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But his subsequent conduct evinced the weakness of his mind, and the ease with which he could be led away from the truth. A misfortune happened to him, similar to that which befell Adam, the first man. His wife enslaved him by her arguments, and he was captured, not by the spears of the enemy, but by the deceitful words of a woman. Having be herself insnared into the errors of Arianism, she entrapped her husband likewise, and they both fell into the deep pit of blasphemy. This catastrophe was mainly attributable to the influence of Eudoxius, who, at this period, was at the head of the church of Constantinople, and who was more capable of submerging it than of guiding it aright.

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VIRTUE. Eudoxius then baptized the emperor, and made him swear that he would adhere to these impious doctrines, and that he would banish all those who held contrary opinions. Thus did Valens abandon the apostolical faith, and join the hostile party. A very short time subsequently, he fulfilled his promises and vows; for he expelled Melitius from Antioch, Eusebius from Samosata, and Pelagius from Laodicea. This latter had been betrothed when very young ; but on his marriage day, he persuaded his bride to choose a life of chastity, and to accept fraternal affection instead of connubial love. Thus did he attain to perfect continence. He also successfully cultivated within himself all the other virtues ; and on this account he was unanimously elected to the bishopric. But the moral beauty of his life and conversation was not heeded by the opponent of truth, who banished him to Arabia. Melitius was also exiled to Armenia, and Eusebius to Thrace. The latter had laboured in the cause of the gospel with apostolic zeal. On one occasion, hearing that several churches were destitute of pastors, he assumed the garb of a soldier,


1 Valesius observes that Eusebius of Samosata thus violated the positive laws of the church, the inspiration of the Holy Spirit teaching him thus to withstand the fury of the Arians. He remarks that the best Christians threw aside all regard for the rules and canons of the Church when they saw the Faith endangered, and that their principle was this, “ Salus Ecclesiæ suprema lex esto.”

placed a tiara on his head, and traversed Syria, Phænicia, and Palestine, ordaining priests and deacons, and filling other vacant ecclesiastical offices; and where he found bishops holding sentiments congenial with his own, he appointed them to the government of the deserted churches.


I CONSIDER it requisite to inform those who may be unacquainted with the facts, of the courage and wisdom displayed by Eusebius, when he received the imperial mandate enjoining his banishment to Thrace. The officer who brought the mandate arrived in the evening. Eusebius desired him to be quiet, and to conceal the cause of his journey ; - For if the multitude,” said he, “ who are all imbued with divine zeal, should learn your design, they will drown you, and I shall have to answer for your death.” After having, according to custom, celebrated the evening service, the old man departed on foot during the night, accompanied by one of his domestics, who carried his pillow and a book. When he arrived at the banks of the Euphrates, which washes the walls of the city, he leaped into a ferry boat, and desired the rowers to convey him to Zeugma, which he reached at the break of day. In the mean time, the city of Samosata was filled with the sounds of weeping and lamentation ; for the servant of Eusebius had mentioned the mandate which his master had received, and had asked some of the people to bring certain books which were then required. All the citizens deplored the loss of their pastor; and some of them rowed across the ford in quest of him. When they reached Zeugma, and saw him, they besought him with tears and lamentations to remain with them, and not to leave his flock exposed to the attacks of wolves. But when he read to them the precepts laid down by the apostle, enjoining obedience to princes and magistrates, they saw it would be

Samosata is a city of Commagene, in Syria, on the Euphrates. ? Valesius understands these words to refer to the even-tide celebration of the mass, which was at this period customary in Lent. He asserts that the word Nelsovpyía is used exclusively for the solemnity of the mass. Such, doubtless, is the proper meaning of the term: but it is often used in a wider sense; as for example, above in b. ii. ch. 27, with reference to the sacrament of baptism.

impossible to overrule his resolution ; and, accordingly, some of them presented him with gold, and others offered garments and servants. He accepted a few gifts from some of his intimate friends ; and after praying for them all, and exhorting them to defend with stedfastness the doctrines of the apostles, he set out for the Danube. The citizens returned to their homes, and exhorted each other to resist the attacks of the wolves.


I shall relate some instances of the fervency and purity of the zeal of these citizens; for I believe that it would be unjust not to perpetuate, by means of my writings, the remembrance of such actions. The Arians having, as I have already mentioned, deprived this exemplary fock of their shepherd, elected in his place an individual with whom none of the inhabitants of the city, whether poor or rich, servants or mechanics, husbandmen or gardeners, men or women, young or old, could hold communion. He was left quite alone ; no one ever calling to see him, or exchanging a word with him. It is, however, said, that his disposition was extremely gentle; and this is proved by what I am about to relate. One day, when he went to bathe in the public baths, the attendants closed the doors, to prevent all those who might be inclined to come in from entering. Perceiving some of the people standing without, he ordered the doors to be thrown open, that they might be admitted to bathe with himself. Some of them accordingly entered ; and he, perceiving that they remained in a standing posture before him while he was bathing, advised them to take a hot bath likewise. But still they stood silent before him. Imagining that great deference towards himself was the cause of this conduct, he arose, and left the bath. These people believed that the water had been contaminated by his heresy, and ordered it to be let out and fresh water to be supplied. When he heard of this circumstance, he left the city; thinking that he ought no longer to remain in a place where he was the object of public aversion and hatred. Upon this retirement of Eunomius from the town of Samosata, Lucius, who was truly a wolf and a deceiver of the flock, was elected as his successor by the Arians. But the flock, although destitute of a pastor, fulfilled the functions of a pastor for itself, and preserved inviolate the apostolic doctrines. I shall now relate an incident, to show the universal abhorrence with which Lucius was regarded. Some young people were amusing themselves with playing at ball in the market-place. Lucius was passing by at the time, and the ball happened to fall beneath the feet of the ass on which he was mounted. The youths uttered loud exclamations, believing that the ball was contaminated. Lucius heard the cry, and desired one of his followers to remain behind to watch their proceedings. The youths lighted a fire, and hurled the ball through it, believing that by this process the ball would be purified. Although this was only a childish deed, and although it exhibits the remains of ancient superstition, yet it is sufficient to show the odium which the Arian faction had incurred in this city. Lucius was far from imitating the mildness of Eunomius, and he persuaded the heads of government to exile most of the clergy. Those who had defended the Divine doctrines with the greatest constancy were banished to the furthest extremities of the Roman empire. Evolcius, a deacon, was sent to Oasis, a little town which is almost a desert. Antiochus, a priest, who had the honour of being the nephew, on his father's side, of the great Eusebius, and who had also rendered himself conspicuous by his own illustrious qualities, was banished to a region of Armenia. His firmness in maintaining the Divine doctrines will be hereafter mentioned. After the divine Eusebius, who had obtained as many victories as he had engaged in conflicts, had closed his life by martyrdom, the bishops of the province assembled according to custom. Jovian, who was then bishop of Pergamus, and who had for some time previously admitted Arians to communion, repaired to this assembly. Antiochus was unanimously appointed to the vacant bishopric; he was led to the altar, and was there made to kneel down; but when he turned round and perceived that Jovian was about to place his hand upon his head, he pushed it away, saying, that he could not receive ordination from hands which had joined with blasphemers in the celebration of the mysteries. But these incidents did not occur till long after the period to which we are now referring. Antiochus was banished to the

| The mutual reception of the holy eucharist was the outward sign and pledge of communion. See Evagrius, Eccl. Hist. b. i. ch. 13.

interior of Armenia. St. Eusebius remained in exile near the Danube, while the Goths were ravaging Thrace, and were besieging many cities, as is related in his own works.


EDESSA.-SOME OF THE CLERGY EXILED WITH HIM. The celebrated Barses ruled not only Edessa and the adjacent cities, but also Phænicia, Egypt, and Thebes, and the fame of his virtues extended throughout all these provinces. Valens banished him first to the Isle of Aradus; but when it was found that multitudes resorted to him, for he was filled with apostolical gifts, and was able to remove diseases by a word, the emperor sent him to Oxyrynchus, a city of Egypt. But as his fame still attracted attention, he was banished to a greater distance; and this old man, who was worthy of heaven, was conveyed to a fortress called Philæ, situated on the frontier of the barbarian nations. It is said that his bed is preserved in Aradus even to this day, and that it is still held in the greatest honour. Many sick persons, on being made to lie down upon it, have, by means of their faith, been healed.

CHAP. XVII.--PERSECUTION EXCITED AT EDESSA. VALENs having deprived the flock of their pastor elected a wolf to fill his office. But as all the inhabitants left the city to hold their assemblies elsewhere, he also quitted Edessa. He commanded Modestus, who was then a prefect, to assemble the soldiers who usually levied the taxes, and also the armed men who were in the neighbourhood, for the purpose of dispersing the multitudes ; and this he desired him to effect by beating them with sticks, or, if necessary, by attacking them with warlike weapons. The prefect prepared from the break of day to carry this command into execution. As he was passing the market-place he saw a woman hastening along with an infant in her arms. She had broken through the ranks of the officers, whom she utterly contemned. For when the soul is warmed by divine zeal, it knows not the fear of men, and laughs at human power. The prefect, on seeing her, went up to her and asked her where she was going. “I have heard,” replied she, "of the evil designs

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