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named Phalaris, this change of appellation would have thrown no aspersion on them. Had Nereus been called Thersites, none of that beauty which nature had conferred would have been diminished. But Julian had forgotten all these facts, although he had formerly been made well acquainted with them ; and he imagined that he was injuring us by giving us a name different from our own. He placed so much confidence in the lying oracles, that he threatened to erect on Christian churches the statue of the demon of licentiousness.

CHAP. XXII.-BOLDNESS OF A DECURION OF BERCA. BEFORE Julian had carried his numerous threats into execution, he was himself vanquished by one single man at Bercea. It is true that this man was rendered conspicuous by his high rank; for he was invested with the office of a decurio in the city : but his zeal reflected a yet higher lustre upon his character, When he discovered that his son had apostatized to the dominant form of irreligion, he expelled him from his house, and publicly disinherited him. The son repaired to the emperor, who was then in the neighbourhood of the city, and acquainted him with his own change of sentiments, and of his having been disinherited by his father. The emperor

desired the young man to be tranquil, and promised to reconcile his father to him. When he arrived at Bercea, he invited the principal citizens to a banquet. Amongst them was the father of the young man. He ordered the father and the son to sit upon the couch upon which he was himself reclining ; and in the midst of the repast he said to the father, “ It does not seem just to me to force the inclinations of any one. Do not then constrain those of your son, but allow him to adopt whatever doctrines he may please. I do not compel you,” continued he,“ to follow my religion, although I could most easily oblige you to do so.” Then the father, inspired by divine faith, replied as follows: "Do you speak to me, o emperor, in favour of a wicked and impious creature who has preferred falsehood to truth ?” The emperor, with a specious appearance of gentleness, here interrupted him, saying, "I beg you to desist from all invectives.” Then turning towards the youth, he said, “I shall myself take care of you, since I cannot persuade your father to do so." I have not related this incident with

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out a motive ; for I desired not only to record the bold fidelity of this admirable man, but also to show that the power of the tyrant was despised by many individuals.

CHAP. XXIII.--PREDICTION OF A SCHOOLMASTER. THERE was in Antioch a very illustrious man, who held the office of public teacher, and who, possessing much more erudition than the generality of schoolmasters, was received on terms of intimacy by Libanus, a celebrated sophist and one of the most learned men of the time. This latter was a Pagan, and expecting from the threats of Julian that idolatry would speedily become triumphant over Christianity, asked the schoolmaster in derision of our religion what the son of the carpenter was doing. The other, filled by the grace of God, predicted what would shortly happen. “The Creator of the universe," said he, “whom you deride, and call the son of the carpenter, is now preparing a bier.” A few days after, the death of the tyrant was announced, and his body was carried to the city on a bier. Thus his threats were made vain, and God was glorified.

CHAP. XXIV.-PROPHECY OF ST. JULIAN, A MONK. JULIAN, whose name, in the Syrian language, was Sabbas, led a spiritual life, although he was still in the body. I have written his history in my work entitled “ Philotheus.” I He became more earnest in offering supplications to God when he was informed of the threats of Julian. On the same day that Julian received the stroke of death, the event was revealed to him as he was at prayer, although his monastery was situated at a distance of more than twenty days' journey from the Roman camp. For it is said that while he was presenting his supplications to God with tears and lamentations, his tears suddenly ceased to flow, and his face assumed a joyful and serene expression, showing forth the gladness of his soul. Some of his friends, remarking this change, inquired the cause of his joy; he told them, that the wild boar which had ravaged

r See the list of works written by Theodoret in the Life prefixed to this volume.

the vineyard of the Lord had received the just recompence of his unlawful deeds, that he was lying dead, and that his evil designs were averted. All those present rejoiced on receiving this information; and expressed their thankfulness to God by singing hymns. Those who afterwards announced the emperor's death affirmed that it took place on the very day and hour predicted by the blessed old man.

CHAP. XXV.-DEATH OF THE EMPEROR JULIAN IN PERSIA.

The imprudence of the emperor was manifested by the mode of his death. When he and his army had passed the river which separates the Persian from the Roman dominions, he burnt his ships, in order that the soldiery might fight not by persuasion but by compulsion. The most distinguished commanders have always inspired their troops with alacrity, and when discouragements have arisen, they have roused their expectations and animated their hopes. But this emperor, on the contrary, discouraged his soldiers by burning the vessels, and destroying their hopes of returning to their own country. In addition to this act of imprudence, the wise emperor neglected to provide the requisite supplies of food for his army; for he neither directed provisions to be brought from the provinces of his own empire, nor did he take measures to obtain them by making depredations on the enemy's territories. He led his troops far away from all inhabited places, and made them march through a desert. Oppressed by hunger and by thirst, and without any efficient guide, the soldiers were compelled to wander about in the desert, through the imprudence of this wisest of emperors. In the very midst of their consequent complaints and lamentations, they beheld him who was madly contending with his Creator fall down wounded: he was unaided by the warlike Mars who had promised his support ; unassisted by Apollo who had given so false and perplexing an oracle ; and even Jove the Thunderer did not hurl one of his thunder-bolts against him by whom he was slain. Thus were his threats overthrown, and shown to be vain. No one knows even to this day by whom this mortal blow, which he had so justly deserved, was inflicted. Some say that it was by one of the invisible order of beings, others that it was by the hand of an individual belonging to one of the nomadic

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tribes generally called Ishmaelites; others say that he was killed by a soldier reduced to despair by hunger, and by wandering in the desert. But whether the sword were that of an angel or of a man, certain it is that whoever committed the deed was but the instrument of the Divine will. It is said that directly after he had received the wound, Julian took some of the blood in his hand, and threw it up towards heaven, saying, “ Galilean! thou hast conquered !” So great was his stupidity, that thus, at one and the same instant, he acknow, ledged his defeat, and gave utterance to blasphemy.

CHAP. XXVI.--ABOMINABLE SORCERIES DETECTED, AFTER THE

DEATH OF JULIAN, AT CARRAS,

AFTER the murder of Julian, his magical arts and incantations were discovered. At Carras may even now be seen vestiges of his impiety. When this foolish man was passing through this city, (for he had left the city of Edessa, on account of the reputation enjoyed by its inhabitants for piety,) he entered an idolatrous temple with his associates, committed some infamous crimes, and then ordered the gates to be closed, and the place to be guarded by soldiers, so that no one might enter until his return. After his death, when a religious prince had succeeded to his throne, the interior of the temple was examined. A woman was discovered suspended by the

her hands were stretched out, and her stomach was cut open. This had been done by the infamous emperor, who had sought to learn the issue of the Persian war by the inspection of her liver. Thus was the hateful deed detected at Carras.

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CHAP. XXVII.-HEADS OF MEN FOUND IN THE PALACE

OF ANTIOCH.

It is said that in Julian's palace at Antioch several chests rere found full of the heads of men ; and that many dungeons were discovered filled with dead bodies. Such are the lessons inculcated by the abominable gods.

CHAP. XXVIII.-PUBLIC REJOICINGS IN ANTIOCH.

As soon as the death of Julian was known in Antioch, public festivals were celebrated. The victory of the cross was extolled, and the imposture of the oracles was ridiculed, not only in the churches and in the assemblies of the martyrs, but also in the theatres. I shall now record an admirable speech made by the citizens of Antioch, in order that it may be preserved in our memory. They all exclaimed with one voice, “Where now are thy predictions, O foolish_Maximus ? God and Christ have prevailed against thee.” This Maximus was a philosopher of that time, who was engaged in magical arts, and who boasted of being able to predict the future. Julian perceived very clearly the horror with which his evil and impure deeds were regarded by the inhabitants of Antioch; for they, having been instructed in the Divine doctrines by Peter and by Paul, ardently loved the Lord of all and the Saviour. On this account, Julian wrote a book against them, entitled “ Aversion to Beards.” 1

I shall conclude this book with this mention of the public rejoicings at the death of the tyrant. It would not be right to connect the reign of a pious prince with the sway of an impious tyrant.

BOOK IV,

CHAP. 1.-REIGN AND PIETY OF JOVIAN.

Upon the death of Julian, the governors of the provinces, and the military commanders, assembled together to determine who was capable of wielding the imperial power, of extria cating the army from the enemy's country, and of raising the

, affairs of the Romans from the critical state to which they had been reduced by the rashness of the late emperor. In the mean time the soldiers likewise assembled, and demanded Jovian for their emperor. He was neither a general nor a tribune, but was an exemplary man, and distinguished by many natural endowments. He was of very tall stature, and

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