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rotten fuggeftions whereon it yet leans; if his intents be fincere to the public, and fhall carry him on without bitterness to the opinion, or to the perfon diffenting; let him not, I entreat him, guess by the handling, which meritoriously hath been bestowed on this object of contempt and laughter, that I account it any displeasure done me to be contradicted in print: but as it leads to the attainment of any thing more true, fhall efteem it a benefit; and shall know how to return his civility and fair argument in fuch a fort, as he fhall confefs that to do fo is my choice, and to have done thus was my chance.







That it is lawful, and hath been held fo through all ages, for any, who have the power, to call to account a TYRANT, or wicked KING, and, after due conviction, to depofe, and put him to death; if the ordinary MAGISTRATE have neglected, or denied to do it.

And that they, who of late fo much blame Depofing, are the men that did it themselves.*

IF men within themselves would be governed by reason, and not generally give up their understanding to a double tyranny, of cuftom from without, and blind affections, within; they would difcern better what it is to favour and uphold the tyrant of a nation. But being flaves within doors, no wonder that they strive fo much to have the public state conformably governed to the inward vitious rule, by which they govern themselves. For indeed none can love freedom heartily, but good men: the reft love not freedom, but licence: which

This tract, which was firft published in February 1648-9, after the execution of king Charles, and is a defence of that action against the objections of the Prefbyterians, was, in the year 1650, republished by the author with confiderable additions, all which, omitted in every former edition of the author's works, are here carefully inserted in their proper places. The copy which I ute, after the above title, has the following fentence; Published now the fecond time with fome additions, and many teftimonies alfo added out of the best and learnedeft among proteftant divines, afferting the pofition of this book." The paffages here reftored are marked with single inverted commas.


never hath more fcope, or more indulgence than under tyrants. Hence is it, that tyrants are not oft offended, nor stand much in doubt of bad men, as being all na turally fervile; but in whom virtue and true worth most is eminent, them they fear in earnest, as by right their mafters; against them lies all their hatred and fufpicion. Confequently neither do bad men hate tyrants, but have been always readiest, with the falfified names of Loyalty and Obedience, to colour over their bafe compliances. And although fometimes for fhame, and when it comes to their own grievances, of purfe especially, they would feem good patriots, and fide with the better caufe, yet when others for the deliverance of their country endued with fortitude and heroic virtue, to fear nothing but the curfe written against those "that do the work of the Lord negligently," would go on to remove, not only the calamities and thraldoms of a people, but the roots and caufes whence they spring; straight these men, and fure helpers at need, as if they hated only the miferies, but not the mischiefs, after they have juggled and paltered with the world, bandied and borne arms against their king, divested him, difanointed him, nay curfed him all over in their pulpits, and their pamphlets, to the engaging of fincere and real men beyond what is possible or honeft to retreat from, not only turn revolters from thofe principles, which only could at first move them, but lay the ftain of disloyalty, and worse, on those proeeedings, which are the neceffary confequences of their own former actions; nor difliked by themfelves, were they managed to the entire advantages of their own faction; not confidering the while that he, toward whom they boafted their new fidelity, .counted them acceffory; and by those statutes and laws, which they fo impotently brandish against others, would have doomed. them to a traitor's death for what they have done already. It is true, that moft men are apt enough to civil wars and commotions as a novelty, and for a flash hot and active; but through floth or inconftancy, and weaknefs of fpirit, either fainting ere their own pre

*Jer. xlviii, &


tences, though never so just, be half attained, or, through an inbred falfehood and wickednefs, betray ofttimes to deftruction with themselves men of nobleft temper joined with them for causes, whereof they in their rafh undertakings were not capable. If God and a good caufe give them victory, the profecution whereof for the most part inevitably draws after it the alteration of laws, change of government, downfall of princes with their families; then comes the task to thofe worthies, which are the foul of that enterprise, to be sweat and laboured out amidst the throng and nofes of vulgar and irrational men. Some contefting for privileges, cuftoms, forms, and that old entanglement of iniquity, their gibberish laws, though the badge of their ancient flavery. Others, who have been fiercest against their prince, under the notion of a tyrant, and no mean incendiaries of the war againft him, when God, out of his providence and high difpofal hath delivered him into the hand of their brethren, on a fudden and in a new garb of allegiance, which their doings have long fince cancelled, they plead for him, pity him, extol him, protest against those that talk of bringing him to the trial of juftice, which is the fword of God, fuperior to all mortal things, in whofe hand foever by apparent figns his teftified will is to put it. But certainly, if we confider who and what they are, on a fudden grown fo pitiful, we may conclude their pity can be no true and chriftian commiferation, but either levity and shallowness of mind, or else a carnal admiring of that worldly pomp and greatnefs, from whence they fee him fallen; or rather, laftly, a diffembled and feditious pity, feigned of industry to beget new difcord. As for mercy, if it be to a tyrant, under which name they themselves have cited him fo oft in the hearing of God, of Angels, and the holy church affembled, and there charged him with the fpilling of more innocent blood by far, than ever Nero did, undoubtedly the mercy which they pretend is the mercy of wicked men, and "their mercies*, we read, "are cruelties;" hazarding the welfare of a whole nation, to have faved


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one whom they so oft have termed Agag, and villifying the blood of many Jonathans that have faved Ifrael; infifting with much nicenefs on the unneceffarieft claufe of their covenant wrefted, wherein the fear of change and the abfurd contradiction of a flattering hoftility had hampered them, but not fcrupling to give away for compliments, to an implacable revenge, the heads of many thousand chriftians more.

Another fort there is, who coming in the courfe of thefe affairs, to have their fhare in great actions above the form of law or cuftom, at least to give their voice and approbation; begin to fwerve and almoft shiver at the majefty and grandeur of fome noble deed, as if they were newly entered into a great fin; difputing precedents, forms, and circumftances, when the commonwealth nigh perishes for want of deeds in fubftance, done with juft and faithful expedition. To thefe I wish better inftruction, and virtue equal to their calling; the former of which, that is to fay inftruction, I fhall endeavour, as my duty is, to beftow on them; and exhort them not to ftartle from the juft and pious refolution of adhering with all their ftrength and affiftance to the prefent parliament and army, in the glorious way wherein juftice and victory hath fet them; the only warrants through all ages, next under immediate revelation, to exercise fupreme power; in thofe proceedings, which hitherto appear equal to what hath been done in any age or nation heretofore juftly or magnanimoufly. Nor let them be difcouraged or deterred by any new apoftate fcarecrows, who, under fhow of giving counfel, fend out their barking monitories and mementoes, empty of aught elfe but the fpleen of a fruftrated faction. For how can that pretended counsel be either found or faithful, when they that give it fee not, for madness and vexation of their ends loft, that thofe ftatutes and fcriptures, which both falfely and fcandaloufly they wrest against their friends and affociates, would by fentence of the common adversary fall firft and heaviest upon their own heads? Neither let mild and tender difpofitions be foolishly foftened from their duty and perfeverance with the unmafculine rhetoric of any puling prieft or chap

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