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rotten fuggestions whereon it yet leans; if his intents be fincere to the public, and shall carry him on without bitterness to the opinion, or to the person diffenting; let him not, I entreat him, guess by the handling, which meritoriously hath been bestowed on this object of contempt and laughter, that I account it any displeasure done me to be contradicted in print: but as it leads to the attainment of any thing more true, shall esteem it a benefit; and shall know how to return his civility and fair argument in such a fort, as he shall confefs that to do so is my choice, and to have done thus was my chance.

TUE

THE

TENURE

OF

KINGS AND MAGISTRATES:

PROVING,

That it is lawful, and hath been held so through all

ages, for any, who have the power, to call to account a Tyrant, or wicked KING, and, after due conviction, to depose, and put him to death ; if the ordinary MAGISTRATE have neglected, or denied to do it.

And that they, who of late so much blame Deposing, are

the men that did it themselves.* IF men within themselves would be governed by reason, and not generally give up their understanding to a double tyranny, of custom from without, and blind affections, within; they would discern better what it is to favour and uphold the tyrant of a nation. But being laves within doors, no wonder that they strive so much to have the public state conformably governed to the inward vitious rule, by which they govern themselves. For indeed none can love freedom heartily, but good men: the rest love not freedom, but licence : which

• This tract, which was first published in February 1648-9, after the execution of king Charles, and is a defence of that action against the objections of the Presbyterians, was, in the year 1650, republished by the author with confiderable additions, all which, omitted in every former edition of the author's works, are here carefully inserted in their proper places. The copy which I ute, after the above title, has the following sentence ; ! Published now the second time with some additions, and many testimonies also added out of the best and learnedest among proteftant divines, afTerting the polition of this book.” The passages here restored are marked with Gngle inverted commas.

never hath more fcope, or more indulgence than under tyrants. Hence is it, that tyrants are not oft offended, nor stand much in doubt of bad men, as being all na turally servile; but in whom virtue and true worth most is eminent, them they fear in earnest, as by right their masters ; against them lies all their hatred and suspicion. Consequently neither do bad men hate tyrants, but have been always readiest, with the falfified names of Loyalty and Obedience, to colour over their base compliances. And although sometimes for shame, and when it comes to their own grievances, of purse especially, they would seem good patriots, and side with the better cause, yet when others for the deliverance of their country enduod with fortitude and heroic virtue, to fear nothing but the curfe written against those "that do the work of the Lord negligently *," would go on to remove, not only the calamities and thraldoms of a 'people, but the roots and causes whence they spring; straight these men, and sure helpers at need, as if they hated only the miseries, but not the mischiefs, after they have juggled and paltered with the world, bandied and borné arms against their king, divested him, disanointed him, nay cursed him all over in their pulpits, and their pamphlets, to the engaging of fineere and real men beyond what is poflible or honeft to retreat from, not only turn revolters from 'thofe principles, which only could at first move them, but lay the stain of disloyalty, and worse, on those pro eeedings, which are the neceffary confequences of their own former actions ; nor disliked by themfelves, were they managed to the entire advantages of their own faction; not considering the while that he, toward whom they boasted their new. fidelity, counted them accessory; and by those statutes and laws, which they fo impotently brandish against others, would have doomed them to a traitor's death for what they have done already. It is true, that most men are apt enough to civil wars and commotions as a novelty, and for a flaila hot and active ; but through floth or inconstancy, and weakness of spirit, either fainting ere their own pre

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tences, though never fo just, be half attained, or, through an inbred falsehood and wickedness, betray ofttimes to destruction with themselves men of noblest temper joined with them for causes, whereof they in their rath undertakings were not capable. If God and a good cause give them victory, the prosecution whereof for the most part inevitably draws after it the alteration of laws, change of government, downfall of princes with their families; then comes the talk to those worthies, which are the soul of that enterprise, to be sweat and laboured out amidst the throng and noses of vulgar and irrational

Some contesting for privileges, customs, forms, and that old entanglement of iniquity, their gibberith laws, though the badge of their ancient Navery. Others, who have been fiercest against their prince, under the notion of a tyrant, and no mean incendiaries of the war against him, when God, out of his providence and high disposal hath delivered him into the hand of their brethren, on a sudden and in a new garb of allegiance, which their doings have long since cancelled, they plead for him, pity him, extol him, protest against those that talk of bringing him to the trial of justice, which is the sword of God, fuperior to all mortal things, in whose hand foever by apparent figns his teftified will is to put it. But certainly, if we consider who and what they are, on a sudden grown so pitiful, we may conclude their pity can be no true and christian commiseration, but either levity and shallowness of mind, or else a carnal admiring of that worldly pomp and greatness, from whence they see him fallen; or rather, lastly, a diffembled and feditious pity, feigned of industry to beget new discord. As for mercy, if it be to a tyrant, under which name they themselves have cited him so oft in the hearing of God, of Angels, and the holy church allembled, and there charged him with the spilling of more innocent blood by far, than ever Nero did, undoubtedly the mercy which they pretend is the mercy of wicked men, and “their mercies*, we read, “are cruelties;" hazarding the welfare of a whole nation, to have saved

• Prov. xii. 10.

Vol. II.

T

one

one whom they so oft have termed Agag, and villifying the blood of many Jonathans that have faved Ifrael; infilting with much niceness on the unnecessarieft clause of their

covenant wrefted, wherein the fear of change and the absurd contradiction of a flattering hoftility had hampered them, but not scrupling to give away for compliments, to an implacable revenge, the heads of many thousand christians more.

Another fort there is, who coming in the course of these affairs, to have their share in great actions above the form of law or custom, at least to give their voice and approbation; begin to swerve and almost thiver at the majesty and grandeur of fome noble deed, as if they were newly entered into a great fin; difputing precedents, forms, and circumstances, when the commonwealth nigh perishes for want of deeds in substance, done with just and faithful expedition. To these I with better instruction, and virtue equal to their calling; the former of which, that is to say instruction, I shall endeavour, as my duty is, to bestow on them; and exhort them not to startle from the juft and pious resolution of adhering with all their strength and allistance to the prefent parliament and army, in the glorious way wherein justice and victory hath set them; the only warrants through all ages, next under immediate revelation, to exercise fupreme power; in those proceedings, which hitherto appear equal to what hath been done in any age or nation heretofore juftly or magnanimously. Nor let them be discouraged or deterred by any new apoftate fcarecrows, who, under thow of giving counsel, send out their barking monitories and mementoes, empty of aught else but the fpleen of a frustrated faction. For how can that pretended counsel be either found or faithful, when they that give it fee not, for madness and vexation of their ends loft, that those statutes and scriptures, which both falfely and fcandalously they wrest against their friends and associates, would by sentence of the common adversary fall first and heaviest upon their own heads? Neither let mild and tender difpofitions be foolishly foftened from their duty and perseverance with the unmafculine rhetoric of any puling priest or chap

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