so sharpe and severe leave of that noble Ladie Jane Grey, to parentes, and so jentle a scholemaster. whom I was exceding noch beholdinge. For when I am in presence either of Hir parentes, the Duke and the Duches, father or mother, whether I speake, with all the houshould, Gentlemen and kepe silence, sit, stand, or go, eate, Gentlewomen, were huntinge in the drinke, be merie, or sad, be sowyng, Parke : I founde her, in her Chamber, plaiyng, dauncing, or doing anie thing readinge Phædon Platonis in Greeke, els, I must do it, as it were, in soch and that with as moch delite, as som weight, mesure, and number, even so jentleman wold read a merie tale in perfitelie, as God made the world, or Bocase. After salutation, and dewtie else I am so sharplie taunted, so crudone, with som other taulke, I asked ellie threatened, yea presentlie some hir, whie she wold leese soch pastime tymes, with pinches, nippes, and bobbes, in the Parke? smiling she answered and other waies, which I will not name, me : I wisse, all their sporte in the for the honor I beare them, so without Parke is but a shadoe to that pleasure, measure misordered, that I thinke my that I find in Plato : Alas good folke, selfe in hell, till tyme cum, that I must they never felt, what trewe pleasure go to M. Elmer, who teacheth me so ment. And howe came you Madame, jentlie, so pleasantlie, with soch faire quoth I, to this deepe knowledge of allurementes to learning, that I thinke pleasure, and what did chieflie allure all the tyme nothing, whiles I am with

him. And when I am called from him, i respect of it, all other pleasures, in very I fall on weeping, because, what soever deede, be but trifles and troubles unto I do els, but learning, is ful of grief, I remember this talke gladly, both trouble, feare, and whole misliking unto bicause it is so worthy of inemorie, and me: And thus my booke, hath bene so bicause also, it was the last talke that moch my pleasure, and bringeth dayly ever I had, and the last tyme, that ever to me more pleasure and more, that in ' I saw that noble and worthie Ladie.


(Manual, pp. 65-67.)

32. The Ancient Ballad of Chevy Chase.

Sir Philip Sydney, in his Discourse of Poetry, speaks of this Ballad in the following words :-“I never heard the old song of Piercy and Douglas, that I found not my heart more moved than with a trumpet; and yet it is sung by some blind crowder with no rougher voice than rude stile; which being so evil apparelled in the dust and cobweb of that uncivil age, what would it work trimmed in the gorgeous eloquence of Pindar ?"


The Persè owt2 of Northombarlande,

And a vowe to God mayd he,
That he wolde hunte in the mountayns

Off Chyviat within dayes thre,
In the mauger 3 of dougtè Dogles,

And all that ever with him be.
The fattiste hartes in all Cheviat
He sayd he wold kill, and cary them

away :
Be my feth, sayd the dougheti Doglas

agayn, I wyll let* that hontyng yf that I

may. Then the Persè owt of Banborowe cam,

With him a myghtye meany ; ;5 With fifteen hondrith archares bold;

The wear chosen out of shyars thre.
This begane on a Monday at morn

In Cheviat the hillys so he;
The chyld may rue that ys un-born,

It was the mor pitté.
The dryvars thorowe the woodes went

For to reas the dear;
Bomen bickarte uppone the bent 6

With ther browd aras cleare.

Then the wyld thorowe the woodes went

On every syde shear :
Grea-hondes thorowe the greves glent

For to kyll thear dear.
The begane in Chyviat the hyls above

Yerly on a monpyn day;
Be that it drewe to the oware 7 off

A hondrith fat hartes ded ther lay.
The blewe a mort uppone the bent,

The semblyd on sydis shear ;
To the quyrry: then the Persè went

To se the bryttlynge off the deare.
He sayd, It was the Duglas promys

This day to meet me hear;
But I wyste he wold faylle verament :

A gret oth the Persè swear.
At the laste a squyar of Northombelonde

Lokyde at his hand full ny,
He was war' ath the doughetie Dogias

comynge :
With him a mightè meany,
Both with spear, byll, 10 and brande :

11 Yt was a myghti sight to se, Hardyar men both off hart nar hande

Were not in Christiante.

6 Feid.

2 Out. I Fit is a part or division of a song.

3 In spite of. 4 Hinder. 5 Company.
7 Hour. 8 Quarry.
9 Aware. 10 Battle-axe. 11 Sword

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